Jimbolia (Romanian pronunciation: [ʒimˈboli.a]; Hungarian: Zsombolya; German: Hatzfeld; Serbian: Жомбољ, romanizedŽombolj; Banat Bulgarian: Džimbolj) is a town in Timiș County, Romania.

Statue of Saint Florian
Statue of Saint Florian
Coat of arms of Jimbolia
Location in Timiș County
Location in Timiș County
Jimbolia is located in Romania
Location in Romania
Coordinates: 45°47′35″N 20°44′15″E / 45.79306°N 20.73750°E / 45.79306; 20.73750
First recorded mention1333 (Chumbul)
 • MayorDarius Postelnicu (PNL)
 • Total108.18 km2 (41.77 sq mi)
82 m (269 ft)
 • Total13,423
 • Density120/km2 (320/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
SIRUTA code155494


Jimbolia is located in the west of Timiș County, 39 km (24 mi) from Timișoara, with which it is connected by the county road 59A and the Kikinda–Jimbolia–Timișoara railway. It lies in the Banat Plain, at the contact between the Timiș Plain and the Mureș Plain. An alignment of villages marks the boundary between the two relief units: CheceaCărpinișSatchinez. The average altitude of the town is 82 m (269 ft). It is located at the intersection of some roads that connect Romania and Serbia, being also a rail and road border point at the frontier between the two countries.

Jimbolia's climate is characterized by average temperatures of 10.7 °C and average rainfall of 570 mm per year. The vegetation consists of steppe meadows largely replaced by agricultural crops. The soils are very fertile and belong to the category of chernozems.[3]


Medieval periodEdit

The ancient history of the town begins to be documented in 1332–1333, when a papal census of the lands of Banat for the establishment of taxes (tithe) takes place. In these papal registers, the name Chumbul appears.[4] From the researches of Hungarian historian Samu Borovszky [hu], it appears that originally it was a Cumano-Vlach locality, a fact proved by the existence of a Romanian parish.[5] This Chumbul is also mentioned in Hungarian documents from 1489, which speak of the existence of the communes of Chumbul Mare ("Great Chumbul"), Chumbul Mic ("Little Chumbul") and Chumbul Intern ("Inner Chumbul"), most likely owned by the Csomboly family.[6] The last document from this period, recorded by historian Nicolae Ilieșiu [ro], shows that in 1520 there was a certain Mihai of Chumbul, a close man of the king.[7] After this appearance in documents from the beginning of the Middle Ages, nothing is said about this locality in documents from the Turkish rule of Banat.

Reestablishment of the locality. ColonizationEdit

A Swabian house built in the 19th century
The Csekonics Mansion, built by the Csekonics family between 1863–1870, now serves as the seat of the Town Hall.
Roman Catholic church

The historical thread is resumed after the conquest of Banat by the Austrians, but for a period it does not appear to be inhabited. Only in 1766 was the new town born, by colonization with German population from Mainz, Trier, Sauer, Pfalz, Lorraine, and Luxembourg. It originally consisted of two separate areas, Landestreu and Hatzfeld, a little further west, but two years later the two merged under the name Hatzfeld, a name given in honor of Empress Maria Theresa's prime minister, Carl Friedrich Hatzfeldt zu Gleichen [de] (1718–1793).[8] The conditions to which the first settlers were subjected were particularly harsh: because of the swamps surrounding the settlement and the unsanitary conditions, 168 people died in the first year of establishment alone. A plague epidemic ensued in 1770 that killed no less than 553 people. In 1781 Hatzfeld was leased to József Csekonics [hu], then sold to him. Later, the Csekonics family [hu] began to colonize the town with Hungarians.

Modern periodEdit

After the 1848–1849 revolution, the region became part of the Austrian Crown Land of the Serbian Voivodeship and Temeswarer Banat. Jimbolia began to develop in the second half of the 19th century, with the rise of industrialization that swept all of Banat. In 1857, the railway between Timișoara and Kikinda was completed, which also passed through Jimbolia and connected further with Szeged, being the main route from Timișoara to Budapest and Vienna. Access to this railway allowed it to develop rapidly, slowed only by the cholera epidemic of 1873, which killed more than 1,000 people. During this period, the brick factory (1864) opened, attracting agricultural workers from all over southern Banat, especially Hungarians. Thus was born the Futok district (of the "fugitives", from the name given to the Hungarians fleeing from the agricultural estates).

In 1861, Emperor Franz Joseph I decreed the renewed validity of the Hungarian state constitution (Austro-Hungarian Compromise), whereby the town once again belonged to the Hungarian part of the country, as it had before 1848.[9] Under Hungarian administration, more and more Hungarians moved to the town, which was officially called Zsombolya from 1899.

In 1895 the Jimbolia–Ionel railway was put into use. In 1906, the railway from Jimbolia to Grabaț, Lenauheim and Lovrin was completed, built with the help of workers from Țara Moților, some of whom settled in the south of the town. At the turn of the century, Jimbolia was three-quarters German and one-quarter Hungarian, with only a few Romanians and Serbs.

Jimbolia disputed by Romania and SerbiaEdit

World War I radically changed the configuration of the area within which Jimbolia played a central role. From an important town in the economy of Banat, it becomes a border town. After the withdrawal of the Serbs from Timișoara and the unification of Banat with Romania, Jimbolia remained in the provisional borders of Serbia. At the Paris Peace Conference, Prime Minister Ion I.C. Brătianu demanded the recognition of the borders of a Romania that included the whole of Banat, with the border on the lower Tisa until its discharge into the Danube and then the course of the Danube. However, the conference decided on the demarcation line that has been maintained until today, except for a rectification that took place in 1923. On 24 November 1923, Romania and Serbia concluded a protocol for a territorial exchange in Belgrade. Romania undertook to cede the communes of Pardanj, Modoš, Šurjan, Crivobara and Veliki Gaj, while Serbia ceded to Romania Beba Veche, Cherestur, Ciorda, Iam and the town of Jimbolia.[10] The latter officially became part of Romania only in 1924.

Contemporary periodEdit

After World War II, Jimbolia entered a new stage of development in the planned economy. In 1950 it was declared a town, then the block of flats in the station area began to be built, new industries were introduced and existing ones were developed. At the same time, the irreversible process of declining German population begins, which within a few decades becomes a minority and ends with the mass exodus after the 1989 revolution.


Ethnic composition (2011)[11]

  Romanians (72.69%)
  Hungarians (10.82%)
  Roma (5.51%)
  Germans (2.87%)
  Unknown (7.29%)
  Others (0.82%)

Religious composition (2011)[12]

  Orthodox (62.57%)
  Roman Catholics (22.98%)
  Pentecostals (4.03%)
  Unknown (7.39%)
  Others (3.03%)

Jimbolia had a population of 10,808 inhabitants at the 2011 census, down 3% from the 2002 census. Most inhabitants are Romanians (72.69%), larger minorities being represented by Hungarians (10.82%), Roma (5.51%) and Germans (2.87%). For 7.29% of the population, ethnicity is unknown.[11] By religion, most inhabitants are Orthodox (62.57%), but there are also minorities of Roman Catholics (22.98%) and Pentecostals (4.03%). For 7.39% of the population, religious affiliation is unknown.[12]

Census[13] Ethnic composition
Year Population Romanians Hungarians Germans Roma Serbs
1880 8,621 39 529 7,848 84
1890 9,580 42 718 8,602 132 84
1900 10,152 52 1,532 8,395 96
1910 10,893 105 2,266 8,088 245
1930 10,873 660 2,097 7,640 213 141
1941 10,781 859 2,066 7,245
1956 11,281 3,490 2,399 4,834 298 111
1966 13,633 5,314 2,816 4,927 342 108
1977 14,682 6,065 2,896 5,021 511 79
1992 11,830 7,901 1,961 1,112 695 62
2002 11,136 8,068 1,643 515 771 53
2011 10,808 7,856 1,169 310 596 31


In recent years, the town is experiencing a cultural revival, benefiting from very active cultural institutions: the House of Culture, six museums, a literary café and a town library.

The most prestigious of them is the Romanian-German Cultural Foundation founded by Romanian poet Petre Stoica, with numerous national and international awards. With the main purpose of reconstituting the Romanian and German cultural and spiritual life in Banat, the foundation has in its inventory a library of 16,000 volumes in Romanian and German, some with great bibliophilic value, a collection of numismatics, philately, stamps and bookplates, important manuscripts from Romanian and German writers, paintings, engravings, and museum household objects.[3]


In the town there are five kindergartens for preschool children, a general school (1–8) where over 1,000 students study and a school group for 1,200 students.

The Technological High School in Jimbolia has theoretical and technological classes, vocational school, night courses and post-secondary courses. Following an investment from the Landtag of North Rhine-Westphalia, the high school offers high schooling conditions, with modern laboratories of computer science, mechanics, electrical engineering, electronics, farm equipment repair and maintenance, welding and hydraulic-pneumatics.[14]


Medical services are provided by five private medical offices, four private dental offices and a town hospital with a capacity of 125 beds.[3]


From an economic point of view, the primary sector, agriculture, has a significant share. The land fund comprises 9,735 ha (24,060 acres) of agricultural land, of which 97% is arable land and 3% are grasslands and hayfields.[3]

The industrial profile of the town remains dominated by the light industry (footwear, clothing, textiles), followed by electrical and electronic engineering industries, mechanical industry and plastics industry. 58% of the active population works in the town's industry. The largest industrial companies in the town are: Vogt (electronic components), Ciocanul Prodimpex (footwear), CRH (car subassemblies), Halm (hydraulic pumps), Ani Fashion (clothing), Faulhaber (micromotors) and Kabelsysteme Hatzfeld (audio-video cables).[3]

The tertiary sector, which covers the full range of services, has a share of 38%.[3]

Twin townsEdit

Jimbolia has concluded twinning or collaboration agreements with:[15]

Notable peopleEdit


  1. ^ "Date geografice". Primăria orașului Jimbolia.
  2. ^ "Populația României la 1 ianuarie 2018 (date definitive)". Institutul Național de Statistică.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Prezentarea orașului". Primăria orașului Jimbolia.
  4. ^ Roller, Mihail (1954). Documente privind istoria României: C. Transilvania. Vol. III. Editura Academiei Republicii Populare Române.
  5. ^ Borovszky, Samu (1911). "Torontál vármegye". Magyarország vármegyéi és városai. Budapest: Országos Monografia Társaság.
  6. ^ Fényes, Elek (1847). Magyarország leirása. Vol. I. Pest: Nyomatott Beimelnél.
  7. ^ Crețan, Remus (2006). Dicționar toponimic și geografico-istoric al localităților din județul Timiș. Timișoara: Editura Universității de Vest. ISBN 973-7608-65-8.
  8. ^ Pavel, Sorin. "Scurt istoric". Primăria orașului Jimbolia.
  9. ^ von Czörnig, Karl Freiherr (1861). Statistisches Handbüchlein für die österreichische Monarchie. Vienna: Aus der K.-K. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei.
  10. ^ Dan, Petre (2005). Hotarele românismului în date. Bucharest: Litera Internațional. pp. 106–107.
  11. ^ a b "Tab8. Populația stabilă după etnie – județe, municipii, orașe, comune". Institutul Național de Statistică. Archived from the original on 2016-01-18. Retrieved 2015-05-10.
  12. ^ a b "Tab13. Populația stabilă după religie – județe, municipii, orașe, comune". Institutul Național de Statistică. Archived from the original on 2020-08-07. Retrieved 2022-01-14.
  13. ^ Varga, E. Árpád. "Temes megye településeinek etnikai (anyanyelvi/nemzetiségi) adatai 1880-2002" (PDF).
  14. ^ "Liceul Tehnologic Jimbolia". Inspectoratul Școlar Județean Timiș.
  15. ^ "Orașe înfrățite". Primăria orașului Jimbolia.