Pacific rudderfish

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The Pacific rudderfish (Psenopsis anomala) is a marine fish also known by such names as Japanese butterfish, melon seed, wart perch, ibodai (Japanese name, イボダイ) or simply but ambiguously as butterfish.[1][2]

Pacific rudderfish
Japanese butterfish.jpg
The Japanese butterfish
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Scombriformes
Family: Centrolophidae
Genus: Psenopsis
P. anomala
Binomial name
Psenopsis anomala
(Temminck & Schlegel, 1844)

Trachinotus anomalus Temminck & Schlegel, 1844

This fish, which can grow to 30 cm (12 in) TL, is found in the Western Pacific, near Japan, in the Taiwan Strait and in the East China Sea. The Japanese butterfish prefers tropical waters: around 42°N–19°N. It has been found in the waters near Hong Kong. Generally they inhabit the epipelagic layer to 370 m (1213 ft). Adults are mainly bottom-dwelling but migrate upward at night in search of food.[2]

The Japanese butterfish has a compressed body, somewhat oval-shaped, and is whitish to grayish in colour; in the young fish, the colour is darker: a pale brown or blackish brown. Some other features of this fish are a robust snout, a relatively small mouth, and the upper jaw extending to below anterior margin of eye. The fish's teeth are small, conical, and incisor-like. Spines of the Japanese butterfish's dorsal fin are short and not separated from the soft-rayed portion. The scales on the body of the butterfish are small, cycloid, and very deciduous (meaning that they are shed off easily).

This species is of economic importance, commercially sought after, and caught by trawl by Japanese and Taiwanese fishermen. The total catch reported for this species in 1999 was 10,871 t, with Taiwan (5,075 t), and Japan (4,996 t) making up nearly all the catch.[1]

The meat of the Japanese butterfish is very popular as food in its native range. It is said to be a tasty fish that can be steamed, pan-fried, or used in sushi.


  1. ^ a b c Matsuura, K.; Collette, B.; Nelson, J.; Dooley, J.; Fritzsche, R.; Carpenter, K. & Starnes, W.C. (2010). "Psenopsis anomala". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2010: e.T155177A115281106. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-4.RLTS.T155177A4736536.en. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  2. ^ a b c Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2014). "Psenopsis anomala" in FishBase. November 2014 version.