Joan Mitchell (February 12, 1925 – October 30, 1992) was an American "second generation" abstract expressionist painter and printmaker. She was a member of the American abstract expressionist movement, even though much of her career took place in France. Along with Lee Krasner, Grace Hartigan, Helen Frankenthaler, Shirley Jaffe, Elaine de Kooning, and Sonia Gechtoff, she was one of her era's few female painters to gain critical and public acclaim. Her paintings and editioned prints can be seen in major museums and collections across the United States and Europe.
|Died||October 30, 1992 (aged 67)|
School of the Art Institute of Chicago
Early life and educationEdit
Mitchell was born in Chicago, Illinois, the daughter of dermatologist James Herbert Mitchell and poet Marion Strobel Mitchell.:21 She enjoyed diving and skating growing up, and her art would later reflect this athleticism; one gallery owner commented that Mitchell "approached painting almost like a competitive sport". Mitchell frequently attended Saturday art classes at the Art Institute and eventually would spend her summers of later adolescence in a Chicago Art Institute run art colony, Ox-Bow. She lived on Chestnut Street in the Streeterville neighborhood and attended high school at Francis W. Parker School in the Lincoln Park neighborhood. She was close to her Parker classmate Edward Gorey and remained friends with him in later years, although neither cared for each other's work.
Mitchell studied at Smith College in Massachusetts and The Art Institute of Chicago, where she earned her BFA in 1947 and her MFA in 1950. After moving to Manhattan in 1947, she wanted to study at Hans Hofmann's school in New York but, according to Jane Livingston in her 2002 essay ("The Paintings of Joan Mitchell"), Mitchell attended only one class and declared, "I couldn't understand a word he said so I left, terrified." A $2,000 travel fellowship allowed her to study in Paris and Provence in 1948—49, and she also traveled in Spain and Italy.
Mitchell is recognized as a principal figure—and one of the few female artists—in the second generation of American Abstract Expressionists. By the early 1950s, she was regarded as a leading artist in the New York School. In her early years as a painter, she was influenced by Paul Cézanne, Wassily Kandinsky, Claude Monet, Vincent van Gogh, and later by the work of Franz Kline and Willem de Kooning, Jean-Paul Riopelle, among others.
Her paintings are expansive, often covering multiple panels. Landscape was the primary influence on her subject matter. She painted on unprimed canvas or white ground with gestural, sometimes violent brushwork. She has described a painting as "an organism that turns in space".
An admirer of van Gogh's work, Mitchell observed in one of his final paintings – Wheatfield with Crows (1890) – the symbology of death, suicide, hopelessness, depression and darkness. With her sense that Wheatfield with Crows was a suicide note, she painted a painting called No Birds as a response and as an homage.:390
After moving to Paris in 1959, Mitchell began painting in a studio on the rue Fremicourt in the 15th arrondissement of Paris. During the period between 1960 and 1964, she moved away from the all-over style and bright colors of her earlier compositions, instead using sombre hues and dense central masses of color to express something inchoate and primordial. The marks on these works were said to be extraordinary: "The paint flung and squeezed on to the canvases, spilling and spluttering across their surfaces and smeared on with the artist's fingers." The artist herself referred to the work created in this period of the early 1960s as "very violent and angry," but by 1964 she was "trying to get out of a violent phase and into something else." 
According to art historian Linda Nochlin, the "meaning and emotional intensity [of Mitchell's pictures] are produced structurally, as it were, by a whole series of oppositions: dense versus transparent strokes; gridded structure versus more chaotic, ad hoc construction; weight on the bottom of the canvas versus weight at the top; light versus dark; choppy versus continuous strokes; harmonious and clashing juxtapositions of hue – all are potent signs of meaning and feeling."
Mitchell said that she wanted her paintings "to convey the feeling of the dying sunflower" and "some of them come out like young girls, very coy ... they're very human." Mitchell was very influenced by her feelings and incorporated it into her artwork. She even compared these feelings that influenced her paintings to poetry.  Some would even compare it to lyric poetry, according to the essay The Lyrical Principle: On Joan Mitchell by Dore Ashton.
In 1951, Mitchell's work was exhibited in the landmark "Ninth Street Show" alongside that of Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, and Hans Hofmann. In 1952, she had her first solo exhibition at the New Gallery.
December 1988 saw Mitchell's first retrospective exhibition, which she referred to as being art-historized live.:392 It featured 54 paintings produced from 1951 to 1987. Mitchell's first solo show at Robert Miller Gallery (of nine paintings) ran from October 25 to November 25, 1989. The second Robert Miller Gallery solo ran from March 26 to April 20, 1991, proved to be very popular, and featured paintings described by John Russell of The New York Times as "self-portraits by someone who has staked everything on autonomous marks that are peculiar to herself". Later retrospective surveys include “Joan Mitchell Pastels,” Whitney Museum of American Art, New York (1992); “The Paintings of Joan Mitchell,” Whitney Museum of American Art, New York (2002); and “The Paintings of Joan Mitchell,” Birmingham Museum of Art, Alabama (2003), travelled to the Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, Texas and The Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C. through 2004.
Mitchell's work is part of many public collections including Museum of Modern Art, New York; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller Empire State Plaza Art Collection, Albany, NY; Art Institute of Chicago; Walker Art Center, Minneapolis; Albright–Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo; Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville; Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, D.C.; Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, D.C.; Tate Gallery, London; Fondation Cartier pour l'Art Contemporain, Paris; The Ulster Museum, Belfast, Northern Ireland and the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art.
Joan Mitchell FoundationEdit
Established in 1993 as a not-for-profit corporation, the Joan Mitchell Foundation awards grants and stipends to painters, sculptors, and artist collectives; past grantees have included Nicole Eisenman (1994), Glenn Ligon (1996), Troy Brauntuch (1999), Karen Kilimnik (1999), Sarah Morris (2001), Nyame Brown (2003), Mark Dion (2005), Akio Takamori, Julie L. Green (2011), Amanda Ross-Ho (2013), Ann Purcell (2014), and Michi Meko (2017). The foundation is located in Manhattan, NY at 137 West 25th Street. The Joan Mitchell Foundation also sponsors an Artist-in-Residence Program at the Joan Mitchell Center in New Orleans, Louisiana, located at 2275 Bayou Road in the Faubourg Tremé neighborhood.
Already during her lifetime, Mitchell was rewarded with a considerable degree of commercial success. Between 1960 and 1962, Mitchell earned over $30,000 in art sales, a considerable figure for a woman painter at that time. In 2007, the Art Institute of Chicago sold Ste. Hilaire, 1957 at Christie's New York for $3.8 million. In 2012, a record of €5.2 million ($7 million) — then the second-highest price achieved by a female artist at auction — was set at Christie's Paris for an untitled 1971 painting. That year, Mitchell's canvases were the two most expensive works by any woman artist sold at auction, according to auction database Artnet. Works by Mitchell fetched $239.8 million in sales from 1985 through 2013, according to figures compiled by Bloomberg. At Christie's New York in 2014, Mitchell's untitled 1960 abstract painting sold for $11.9 million, surpassing the high estimate and setting an auction record for the artist. The result also established a new record for an artwork by any female artist at auction, formerly held by Berthe Morisot's Apres le dejeuner (1881). This price in turn was exceeded by the $44.4 million achieved by the 1932 painting Jimson Weed/White Flower No 1 by Georgia O'Keeffe on 20 November 2014. In June 2018, nine of Mitchell's paintings were expected to sell for more than $70 million at the world's largest modern art fair, Art Basel.
Mitchell married American publisher Barney Rosset in 1949 in Paris. Rosset was a Chicago-born American entrepreneur who became, at Mitchell's urging, the owner of the publishing house Grove Press, perhaps best known as the American publisher of the novel Tropic of Cancer by Henry Miller. They divorced in 1952. Although she remained active in the burgeoning art scene of 1950s New York, Mitchell spent increasing amounts of time travelling and working in France. In 1955, Mitchell moved to France to join Canadian painter Jean-Paul Riopelle, with whom she had a long, rich, and tumultuous relationship (from 1955 to 1979). They maintained separate homes and studios, but had dinner and drank together daily. They first lived in Paris, and then moved west to the town of Vétheuil, near Giverny, Claude Monet's home. In 1967, Mitchell inherited enough money to purchase a 2-acre estate in Vétheuil.
Later years and deathEdit
From the early 1980s, when Mitchell's health began to fail, until 1992, when she died, her work changed significantly. In 1984, she was diagnosed with advanced oral cancer and a mandibulectomy (removal of the jaw) was advised. In October, she obtained a second opinion from Jean-Pierre Bataini, a pioneer in radiation oncology with the Curie Institute, whose therapy was successful, but left Mitchell with a dead jawbone (osteonecrosis), along with anxiety and depression. She had quit smoking on doctor's orders, but remained a heavy drinker.:384
In Paris, Mitchell had a circle of artist friends, such as the composer Gisèle Barreau and painters such as Kate Van Houten, Claude Bauret Allard, Michaële-Andréa Schatt, Monique Frydman, Mâkhi Xenakis, Shirley Jaffe, Zuka, and Katy Crowe.
In November 1984, Mitchell commenced sessions with Parisian psychoanalyst Christiane Rousseaux-Mosettig in the Bastille area. There she met and became friends with the American artist Sara Holt and her husband, artist Jean-Max Albert. She wrote : “Kids… I really love your plural work and natch both of you. So nice liking the work and the artist too — it’s rather rare I have found… I’m very very happy… ”.:399
After 1985, Mitchell's post-cancer paintings reflect the psychological changes cancer had effected: six Between paintings, Faded Air I, Faded Air II, the A Few Days cycle, the Before, Again cycle and the Then, Last Time group of four.:382–383 Also, in the final years of her life Mitchell returned to the subject of sunflowers with renewed focus. In Sunflowers, 1990–91, she chose to paint the flowers in a state of decay, wanting the work to “convey the feeling of a dying sunflower.”
Mitchell developed osteoarthritis as a result of hip dysplasia. She underwent hip replacement surgery at Hôpital Cochin in December 1985, but with little success. During her subsequent recuperation at a clinic in Louveciennes, she started watercolor painting. Her postoperative difficulties necessitated using an easel and working on a smaller format. Her River cycle is emblematic of this period.:387
Mitchell was a great admirer of Henri Matisse, especially the vividness of his color and vivacity of his line, once claiming that, "If I could paint like Matisse, I'd be in heaven." Mitchell's New York dealer, Xavier Fourcade, had been diagnosed with AIDS and, in 1986, travelled to France to undergo treatment. Fourcade and Mitchell visited Lille in December to view an exhibition of works by Matisse from the State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad. The trip resulted in the Lille cycle of paintings, followed, after Xavier Fourcade's death on April 28, 1987, by the Chord paintings. The River, Lille and Chord paintings were exhibited at Galerie Jean Fournier, Paris between June 10 and July 13, 1987.
A passionate inner vision guided Joan's brush. Like her peer Cy Twombly, she extended the vocabulary of her Abstract Expressionist forebears. She imbued their painterliness with a compositional and chromatic bravery that defiantly alarms us into grasping their beauty.
In October 1992, Mitchell flew to New York for a Matisse exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art. Upon her arrival, she was taken to a doctor, who diagnosed advanced lung cancer.:45 She returned to Paris on October 22, returning to Vétheuil briefly before entering hospital in Paris, where friends like John Cheim and Joseph Strick visited her.:46
- 1947: Art Institute of Chicago, James Nelson Raymond Foreign Traveling Fellowship
- 1961: Premio Lissone (Lissone Prize), Milan
- 1971: Miami University (Oxford, Ohio), Honorary Doctorate
- 1973: Brandeis University, Creative Arts Awards; Citation in Painting
- 1987: School of the Art Institute of Chicago, Honorary Doctorate
- 1989: French Ministry of Culture, Award for Painting
- 1991: Le Grand Prix des Arts (Peinture) de la Ville de Paris
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- Albers, Patricia (2011). Joan Mitchell: Lady Painter. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 9780375414374.
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- Joan Mitchell, Leaving America, text by Helen Molesworth ISBN 978-3-86521-490-4
- Joan Mitchell Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville.
- Joan Mitchell: A Painter Under the Influences Los Angeles Times, April 26, 1994.
- Livingston, Jane; Mitchell, Joan; Nochlin, Linda; Lee, Yvette Y; Whitney Museum of American Art (2002-01-01). The paintings of Joan Mitchell. New York; Berkeley, CA: Whitney Museum ; University of California Press.
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- Joan Mitchell: The Last Decade, November 13 – December 23, 2010 Gagosian Gallery, Los Angeles.
- "Empire State Plaza Art Collection".
- Rothfuss, Joan and Elizabeth Carpenter (2005). Bits & Pieces Put Together to Present a Semblance of a Whole: Walker Art Center Collections. Walker Art Center. pp. 392–393. ISBN 0-935640-78-9.
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- Foundation, Joan Mitchell. "Joan Mitchell Foundation » Artist Programs » Artist Grants". joanmitchellfoundation.org. Retrieved 2010-05-08.
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- Painters and Sculptors Grant Program Recipients Joan Mitchell Foundation.
- "Ann Purcell – Paintings from the 1970s". Retrieved 15 January 2017.
- "Atlanta artist Michi Meko's work is "the contemporary experience of black life and survival"". Atlanta Magazine. 28 February 2018. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
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- Jean Paul Riopelle: The Artist's Materials, Marie-Claude Corbeil, Kate Helwig, Jennifer Poulin, Getty Publications, December 20, 2011
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Chronological by date of publication
- Munro, Eleanor. Originals: American Women Artists. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1979. pp 233–247. ISBN 0-671-23109-X
- Seidner, David. Artists at Work : Inside the Studios of Today's Most Celebrated Artists. New York: Rizzoli International Publications, 1999. pp. 90–103. ISBN 0-8478-2237-0
- Herskovic, Marika. New York School: Abstract Expressionists : Artists Choice by Artists : a Complete Documentation of the New York Painting and Sculpture Annuals, 1951–1957. New Jersey: New York School Press, 2000. pp. 8, 16, 38, 254–257. ISBN 978-0-967-79940-7 OCLC 50666793
- Livingston, Jane, Yvette Y. Lee, and Linda Nochlin. The Paintings of Joan Mitchell. Berkeley: Los Angeles, 2002. Exhibitions: Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, June 20 – September 29, 2002; Birmingham Museum of Art, Alabama, June 27 – August 31, 2003; Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, Texas, September 21, 2003 – January 7, 2004; The Phillips Collection, Washington, February 14 – May 16, 2004. ISBN 978-0-520-23568-7 OCLC 470242775
- Herskovic, Marika. American Abstract Expressionism of the 1950s: An Illustrated Survey with Artists' Statements, Artwork and Biographies.[permanent dead link] Franklin Lakes, NJ: New York School Press, 2003. pp. 226–229. ISBN 978-0-967-79941-4 OCLC 50253062
- Chadwick, Whitney. Women, Art, and Society. London: Thames & Hudson, 2007. ISBN 978-0-500-20393-4 OCLC 78989059
- Mitchell, Joan, and Helen Anne Molesworth. Joan Mitchell: Leaving America, New York to Paris, 1958–1964. Göttingen: Steidl, 2007. Catalog of an exhibition held at Hauser & Wirth London, May 24 – July 21, 2007. ISBN 978-3-865-21490-4 OCLC 154788437
- Albers, Patricia. Joan Mitchell: Lady Painter: A Life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2011. ISBN 978-0-307-59598-0 OCLC 759509852
- Mitchell, Joan. "Interview with Yves Michaud." Stiles, Kristine, and Peter Selz. Theories and Documents of Contemporary Art: A Sourcebook of Artists' Writings. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2012. pp. 32–34. ISBN 978-0-520-25374-2 OCLC 752472786
- Hickey, Dave. 25 Women: Essays on Their Art. Illinois: University of Chicago Press, January, 2016. ISBN 9780226333151
- Gabriel, Mary. Ninth Street Women: Lee Krasner, Elaine de Kooning, Grace Hartigan, Joan Mitchell, and Helen Frankenthaler: five painters and the movement that changed modern art. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2018
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