Open main menu

The Julang-1 (Chinese: 巨浪-1; pinyin: Jù Làng Yī; literally: 'Huge Wave-1', also known as the JL-1; NATO reporting name CSS-N-3) was China's first generation nuclear submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM).

Julang-1 (JL-1), NATO : CSS-N-3
JL-1 and JL-2.PNG
JL-1 and JL-2.
TypeSLBM
Service history
Used byChina
Production history
DesignerHuang Weilu
Designed1970s
ManufacturerFactory 307 (Nanjing Dawn Group)
Produced1980s
Specifications
Mass14,700 kilograms (32,400 lb)
Length10.7 metres (35 ft)
Width1.4 metres (4.6 ft)
Warheadnuclear
Blast yield250-500Kt

PropellantSolid fuel
Operational
range
1,770 km (JL-1), 2,500 km (JL-1A)
Guidance
system
Inertial
Launch
platform
Xia class submarine

HistoryEdit

Research and development began in 1967 and detailed design in the early 1970s, with a first land launch 30 April 1982 and a sea launch from a Project 629A (Golf) class submarine on 12 October 1982. The general designer of the missile was Huang Weilu,[1] and Chen Deren (Chinese: 陈德仁, 1922 - December 21, 2007) served as his deputy. The missile was assembled at Factory 307 (now Nanjing Dawn Group [南京晨光集团]).

The JL-1 was deployed on Xia class submarine in 1986. The Type 092 Xia class nuclear submarines have 12 launch tubes.

The JL-1 was initially tested and deployed on the PLAN's modified Golf class SSB. The Golf has since been modified again for further testing of other missiles, such as the JL-2, which has test-launched multiple times with varying levels of success.

The DF-21 appears to be a land-based version of the JL-1.

According to a 2011 US Department of Defense, the operational status of the JL-1 was "questionable".[2]

As of 2018, the JL-1 and its warheads are believed to have been retired and dismantled.[3]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ military.cntv.cn
  2. ^ Taylor, Marcus; Tamerlani, Eric; Farnsworth, Timothy (June 2013). "Pentagon Sees China Progressing on SLBM". Arms Control Today. Arms Control Association. 43 (5): 31–32. JSTOR 23629520.
  3. ^ Kristensen, Hans M.; Norris, Robert S. (2018). "Chinese nuclear forces, 2018". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 74 (4). doi:10.1080/00963402.2018.1486620.
  • Norris, Robert, Burrows, Andrew, Fieldhouse, Richard "Nuclear Weapons Databook, Volume V, British, French and Chinese Nuclear Weapons, San Francisco, Westview Press, 1994, ISBN 0-8133-1612-X
  • Lewis, John Wilson and Xue Litai, "China's Strategic Seapower: The Politics of Force Modernization in the Nuclear Age," Stanford, 1994.