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Copper (29Cu) has two stable isotopes, 63Cu and 65Cu, along with 27 radioisotopes. The most stable radioisotope is 67Cu with a half-life of 61.83 hours, while the least stable is 54Cu with a half-life of approximately 75 ns. Most have half-lives under a minute. Unstable copper isotopes with atomic masses below 63 tend to undergo β+ decay, while isotopes with atomic masses above 65 tend to undergo β decay. 64Cu decays by both β+ and β.[2]

Main isotopes of copper (29Cu)
Iso­tope Decay
abun­dance half-life (t1/2) mode pro­duct
63Cu 69.17% stable
64Cu syn 12.70 h ε 64Ni
β 64Zn
65Cu 30.83% stable
67Cu syn 61.83 h β 67Zn
Standard atomic weight Ar, standard(Cu)

68Cu, 69Cu, 71Cu, 72Cu, and 76Cu each have one metastable isomer. 70Cu has two isomers, making a total of 7 distinct isomers. The most stable of these is 68mCu with a half-life of 3.75 minutes. The least stable is 69mCu with a half-life of 360 ns.[2]

List of isotopesEdit

Nuclide
[n 1]
Z N Isotopic mass (u)
[n 2][n 3]
Half-life
Decay
mode

[n 4]
Daughter
isotope

[n 5]
Spin and
parity
[n 6][n 7]
Natural abundance (mole fraction)
Excitation energy[n 7] Normal proportion Range of variation
52Cu 29 23 51.99718(28)# p 51Ni (3+)#
53Cu 29 24 52.98555(28)# <300 ns p 52Ni (3/2−)#
54Cu 29 25 53.97671(23)# <75 ns p 53Ni (3+)#
55Cu 29 26 54.96605(32)# 40# ms [>200 ns] β+ 55Ni 3/2−#
p 54Ni
56Cu 29 27 55.95856(15)# 93(3) ms β+ 56Ni (4+)
57Cu 29 28 56.949211(17) 196.3(7) ms β+ 57Ni 3/2−
58Cu 29 29 57.9445385(17) 3.204(7) s β+ 58Ni 1+
59Cu 29 30 58.9394980(8) 81.5(5) s β+ 59Ni 3/2−
60Cu 29 31 59.9373650(18) 23.7(4) min β+ 60Ni 2+
61Cu 29 32 60.9334578(11) 3.333(5) h β+ 61Ni 3/2−
62Cu 29 33 61.932584(4) 9.673(8) min β+ 62Ni 1+
63Cu 29 34 62.9295975(6) Stable 3/2− 0.6915(15) 0.68983–0.69338
64Cu 29 35 63.9297642(6) 12.700(2) h β+ (61%) 64Ni 1+
β (39%) 64Zn
65Cu 29 36 64.9277895(7) Stable 3/2− 0.3085(15) 0.30662–0.31017
66Cu 29 37 65.9288688(7) 5.120(14) min β 66Zn 1+
67Cu 29 38 66.9277303(13) 61.83(12) h β 67Zn 3/2−
68Cu 29 39 67.9296109(17) 31.1(15) s β 68Zn 1+
68mCu 721.6(7) keV 3.75(5) min IT (84%) 68Cu (6-)
β (16%) 68Zn
69Cu 29 40 68.9294293(15) 2.85(15) min β 69Zn 3/2−
69mCu 2741.8(10) keV 360(30) ns (13/2+)
70Cu 29 41 69.9323923(17) 44.5(2) s β 70Zn (6-)
70m1Cu 101.1(3) keV 33(2) s β 70Zn (3-)
70m2Cu 242.6(5) keV 6.6(2) s 1+
71Cu 29 42 70.9326768(16) 19.4(14) s β 71Zn (3/2−)
71mCu 2756(10) keV 271(13) ns (19/2−)
72Cu 29 43 71.9358203(15) 6.6(1) s β 72Zn (1+)
72mCu 270(3) keV 1.76(3) µs (4-)
73Cu 29 44 72.936675(4) 4.2(3) s β (>99.9%) 73Zn (3/2−)
β, n (<.1%) 72Zn
74Cu 29 45 73.939875(7) 1.594(10) s β 74Zn (1+, 3+)
75Cu 29 46 74.94190(105) 1.224(3) s β (96.5%) 75Zn (3/2−)#
β, n (3.5%) 74Zn
76Cu 29 47 75.945275(7) 641(6) ms β (97%) 76Zn (3, 5)
β, n (3%) 75Zn
76mCu 0(200)# keV 1.27(30) s β 76Zn (1, 3)
77Cu 29 48 76.94785(43)# 469(8) ms β 77Zn 3/2−#
78Cu 29 49 77.95196(43)# 342(11) ms β 78Zn
79Cu 29 50 78.95456(54)# 188(25) ms β, n (55%) 78Zn 3/2−#
β (45%) 79Zn
80Cu 29 51 79.96087(64)# 100# ms [>300 ns] β 80Zn
  1. ^ mCu – Excited nuclear isomer.
  2. ^ ( ) – Uncertainty (1σ) is given in concise form in parentheses after the corresponding last digits.
  3. ^ # – Atomic mass marked #: value and uncertainty derived not from purely experimental data, but at least partly from trends from the Mass Surface (TMS).
  4. ^ Modes of decay:
    IT: Isomeric transition
    n: Neutron emission
    p: Proton emission
  5. ^ Bold symbol as daughter – Daughter product is stable.
  6. ^ ( ) spin value – Indicates spin with weak assignment arguments.
  7. ^ a b # – Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from trends of neighboring nuclides (TNN).

Medical ApplicationsEdit

Copper offers a relatively large number of radioisotopes that are potentially suitable for use in nuclear medicine.

There is a growing interest in the use of 64Cu, 62Cu, 61Cu, and 60Cu for diagnostic purposes and 67Cu and 64Cu for targeted radiotherapy. For example, 64Cu has a longer half-life and is thus ideal for diagnostic PET imaging of biological molecules.[3]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Meija, Juris; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305.
  2. ^ a b Audi, Georges; Bersillon, Olivier; Blachot, Jean; Wapstra, Aaldert Hendrik (2003), "The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties", Nuclear Physics A, 729: 3–128, Bibcode:2003NuPhA.729....3A, doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001
  3. ^ Harris, M. "Clarity uses a cutting-edge imaging technique to guide drug development". Nature Biotechnology September 2014: 34