Hwando (Chinese: 丸都; pinyin: Wandu) is a mountain fortress of the ancient Korean[1] kingdom of Goguryeo, built to protect Goguryeo's second capital, Gungnae. It is located in present-day Ji'an city of the province of Jilin, China.

Hwando Mountain City
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Hwando Mountain Fortress Rising Wall.JPG
LocationJilin, China
Part ofCapital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom
CriteriaCultural: (i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(v)
Inscription2004 (28th Session)
Area3,219.21 ha (7,954.8 acres)
Coordinates41°9′51.2″N 126°6′55.9″E / 41.164222°N 126.115528°E / 41.164222; 126.115528Coordinates: 41°9′51.2″N 126°6′55.9″E / 41.164222°N 126.115528°E / 41.164222; 126.115528
Chinese name
Korean name
Hwando is located in Jilin
Location of Hwando in Jilin
Hwando is located in China
Hwando (China)

The fortress is located 2.5 km west of Ji'an, Jilin province in Northeast China, near the North Korean border. It is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom, together with nearby Gungnae City and the Ohnyeosan City, because of its historical importance and exceptional architecture.[2]


In 3 CE, King Yuri of Goguryeo moved the capital to Gungnae Fortress, and built the Wina Rock fortress.[3] Gungnae Fortress, the capital, was a fortress on Amnok River's plain, while "Wina Rocks fortress" (Hangul: 위나암성, Hanja: 尉那巖城) was a fortified city in the mountain which was later renamed to Hwando by King Sansang of Goguryeo.

Goguryeo consolidated its power and began to threaten the Chinese commanderies, under the nominal control of Wei. In 242, Dongcheon attacked a Chinese fortress near the mouth of the Amnok River leading to the Goguryeo–Wei War; in 244, Wei invaded Goguryeo and sacked Hwando.[4]

Goguryeo ended China's presence on the Korean peninsula by conquering the Lelang commandery in 313. However, Goguryeo faced opposition by the proto-Mongol Xianbei who had conquered northern China; the Murong clan of the Xianbei attacked Goguryeo and sacked Hwando in 341, capturing thousands of prisoners to provide cheap labor. The Xianbei also devastated Buyeo in 346, accelerating Buyeo migration to the Korean peninsula. Goguryeo, though temporarily weakened, would soon recoup and continue its expansion.[4]



  1. ^ Complex of Koguryo Tombs (UNESCO/NHK) (Youtube). UNESCO. 2010.
  2. ^ "Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. Retrieved 10 Apr 2021.
  3. ^ Volume 13 Archived 2008-05-28 at the Wayback Machine(page 18) of Samguk Sagi
  4. ^ a b Tennant, Roger (2012). History Of Korea. Routledge. p. 22. ISBN 9781136167058. Retrieved 29 October 2017.