International Planned Parenthood Federation
|Founded at||Bombay (present-day Mumbai), India|
|Type||International non-governmental organisation|
The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) is a global non-governmental organisation with the broad aims of promoting sexual and reproductive health, and advocating the right of individuals to make their own choices in family planning. It was first formed in 1952 in Bombay (present-day Mumbai), India by Margaret Sanger and Lady Rama Rau at the Third International Conference on Planned Parenthood with support of an expanding population with limited resources. Nowadays, it consists of more than 149 Member Associations working in more than 189 countries. The IPPF is highly developed and organised into six regions. The organisation is based in London, England.
Member Associations provide non-profit family planning services, sexual health and abuse prevention training and education. Their goals include giving clients the information necessary to make informed sexual health decisions, promoting continuing sexual health, making available high quality sexual health services, improving the overall health of low income individuals, and using democratic organisation and the leadership of volunteers to promote these goals. Over 40% of the organisation's resources are aimed at serving the needs of young people; as the IPPF explains, individuals under 25 (and especially females) are at a much higher risk of getting infected with HIV.
The IPPF is financially supported by governments, trusts, and foundations including the European Commission and the United Nations Population Fund for special projects. Half of the balance of their funding comes from government official development assistance programmes. To achieve their goals as an organisation, the IPPF often collaborates with the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
The IPPF is a prominent lobbyist in the European Union: specifically, for the European Council and the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). It is the only non-governmental organisation (NGO) that focuses on sexual health and reproductive rights to qualify for Consultative Status with the Council of Europe. This allows the IPPF to sit in on the Parliamentary Assembly.
In April 2011, it was revealed that IPPF, which had applied for an $18 million grant more than a year previously, had been denied funding by a Conservative Party government due to lobbying efforts by "pro-life" groups.
On 22 September 2011, the Canadian International Development Agency granted IPPF $6 million over three years. The money is for services yet to be rendered in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Mali, Sudan, and Tanzania. Many anti-abortion activists have been critical of the spending including conservative MP Brad Trost who criticised his own party for supporting the "pro-choice" group.
United States fundingEdit
IPPF is a "pro-choice" organisation that advocates for access to contraception and safe abortion services. This has led IPPF into conflict with conservative social forces, including the Roman Catholic Church and the administration of U.S. President George W. Bush, who reinstated the Mexico City Policy in 2001. This policy required non-governmental organisations in receipt of U.S. funds to refrain from providing birth control and/or abortion-related services, and was first instituted by President Ronald Reagan in 1984 after lobbying from the Vatican following's Reagan's establishment of official diplomatic relations with the Holy See. IPPF opted not to alter its method of operation, and, as a result, lost 20% of its funding during the time the Mexico City Policy was in effect. The policy was rescinded by President Barack Obama in January 2009, but was reinstated by President Donald Trump in January 2017.
The International Planned Parenthood Federation was established after earlier efforts to organise the post-World War II family planning and population control movements. The first conference was organised by the Swedish Association for Sexuality Education in Stockholm, in August 1946. Two years later another meeting was held, the International Congress on Population and World Resources in Relation to the Family, in Cheltenham, England in August 1948, predated the establishment of the IPPF.
- Third International Conference on Planned Parenthood, Bombay (present-day Mumbai), India (24–29 November 1952)
- Fourth International Conference on Planned Parenthood, Stockholm, Sweden (17–22 August 1953)
- Fifth International Conference on Planned Parenthood, Tokyo, Japan (24–29 October 1955)
- Sixth International Conference on Planned Parenthood, New Delhi, India (14–21 February 1959)
- Seventh International Conference on Planned Parenthood, Singapore (February 1963)
- Eighth International Conference on Planned Parenthood, Santiago, Chile (April 1967)
- Ninth International Conference on Planned Parenthood, Brighton, England (October 1973)
The IPPF is connecting with the poor and vulnerable population to improve healthcare support. Throughout 2016, the IPPF provided over 45 million people with services, many of these people are in a humanitarian crisis. These services include access to sexual and reproductive health services and training local people to educate others about healthcare. The IPPF help over 46,000 clinics and facilities by giving health products and services. One of their main focuses is on improving sexual health services, so they also give contraceptives to over 14,000 providers, which many are in rural areas. The IPPF is working on helping countries, mostly in Sub-Saharan Africa, with HIV epidemics by providing HIV testing and counseling. In 2016, the IPPF supplied over 40 million HIV services, which 59% was delivered to Africa. Africa has seen improvements among HIV and sexually transmitted infections testing and counseling. The IPPF is working along side the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) to promote preventions and treatments.
In Cairo in 1994, the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) stated that around 55% of couples were family planning in some way. Due to the family planning efforts, fertility rates are three to four children per women in 1994 which is much lower than the average of six to seven children per woman in the 1960s.
Part of the IPPF in Colombia is Profamilia which was started in 1965. In the 1960s, Colombia was a conservative and Catholic region which valued large families, where the government still does not educate about family planning. Throughout the past 30 years, the fertility rate has decreased from 7 to 3 due to about 70% of the reproductive population using family planning.
- Claeys, Vicky (December 2010). "Brave and angry--the creation and development of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF)". The European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care: The Official Journal of the European Society of Contraception. 15 Suppl 2: S67–76. doi:10.3109/13625187.2010.526726. ISSN 1473-0782. PMID 21091170.
- "What we do". ippf.org. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
- MacCharles, Tonda (21 April 2011). "Anti-abortion groups shaped Tory funding policy on Planned Parenthood". Toronto Star.
- Berthiaume, Lee (28 September 2011). "Anti-abortion supporters angered over CIDA funding for abortion-offering group". Montreal Gazette.[permanent dead link]
- Haight, Lana (29 September 2011). "Conservative MP Trost criticizes gov't over Planned Parenthood". The StarPhoenix.
- "The U.S. and The Vatican on Birth Control". TIME.com. 24 February 1992. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
- "Mexico City Policy – Voluntary Population Planning". President of the United States of America. 23 January 2009. Archived from the original on 12 June 2010. Retrieved 13 June 2010.
- Tapper, Jake (23 January 2009). "Obama Overturns 'Mexico City Policy' Implemented by Reagan". ABC News.
- German Wikipedia: Pro Familia
- French Wikipedia: Mouvement français pour le planning familial
- Suitters, Beryl (1973). Be Brave and Angry: Chronicles of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. London: IPPF. p. 18.
- Family Planning Association of Great Britain (1948). Proccedings of the International Congress on Population and World Resources in Relation to the Family. London: H. K. Lewis & Co. Ltd.
- Family Plannig Association of India (1952). The Third International Conference on Planned Parenthood. Bombay: Family Planning Association of India.
- IPPF (1953). The Fourth International Conference on Planned Parenthood. London: IPPF.
- IPPF (1955). The Fifth International Conference on Planned Parenthood, Report of the Proceedings. London: IPPF.
- IPPF (1959). The Sixth International Conference on Planned Parenthood, Report of Proceedings. London: IPPF.
- Suitters, Beryl (1973). Be Brave and Angry: Chronicles of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. London: IPPF. pp. 246–47.
- Suitters, Beryl (1973). Be Brave and Angry: Chronicles of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. London: IPPF. pp. 362–366.
- Suitters, Beryl (1973). Be Brave and Angry: Chronicles of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. London: IPPF. p. 396.
- "IPPF Annual Performance Report 2016 | IPPF". IPPF. 2017-06-09. Retrieved 2018-04-11.
- "Family planning in the 21st century: perspective of the International Planned Parenthood Federation". International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 58 (1): 93–100. 1997-07-01. doi:10.1016/S0020-7292(97)02857-9. ISSN 0020-7292.