John Hay, 1st Marquess of Tweeddale
John Hay, 1st Marquess and 2nd Earl of Tweeddale (c. 13 August 1625, Yester, East Lothian – 11 August 1697, Edinburgh) was Lord Chancellor of Scotland.
The Marquess of Tweeddale
|Lord High Commissioner to the Parliament of Scotland|
|Preceded by||The Duke of Hamilton|
|Succeeded by||The Earl of Tullibardine|
|Lord Chancellor of Scotland|
|Preceded by||The Earl of Perth|
|Succeeded by||The Earl of Marchmont|
|Born||13 August 1625|
Yester, East Lothian, Scotland
|Died||11 August 1697 (aged 71)|
|Battles/wars||English Civil War|
Hay was born in 1626. He was the eldest son of John Hay, 1st Earl of Tweeddale (created 1 December 1646) and Lady Jean Seton. After his mother's death a few days after his birth in 1625, his father remarried to Lady Margaret Montgomerie, the eldest daughter of Alexander Montgomerie, 6th Earl of Eglinton and Lady Anne Livingston (eldest daughter of Alexander Livingston, 1st Earl of Linlithgow). After his father's death in 1653, his stepmother remarried to William Cunningham, 9th Earl of Glencairn. From his father's second marriage, he had a younger half-brother, the Hon. William Hay of Drummelzier (1649–1726), who married the Hon. Elizabeth Seton, only surviving daughter of Alexander Seton, 1st Viscount of Kingston.
His father was the eldest son and heir of James Hay, 7th Lord Hay of Yester and Lady Margaret Kerr (third daughter of Mark Kerr, 1st Earl of Lothian). His mother was the only daughter of Alexander Seton, 1st Earl of Dunfermline by his second wife, Lady Grizel Leslie (the half-sister of John Leslie, 6th Earl of Rothes).
During the English Civil War he repeatedly switched allegiance between the Royalist cause and the Parliamentarians. He fought for Charles I and joined him at Nottingham in 1642, then for Parliament at the Battle of Marston Moor in 1644, on account of his attitude towards Covenanters, and four years later was again on the side of the Royalists at the Battle of Preston.
When Charles II was restored to the throne, he was appointed Lord President of the Scottish Council in 1663 and an Extraordinary Lord of Session in 1664. He was elected in the latter year a Fellow of the Royal Society.
He used his influence to moderate proceedings against the Covenanters, but with the hardening of the official attitude in 1674 he was dismissed from office and from the Privy Council on the advice of Lauderdale.
He supported the Glorious Revolution in Scotland, and was created Marquess of Tweeddale in 1694. As Lord High Commissioner to the Parliament of Scotland from 1694 to 1696 he ordered the inquiry into the Glencoe massacre in 1695. He was dismissed from the Chancellorship in 1696 for supporting the Darien scheme.
On 4 September 1644, Tweeddale was married to Lady Jean Scott, the second daughter of Walter Scott, 1st Earl of Buccleuch and Lady Mary Hay, third daughter of Francis Hay, 9th Earl of Erroll). Together, they were the parents of:
- John Hay, 2nd Marquess of Tweeddale (1645–1713), who married Lady Mary Maitland, only daughter and heiress of John Maitland, 1st Duke of Lauderdale.
- David Hay (1656–1737), who married Rachel Hayes, daughter of Sir James Hayes, of Great Bedgbury.
- Alexander Hay (1663–1737), who married Catherine Charters, daughter of Laurence Charters.
- Margaret Hay (d. 1753), who married Robert Ker, 3rd Earl of Roxburghe.
- Jean Hay (d. 1729), who married William Douglas, 1st Earl of March.
Tweeddale died on 11 Aug 1697.
- "Tweeddale, Earl of (S, 1646)". www.cracroftspeerage.co.uk. Heraldic Media Limited. Retrieved 21 August 2019.
- "Fellow details". Royal Society. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
- "John Hay, 2nd earl and 1st marquess of Tweeddale | Scottish statesman". britannica.com. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 21 August 2019.
- Dictionary of National Biography, Concise edition, Oxford University Press.
- "Buccleuch, Earl of (S, 1618/9)". www.cracroftspeerage.co.uk. Heraldic Media Limited. Retrieved 21 August 2019.
- "Tweeddale, Marquess of (S, 1694)". www.cracroftspeerage.co.uk. Heraldic Media Limited. Retrieved 21 August 2019.
- Hutchinson's Encyclopedia of Britain
- Portrait of John Hay, 1st Marquess of Tweeddale by Sir Peter Lely at the Scottish National Portrait Gallery.
The Earl of Perth
| Lord Chancellor of Scotland
1692 – 1696
The Earl of Marchmont
|Parliament of Scotland|
The Duke of Hamilton
| Lord High Commissioner
The Earl of Tullibardine
|Peerage of Scotland|
|New creation|| Marquess of Tweeddale
| Earl of Tweeddale|