Inferior hypogastric plexus
|Inferior hypogastric plexus|
The right sympathetic chain and its connections with the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic plexuses. (Pelvic plexus labeled at bottom right.)
Lower half of right sympathetic cord. (Hypogastric plexus labeled at bottom left.)
|Latin||plexus hypogastricus inferior|
|Anatomical terms of neuroanatomy|
The inferior hypogastric plexus is a paired structure, with each situated on the side of the rectum in the male, and at the sides of the rectum and vagina in the female. For this reason, injury to this structure is a known complication of pelvic surgeries and may cause urinary dysfunction and specifically urinary incontinence. Urodynamics will reveal a poorly compliant bladder, with bladder neck incompetence, and fixed external sphincter tone  .
Contributions to the plexus include:
- a continuation of the superior hypogastric plexus on either side, in the form of the hypogastric nerve.
- sacral splanchnic nerves, which emerge from the sympathetic trunk.
- pelvic splanchnic nerves (from the second, third, and fourth sacral nerves) also contribute parasympathetic efferent fibers to the plexus.
At the points of junction of these nerves small ganglia are found.
From these plexuses numerous branches are distributed to the viscera of the pelvis.
They accompany the branches of the internal iliac artery.
- Yokochi, Chihiro; Rohen, Johannes W. (2006). Color Atlas of Anatomy: A Photographic Study of the Human Body. Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 346. ISBN 0-7817-9013-1.
- CAMPBELL-WALSH UROLOGY, ed 11. p. 1781.
- Jeyarajah S, King A, Papagrigoriadis S (2007). "Faecal incontinence as presentation of an ependymomas of the spinal cord". World J Surg Oncol. 5: 107. doi:10.1186/1477-7819-5-107. PMC 2034572. PMID 17894884.
- Autonomics of the Pelvis - Page 5 of 12 anatomy module at med.umich.edu
- Autonomics of the Pelvis - Page 6 of 12 anatomy module at med.umich.edu
- figures/chapter_32/32-6.HTM: Basic Human Anatomy at Dartmouth Medical School
- posteriorabdomen at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University) (posteriorabdmus&nerves)