In late Classical Greek art, ichthyocentaurs (Greek: ἰχθυοκένταυρος, plural: ἰχθυοκένταυροι) were centaurine sea beings with the upper body of a human, the lower anterior half and fore-legs of a horse, and the tailed half of a fish. The earliest example dates to the 2nd century B. C., among the friezes in the Pergamon Altar. There are further examples of Aphros and/or Bythos, the personifications of foam and abyss, respectively, depicted as ichthyocentaurs in mosaics and sculptures.

Ichthyocentaur statue outside the State of Missouri's capitol building

The term ichthyocentaur is of late coinage, attributable to the Byzantine writer John Tzetzes in the 12th century. They are also referred as sea-centaur.

Nomenclature edit

Origin edit

"Ichthyocentaur" is not a term in the vocabulary of Classical antiquity at all. The word's earliest known use occurs in the 12th century by Ioannes Tzetzes in his commentary On Lycophron, 34 and may have been coined by him.[2][3][4]

Meaning edit

Ichthyocentaur is a Triton represented as having the fore-legs of a horse, rather than just having a fish-like lower-body.[5]

Ichthyocentaur comes from two different words, ichthyo- and centaur. Ichthyo- is an adjective stem from Greek ikhthis (ιχθύς) "fish"; centaur, from Greek kentauros (κένταυρος), a creature from classical mythology that has a man's upper body attached to a horse's body and legs.

Synonyms edit

The term or its equivalent in other European languages (German: Ichthyokentaur, plural: Ichthyokentauren; French: Ichthyocentaure, Ichtyocentaures) has been used in classical art commentary in the modern age, and vernacular terms such as "sea-centaur" (German: Seekentauren, Fischkentauren; French: centaures marins) have also been interchangeably applied.[6][7] Henri van de Waal (1976) placed "ichthyocentaur", "centaurotriton", and "sea-centaur" in the same iconographic group or iconclass[8] synonymous treatment of these terms are also seen in archaeological papers.[4][9]

Centaur-Tritons is another name for ichthyocentaurs, noted in a 19th-century reference.[1]

Greek art edit

Triton on Pergamon Altar

The earliest datable depiction of an ichthyocentaur is found in the relief sculptures of the Pergamon Altar (2nd century, B. C.), although the inscription labels the figure as a "Triton".[10][4] The ichthyocentaur in this relief sculpture has wings on its back; these wings are of a peculiar type which are lined with either seaweed or sea creature parts instead of feathers.[6]

Ichthyocentaurs are sometimes portrayed with a pair of pincered arms (similar to a lobster's clawed arms) emerging out of their heads.[11][a]

Aphros and Bythos edit

Aphrodite with Bythos and Aphros.

Zeugma mosaics edit

A "Birth of Venus (Aphrodite)" mosaic unearthed at Zeugma, Turkey shows Aphrodite emerging from a shell, supported by two "sea-centaurs", construed as special names for Tritons, according to a paper published by the leader of the French excavation team.[14] The mosaics bear inscriptions, identifying the sea-centaurs as Aphros ("Sea-Foam", personified) and Bythos ("Sea-Depths").[14]

The Aphros is shown with a pair of lobster-like appendages growing out of his head,[14][b] as is Bythos (see images).[16][17][18]

In the Zeugma mosaic, the elder-looking triton is labeled Aphros and the youthful-looking one is called Bythos, which is contrary to convention seen in other examples.[19]

This mosaic dates to the 3rd century CE, and is now part of the Gaziantep Museum of Archaeology's collection,[16] now housed in the annex named the Zeugma Mosaic Museum.[20]

Apamea, Paphos and others edit

In the marine procession mosaic found underneath a cathedral at Apamea, Syria (c. 362-363 CE), there is an Aphros in ichthyocentaur form.[21][22] This Aphros (identified by inscription) is depicted as a youthful triton with lobster-like antennae on its head and hair of seaweed.[15] Bythos also appears in the same group; he evidently appears old-aged and the commentator remarks this is none other than the "Old Man of the Sea".[23]

Thetis (center), Bythos (center bottom).
—Paphos Archeological Park mosaic, "Beauty contest between Cassiopeia and the Nereids"

The Paphos mosaic depicts Bythos alone carrying the nereid Thetis along with two other nereids, Doris and Galateia.

The two sea gods also appear in a pair of matching sculptures (belonging to the Louvre and Vatican Museums) depicting them carrying silen companions of the god Dionysus after his company was driven into the sea by King Lycurgus of Thrace.

Aphros in glosses edit

Aphros is glossed as a king of Ancient Libya and the progenitor of the Aphroi (or Carthaginians) according to the entry in the Byzantine lexicon, the Suda.[17][24] A mosaic uncovered in Tunisia confirms this belief; it depicts a pair of African sea gods swimming alongside Poseidon's chariot—one is the ichthyocentaur Aphros and the other a twin-tailed Triton, god of the Libyan Lake Tritonis.[17][better source needed]

The Suda also states this Aphros was the son of Cronos and Philyra.[24] This matches the parentage of the centaur Chiron, who was the son of the Titan Cronos and the nymph Philyra (Bibliotheke of Pseudo-Apollodorus 1.2)[25] from which it might be deduced this Aphros and Chiron were siblings.[17] Aphros was perhaps regarded as Aphrodite's foster-father, given their similarity in names.[17]

Other examples edit

The monochrome mosaic Ishthmia (2nd century CE or later),[26] included an ichthyocentaur-form Triton on the upper panel and a winged-form Triton on the lower; both these beardless Tritons were depicted with a pair of what look like crustacean pincers growing out of their heads.[27][28][29]

A pair of marine thiasos fresco fragments in Herculaneum have been described, such that in one fragment, are two tritons, one of them an ichthyocentaur. The ichthyocentaur here is beardless, and bears a ribboned trident. A pair of sea crayfish (lobster) feet or pincers sprout from each triton's head.[c] In the second fragment, a youthful ichthyocentaur proceeds ahead of a mounted Venus marina; the ichthyocentaur holds two objects difficult to identify.[30][31]

Literary examples edit

One late literary example that has been noted is the poem by Claudian (d. 404), the Epithalamium for the wedding of Honorius and Maria, in which Venus rides Triton on her back as her whole procession heads for the wedding. Here Triton is described as follows "The dread monster uprose from the abyss; his billowing hair swept his shoulders; hoofs of cloven horn grown round with bristles sprang from where his fishy tail joined his man's body".[32] Wilhelm Heinrich Roscher observed that this Triton (with cloven hooves) is being described as an ichthyocentaur subtype with a bull's forelegs.[6]

Renaissance period edit

Conrad Gessner's "sea-satyr" or "sea-Pan" was also described as an "ichthyocentaur" or "sea-devil" in his chapter on tritons in his Historia animalium IV (1558).[33][34][35] In the German translated edition, this creature is called "Meerteuffel [sic]" or "sea devil".[36]

This "marine daemon" (German: Meerteufel), with other names such as "sea Pan monster", "monstrous sea satyr" or "centaur-fish" has also been used on heraldic devices.[37]

See also edit

Explanatory notes edit

  1. ^ Cf. Oceanus conventionally depicted with crab or lobster claws ("pinces de crabe/homard") on their heads, including Zeugma.[12] Cf. also Pauline (1972) on both "antennae (antennes)" and "pincers (pinces)" present on mosaic heads of Oceanus/sea deities.[13]
  2. ^ Abadie-Reynal actually states "crowned with the antennae of lobsters (couronné d'antennes de homards)", but these terminate in what look like pincers (or pinces, used by other French scholars to describe such appendages), and differs from the straight "antennae" described on the Apamea mosaic Aphros described below.[15]
  3. ^ The second triton, bearded, has twin fish-tails, and bears an oar.

References edit

  1. ^ a b   Schmitz, Leonhard (1870). "Triton (1)". In Smith, William (ed.). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Vol. 3. p. 1176. Perseus Project: Triton (1).
  2. ^ Tzetzes,ad Lycophron 34, 886, 892.[1]
  3. ^ Packard (1980), p. 329, note 7
  4. ^ a b c Litvinskij & Pičikian (1995), p. 142.
  5. ^ "Triton". Brill's New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World. Antiquity. Vol. 14. Brill. 2009. p. 101.
  6. ^ a b c Roscher, Wilhelm Heinrich (1890), "Ichthyokentauren", Ausführliches Lexikon der griechischen und römischen Mythologie (in German), vol. 2, B. G. Teubner, pp. 91–94 Alt URL
  7. ^ Brulet, Raymond (1990). Le sarcophage Gallo-Romain de Tournai. Université catholique de Louvain, Départemant d'archéologie et d'histoire de l'art. p. 68.
  8. ^ van de Waal, Henri (1976), Iconclass: an iconographic classification system. Society, civilization, culture. System. Part I-Part II., vol. 4, North-Holland, p. 98, ISBN 9-780-72048-264-5
  9. ^ Lattimore (1976), p. 44, where "ichthyocentaur" and "sea centaur" are equated.
  10. ^ Rumpf 1939, p. 105 and note 140, cited by Lattimore (1976), p. 44, note 84.
  11. ^ Collignon, Maxime (1890). Manual of Mythology: In Relation to Greek Art. Translated by Harrison, Jane E. H. Grevel & Co. pp. 197–199. then come, in late days, the Centaurs of the sea, beating the water with their mighty fins, with their heads sometimes surmounted by lobsters' claws.
  12. ^ Eraslan, Şehnaz (2015), "Oceanus, Tethys and Thalssa Figures in the Light of Antioch and Zeugma Mosaics" (PDF), Journal of International Social Research, 8 (37): 454, 459, 45, doi:10.17719/jisr.20153710616
  13. ^ Voute, Pauline (1972), "Notes sur l'iconographie d'Océan. À propos d'une fontaine à mosaïques découverte à Nole (Campanie)", Mélanges de l'École française de Rome: Antiquité (in French), 81 (1): 660–664; fig. 11–14
  14. ^ a b c Abadie-Reynal (2002), p. 760.
  15. ^ a b Balty (1972), p. 115.
  16. ^ a b Wootton, Will (2016). Alcock, Susan E.; Egri, Mariana; Frakes, James F. D. (eds.). A Portrait of the Artist as a Mosaicist under the Roman Empire. Getty Publications. pp. 74–75. ISBN 978-1-606-06471-9. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  17. ^ a b c d e Aaron J. Atsma (2010–2017). "Ikhthyokentauroi". Theoi Project.
  18. ^ "Eserleri: Zeugma ve Diğer Buluntular. Aphrodithe'in Doğuşu" [Works: Zeugma and Other Finds: Birth of Aphrodite]. (in Turkish). 2014. Retrieved 2019-09-12.; Cf. gallery photo.
  19. ^ Abadie-Reynal (2002), p. 760; Wardle, Marianne Eileen (2010). Naked and Unashamed: A Study of the Aphrodite Anadyomene in the Greco-Roman World (PDF) (Ph. D.). Duke University, Department of Art, Art History and Visual Studies. p. 233.
  20. ^ "Venüs'ün Doğuşu Mozaiği" [A 20 The Birth of Venus Mosaic]. Zeugma Mozaik Müzesi. Müze Kat Plani [Zeugma Mosaic Museum: Floor Plan] (in Turkish). 2014. Archived from the original on 2020-11-30. Retrieved 2019-09-12.
  21. ^ "Objet14827". Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae (France). 2012-09-11. Retrieved 2019-09-14.
  22. ^ Balty (1972), p. 115. Fig. 5; Fig. 7
  23. ^ Balty (1972), pp. 118, 120. Fig. 9
  24. ^ a b "Ἄφροι", Suda On Line", tr. Jennifer Benedict. 5 June 2001.
  25. ^ Apollod. 1.2; Apollodorus' Library and Hyginus' Fabulae: Two Handbooks of Greek MythologyI. Translated by Stephen M. Trzaskoma; R. Scott Smith. Hackett Publishing. 2007. p. 2. ISBN 9-781-60384-052-1.
  26. ^ Packard (1980), p. 344.
  27. ^ Packard (1980), pp. 328–329 and Plates 97–99
  28. ^ Reinhard, Jayne Huntington (2005). The Roman Bath at Isthmia: Decoration, Cult, and Herodes Atticus. University of Minnesota. p. 46.
  29. ^ "Lifting the Monochrome Mosaic". OSU Excavations at Isthmia. College of Arts and Sciences The Ohio State University. 2019. Retrieved 2019-09-10.
  30. ^ Maréchal, Sylvain (1789), "Planche CLV", Antiquités d'Herculanum (in French), vol. 5, François-Anne David (engravings), Chez David, pp. 76–77; Pl. CLV
  31. ^ Barré, Louis [in French] (1840), "Planche 16", Herculanum et Pompéi: recueil général des peintures, bronzes, mosaïques, etc. (in French), vol. 5, François-Henri Roux, aîné (engravings), F. Didot, pp. 36–38
  32. ^ Claudian. Epithalamium of Honorius and Maria. Loeb Classical Library 135. Translated by M. Platnauer. Harvard University Press. pp. 252–253. {{cite book}}: |website= ignored (help)
  33. ^ Gesner, Konrad (1558) Historiae animalium [1237} Liber IIII], p. 1197; (1604 ed.) p. 1001.
  34. ^ Hendrikx, Sophia. "Monstrosities from the Sea. Taxonomy and tradition in Conrad Gessner's (1516-1565) discussion of cetaceans and sea-monsters". Anthropozoologica. 53 (11): 132–135.
  35. ^ Ursula Wehner, Peggy; Zierau, Wolfgang; Arditti, Joseph (2013). Germanicus and Plinius Indicus: Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Descriptions and Illustrations of Orchid "Trash Baskets", Resupination, Seeds, Floral Segments and Flower Senescence in the European Botanical Literature in Orchid Biology: Reviews and Perspectives. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 42–44. ISBN 978-9-401-72500-2. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  36. ^ Gesner, Konrad (1558) Gesnerus redivivus auctus & emendatus, oder: Allgemeines Thier-Buch: Gesneri redivivi aucti et emendati ... oder Vollkommenes Fisch-Buch, Tomus IV, p. 153
  37. ^ Holme, Randle III (1688). "16.39 Marine Daemon". The Academie of Armorie. pp. 375, 367. via EEBO

External links edit