The Julang-1 (Chinese: 巨浪-1; pinyin: Jù Làng Yī; literally: "Huge Wave-1"), also known as the JL-1 and in US nomenclature as the CSS-N-3, is China's first generation submarine-launched nuclear ballistic missile. According to a 2011 US Department of Defense, the operational status of the JL-1 was "questionable".
|Julang-1 (JL-1), NATO : CSS-N-3|
JL-1 and JL-2.
|Manufacturer||Factory 307 (Nanjing Dawn Group)|
|Weight||14,700 kilograms (32,400 lb)|
|Length||10.7 metres (35 ft)|
|Width||1.4 metres (4.6 ft)|
|1,770 km (JL-1), 2,500 km (JL-1A)|
|Xia class submarine|
Research and development began in 1967 and detailed design in the early 1970s, with a first land launch 30 April 1982 and a sea launch from a Project 629A (Golf) class submarine on 12 October 1982. The general designer of the missile is Huang Weilu (Chinese: 黄纬禄) 1916-2011; academician Chen Deren (Chinese: 陈德仁, 1922 - December 21, 2007) served as deputy chief designer. The missile was assembled at Factory 307 (Nanjing Dawn Group Limited Liability Company [南京晨光集团有限责任公司]).
The JL-1 was deployed on Xia class submarine in 1986. The Type 092 Xia class nuclear submarines have 12 launch tubes.
The JL-1 was initially tested and deployed on the PLAN's modified Golf class SSB. The Golf has since been modified again for further testing of other missiles, such as the JL-2, which has test-launched multiple times with varying levels of success.
The DF-21 appears to be a land-based version of the JL-1.
- Norris, Robert, Burrows, Andrew, Fieldhouse, Richard "Nuclear Weapons Databook, Volume V, British, French and Chinese Nuclear Weapons, San Francisco, Westview Press, 1994, ISBN 0-8133-1612-X
- Lewis, John Wilson and Xue Litai, "China's Strategic Seapower: The Politics of Force Modernization in the Nuclear Age," Stanford, 1994.