The M51 SLBM is a submarine-launched ballistic missile, built by Airbus Defence & Space, and deployed with the French Navy. Designed to replace the M45 SLBM (In French terminology the MSBS - Mer-Sol-Balistique-Stratégique "Sea-ground-Strategic ballistic"), it was first deployed in 2010.
|In service||27 September 2010|
|Manufacturer||EADS Astrium Space Transportation|
|Unit cost||4 billion euro for the programme|
M51.1 = 6 to 10 TN 75 MIRV 110 kiloton (kt) (420 TJ), with penetration aids.|
M51.2 (2015) = using the new Tête nucléaire océanique 100 kt / CEP 150-200 m
|Engine||three stage Solid-fuel rocket (Ammonium perchlorate composite propellant)|
|8,000-10,000 km |
|Astro-inertial guidance. Galileo (satellite navigation) system is planned.|
|Triomphant class submarines|
The three-stage engine of the M51 is directly derived from the solid propellant boosters of Ariane 5. Like other blunt-nosed SLBM, such as the Trident D5, the M51 uses an extensible aerospike in the nose.
The missiles are a compromise over the M5 SLBM design, which was to have a range of 11,000 km (6,800 mi) and carry 10 new generation Tête nucléaire océanique' ("Oceanic nuclear warhead") MIRVs. Design work on the M5 started in the late 1980s by Aerospatiale, before the programme was renamed the M51 in 1996, when development costs decreased by 20 percent. The M51 entered service in 2010.
After having spent €5 billion ($6.7 billion) developing the missile, the French government placed a €3 billion ($3.9 billion) order with EADS SPACE Transportation for the M51 in December 2004. The contract covered serial production of the M51 for 10 years, with the company to be responsible for sustained readiness support throughout the missile's life.
The M51 performed its first flight test (unarmed) on 9 November 2006 from the French missile flight test centre in Biscarrosse (Landes). The target was reached twenty minutes later, in the north-west of the Atlantic Ocean.
On 27 January 2010, at 9h25, a missile was launched underwater by Le Terrible, from Audierne Bay. The missile reached its target 2,000 kilometres off South Carolina; the 4,500 kilometre flight took less than 20 minutes.
On 5 May 2013, an M51 flight test missile failed after being fired by a submerged SSBN off the coast of Brittany. This was the first failed launch of the M51 after 5 successful launches since 2006.
In 2014 Airbus signed a deal with the French government for development work on an upgrade designated M51.3 to equip the successor to the Triomphant class.
On 10 May 2016 Airbus and Safran signed a joint 50-50 partnership to develop the M51.3 upgrade intended to enter service around 2025.
Sources and referencesEdit
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- Site Meretmarine.com le 21 février 2015
- The New French Nuclear Posture
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- "France announces euro3 billion nuclear missile deal". Associated Press. 23 December 2004. Retrieved 27 May 2015 – via HighBeam Research. (Subscription required (help)).
- "EADS SPACE Transportation To Produce French M51 Missile". Defense Daily. 11 January 2005. Retrieved 22 August 2015 – via HighBeam Research. (Subscription required (help)).
- (in French) Le Monde — Test réussi pour le M51, futur missile nucléaire à longue portée français
- (in French) Second successful launch of the M51 missile, press release of the French ministry of Defence
- (in French) Third M51 missile experimental launch, French ministry of Defence
- Un missile M-51 a été tiré depuis un sous-marin en plongée ce matin, Jean-Dominique Merchet, Libération
- Le missile M-51 est retombé à 2000 kilomètres des côtes américaines, Jean-Dominique Merchet, Libération
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- "M51 Nuclear Missile Fails on a Test Launch from a Newly Upgraded Submarine". Defense Update. Defense-Update.com. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
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- http://www.defensenews.com/story/defense-news/2016/05/10/airbus-and-safran-agree-space-launcher-joint-venture/84178824/[permanent dead link]
- nrdc.org: Table of French Nuclear Forces, 2002
- globalsecurity.org M-5 / M-51
- M51 Gives France More Flexible Deterrent To Meet Changing Threats, Aviation Week