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Isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

Isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH), also called idiopathic or congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH), as well as isolated or congenital gonadotropin-releasing hormone deficiency (IGD), is a condition which results in a small subset of cases of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) due to deficiency in or insensitivity to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) where the function and anatomy of the anterior pituitary is otherwise normal and secondary causes of HH are not present.

Isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
Other namesNormosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism


Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism presents as hypogonadism, e.g., reduced or absent puberty,[1] low libido, infertility, etc. due to an impaired release of the gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), and a resultant lack of sex steroid and peptides production by the gonads.[2][3]

In Kallmann syndrome, a variable non-reproductive phenotype occurs with anosmia (loss of the sense of smell) including sensorineural deafness, coloboma, bimanual synkinesis, craniofacial abnormalities, and/or renal agenesis.[4]


IHH is divided into two syndromes: IHH with olfactory alterations or anosmia, Kallmann syndrome and IHH with normal smell (normosmic IHH).[4]

Kallmann syndrome is responsible for approximately 50% of all cases of the condition. It is associated with mutations in KAL1, FGFR1/FGF8, FGF17, IL17RD, PROKR2, NELF, CHD7(which positively regulates GnRH secretion), HS6ST1, FLRT3, SPRY4, DUSP6, SEMA3A, and WDR11 (gene), genes which are related to defects in neuronal migration.[4]

Gene defects associated with IHH and normal smell include PROKR2, FGFR1, FGF8, CHD7, DUSP6, and WDR11, as in KS, but in addition also mutations in KISS1R, TACR3, GNRH1/GNRHR, LEP/LEPR, HESX1, FSHB, and LHB.[4] GnRH insensitivity is the second most common cause of IHH, responsible for up to 20% of cases.[citation needed]

A minority of less than 5-10% is due to inactivating mutations in genes which positively regulate GnRH secretion such as ,CHD7, KISS1R, and TACR3.[citation needed]

The causes of about 25% of all IHH cases are still unknown.[5][dead link]




See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Young J. Approach to the male patient with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Mar;97(3):707-18. doi: 10.1210/jc.2011-1664. PMID 22392951
  2. ^ Giton F, Trabado S, Maione L, et al . Sex steroids, precursors, and metabolite deficiencies in men with isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and panhypopituitarism: a GCMS-based comparative study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Feb;100(2):E292-6. doi: 10.1210/jc.2014-2658. Epub 2014 Nov 13. PMID 25393641
  3. ^ Trabado S, Maione L, Bry-Gauillard H, et al. Insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) in men with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism/Kallmann syndrome and effects of different modalities of hormonal treatment: a single-center study of 281 patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Feb;99(2):E268-75. doi: 10.1210/jc.2013-2288. Epub 2013 Nov 15. PMID 24243640
  4. ^ a b c d Hernan Valdes-Socin, Matilde Rubio Almanza, Mariana Tomé Fernández-Ladreda, et al. Reproduction, smell, and neurodevelopmental disorders: genetic defects in different hypogonadotropic hypogonadal syndromes. Frontiers in Endocrinology 2014, 5: 109. review
  5. ^ "Isolated Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Deficiency Overview - GeneReviews™ - NCBI Bookshelf".

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External resources