John Henry, Margrave of Moravia

John Henry of Luxembourg (Czech: Jan Jindřich, German: Johann Heinrich; 12 February 1322 – 12 November 1375),[1] a member of the House of Luxembourg, was Count of Tyrol from 1335 to 1341 and Margrave of Moravia from 1349 until his death.

John Henry
Busta Jan Jindrich face.jpg
Count of Tyrol
Margrave of Moravia
Born12 February 1322
Mělník, Bohemia
Died12 November 1375 (aged 53)
Brno, Moravia
SpouseMargaret, Countess of Tyrol
(divorced 1349)
Margaret of Opava
Margaret of Austria
Elizabeth of Oettingen
IssueJohn of Moravia [cs]
Catherine of Moravia
Jobst of Moravia
Elisabeth of Moravia
Anna of Moravia
John Sobieslaw of Moravia
Prokop of Moravia
FatherJohn of Bohemia
MotherElizabeth of Bohemia

Early lifeEdit

Henry was born at Mělník, the third surviving son of King John of Bohemia (1296–1346) and his wife, the Přemyslid princess Elizabeth (1292–1330).[2] John Henry therefore was the younger brother of Emperor Charles IV. At the time of his birth, the marriage of his parents was already broken; his mother fled to the court of their son-in-law Duke Henry XIV of Bavaria, and John Henry was raised in Cham, Upper Palatinate.

County of TyrolEdit

King John made attempts to reconcile with his former rival Henry, duke of Carinthia and count of Tyrol, whom he had deposed as king of Bohemia in 1310. In 1327, his younger son John Henry and Henry's daughter, Countess Margaret of Tyrol, were betrothed. As Henry had no sons, King John expected a considerable enlargement of the Luxembourg lands and control over the Tyrolean mountain passes to Italy. John Henry and Margaret were married on 16 September 1330 at Innsbruck.[2] Their suzerain, Emperor Louis IV, in the same year secretly promised Carinthia, the March of Carniola, and large parts of Tyrol to Henry's nephews Dukes Albert II and Otto of Austria.

Henry died on 2 April 1335, and Emperor Louis IV consequently gave Carinthia and southern Tyrol including the overlordship of the prince-bishoprics of Trent and Brixen to the Austrian dukes. King John felt deprived. He put an end to his quarrels with King Casimir III of Poland and campaigned in Austria. A peace was concluded at the city of Enns on 9 October 1336, when John renounced Carinthia, while Margaret and John Henry gained Tyrol.

John Henry's brother Charles acted as regent for his 14-year-old brother John Henry and soon came into conflict with the Tyrolian nobility. Furthermore, John Henry and his wife had developed a strong aversion to each other. Margaret finally took the lead of the insurgence against her husband, when she refused him the access to Castle Tyrol on 1 November 1341. John Henry fled to the Patriarchal State of Aquileia, while his wife claimed that their marriage had never been consummated. Margaret was backed by Emperor Louis IV, who himself had plans to assure the Tyrolian heritage for the House of Wittelsbach. He had the scholars Marsilius of Padua and William of Ockham render an opinion that the marriage was not valid. In 1342, Margaret took her inheritance of Tirol to her next husband, the Emperor's eldest son Margrave Louis I of Brandenburg.

Humiliated, John Henry returned to Bohemia. Furious King John allied with Pope Clement VI, who banned both Louis and Margaret; nevertheless, the Luxembourg rule over Tyrol was terminated. In 1346 John died in the Battle of Crécy and was succeeded by his eldest son, Charles.

Margraviate of MoraviaEdit

After John Henry's marriage was conclusively terminated according to canon law in 1349, he married Margaret,[2] daughter of Duke Nicholas II of Opava, and Charles IV gave him the Margraviate of Moravia as appanage. In turn, John henry had to renounce all rights to the Bohemian throne. His second marriage produced several sons, including the future Margrave Jobst of Moravia. After Margaret of Opava died in 1363, John Henry married Margaret,[2] the daughter of Duke Albert II of Austria and widow of Margaret of Tyrol's son from her marriage with Louis, Count Meinhard III of Tyrol.

John Henry is buried at St Thomas's Abbey, in Brno.


Henry VII
12 July 1275(6) – 24 August 1313
  Margaret of Brabant
4 October 1276 – 14 December 1311
  Wenceslaus II
27 September 1271 – 21 June 1305
  Judith of Habsburg
13 March 1271 – 18 June 1297
  John of Bohemia
10 August 1296 – 26 August 1346
  Elisabeth of Bohemia
20 January 1292 – 28 September 1330
Margaret of Tyrol
1318 – 3 October 1369
OO   16 September 1330, div.1342
Margaret of Opava
26 September 1329 – 1363
OO   March 1350
John Henry
12. February 1322 – 12. November 1375
Margaret of Austria
1346 – 14. January 1366
OO   26: February 1364
Elizabeth of Oettingen

OO   c. 1366
   1    2/1    2/2    2/3    2/4    2/5    2/6  
0 – childless
Catherine of Moravia Duchesse of Falkenberg
Jobst of Moravia

King of the Romans
Oktober 1354–18. January 1411

Elisabeth of Moravia Margravine of Meissen
1355–20. November 1400
Anna of Moravia
John Sobieslaw of Moravia

Patriarch of Aquilea
October 1357– 12. November 1394

Prokop of Moravia

younger (titular) Margrave of Moravia
1358 – September 1403

   3    4        
0 – childless
0 – childless


  1. ^ Spock Beta(dead link)
  2. ^ a b c d Boehm & Fajt 2005, p. xvii.


  • Boehm, Barbara Drake; Fajt, Jiri, eds. (2005). Prague: The Crown of Bohemia, 1347-1437. Yale University Press.