Ibrahim ibn Hisham ibn Isma'il al-Makhzumi (Arabic: إبراهيم بن هشام بن إسماعيل المخزومي) was an eighth century official for the Umayyad Caliphate, serving as the governor of Medina, Mecca and al-Ta'if during the caliphate of Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik. He and his brother Muhammad were later tortured to death in 743 in the period leading up to the Third Islamic Civil War.
The sons of Hisham ibn Isma'il al-Makhzumi, Ibrahim and Muhammad were maternal uncles of the caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (r. 724–743), who relied on them to act as his governors of the Hijaz for the majority of his reign. Although the sources frequently confuse the two brothers, Ibrahim appears to have been appointed as governor of Medina, Mecca and al-Ta'if in 724 and to have been dismissed in 732, and was also the caliph's choice to lead the pilgrimages of 724, 726–731 and possibly 732. During his governorship his appointees to lead the Medinese judiciary were Muhammad ibn Safwan al-Jumahi and al-Salt ibn Zubayd al-Kindi.
In the last years of Hisham's reign Ibrahim and Muhammad were supporters of the caliph's unsuccessful plan to replace the heir-apparent al-Walid ibn Yazid with his own son Maslamah, but with the death of Hisham in 743 their political influence came to an end. Upon his accession to the caliphate al-Walid handed over the two brothers to his new governor of Medina, Yusuf ibn Muhammad ibn Yusuf al-Thaqafi, who paraded them in front of the city inhabitants and had them flogged; shortly afterwards al-Walid ordered Yusuf to transfer Ibrahim and Muhammad to Yusuf ibn Umar al-Thaqafi in Iraq, where together with Khalid ibn Abdallah al-Qasri they were tortured to death. The brutal treatment of Ibrahim and Muhammad exacerbated hostility against al-Walid, playing a role in the caliph's own downfall and death and the outbreak of civil war in the following year.
- Hinds 1991, p. 139; McMillan 2011, pp. 140–41.
- Khalifah ibn Khayyat 1985, p. 357 states that Muhammad ibn Hisham was the governor of Mecca, Medina and al-Ta'if from 724 to 732 instead of Ibrahim, while Yarshater 1985–2007, v. 26: p. 8 and Al-Ya'qubi 1883, p. 397 claim that Ibrahim was governor in 739 and 743 respectively instead of Muhammad.
- Yarshater 1985–2007, v. 25: pp. 8, 23, 28, 32, 44, 63, 68, 94, 96, 97-98; Khalifah ibn Khayyat 1985, p. 361; McMillan 2011, p. 139. According to al-Tabari, op. cit., p. 29, Ibrahim also went campaigning on the Byzantine frontier in 726.
- Yarshater 1985–2007, v. 25: pp. 3-4, 28, 32, 44, 63, 68, 94, 96; Al-Ya'qubi 1883, p. 394; Khalifah ibn Khayyat 1985, pp. 337–41, 343, 360; Al-Mas'udi 1877, p. 61; McMillan 2011, p. 139.
- Yarshater 1985–2007, v. 26: p. 9; Khalifah ibn Khayyat 1985, p. 361; Waki' n.d., pp. 168–69; Judd 2014, p. 156.
- Yarshater 1985–2007, v. 26: pp. 89, 119, 177; Al-Yaq'ubi 1883, pp. 397, 400 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFAl-Yaq'ubi1883 (help); Khalifah ibn Khayyat 1985, p. 362; Hinds 1991, p. 139; McMillan 2011, pp. 147–48.
- McMillan 2011, p. 148.
- Hinds, M. (1991). "Makhzum". In Bosworth, C. E.; van Donzel, E. & Pellat, Ch. (eds.). The Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume VI: Mahk–Mid. Leiden: E. J. Brill. pp. 137–140. ISBN 978-90-04-08112-3.
- Judd, Steven C. (2014). Religious Scholars and the Umayyads: Piety-minded supporters of the Marwanid caliphate. Oxford and New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-84497-0.
- Khalifah ibn Khayyat (1985). al-'Umari, Akram Diya' (ed.). Tarikh Khalifah ibn Khayyat, 3rd ed (in Arabic). Al-Riyadh: Dar Taybah.
- Al-Mas'udi, Ali ibn al-Husain (1877). Les Prairies D'Or, Tome Neuvième (in French). Ed. and Trans. Charles Barbier de Meynard and Abel Pavet de Courteille. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale.
- McMillan, M.E. (2011). The Meaning of Mecca: The Politics of Pilgrimage in Early Islam. London: Saqi. ISBN 978-0-86356-437-6.
- Waki', Muhammad ibn Khalaf ibn Hayyan (n.d.). Akhbar al-Qudat (in Arabic). Beirut: 'Alam al-Kutub. OCLC 957287781.
- Al-Ya'qubi, Ahmad ibn Abu Ya'qub (1883). Houtsma, M. Th. (ed.). Historiae, Vol. 2 (in Arabic). Leiden: E. J. Brill.
- Yarshater, Ehsan, ed. (1985–2007). The History of al-Ṭabarī (40 vols). SUNY Series in Near Eastern Studies. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-7249-1.