Open main menu

Huldufólk (Icelandic and Faroese hidden people[1] from huldu- "pertaining to secrecy" and fólk "people", "folk") are elves in Icelandic and Faroese folklore.[2][3] Building projects in Iceland are sometimes altered to prevent damaging the rocks where they are believed to live.[4][5][6][7][8] According to these Icelandic folk beliefs, one should never throw stones because of the possibility of hitting the huldufólk.[9]

Jumping after Hildur.jpg
Engraving of a man jumping after a female elf into a precipice.
Similar creaturesElf, huldra, fairy, mermaid, pixie, sprite, leprechaun

Former president Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson has explained the existence of huldufólk tales by saying: "Icelanders are few in number, so in the old times we doubled our population with tales of elves and fairies."[10]

They are also a part of folklore in the Faroe Islands.[11][12][13][14][15] In Faroese folk tales, huldufólk are said to be "large in build, their clothes are all grey, and their hair black. Their dwellings are in mounds, and they are also called Elves."[16]



The term huldufólk was taken as a synonym of álfar (elves) in 19th century Icelandic folklore. Jón Árnason found that the terms are synonymous, except álfar is a pejorative term. Konrad von Maurer contends that huldufólk originates as a euphemism to avoid calling the álfar by their real name.[17]

There is, however, some evidence that the two terms have come to be taken as referring to two distinct sets of supernatural beings in contemporary Iceland. Katrin Sontag found that some people do not differentiate elves from hidden people, while others do.[18] A 2006 survey by Erlendur Haraldsson found that "54% of respondents did not distinguish between elves and hidden people, 20% did and 26% said they were not sure."[19]


Terry Gunnell writes: "different beliefs could have lived side by side in multicultural settlement Iceland before they gradually blended into the latter-day Icelandic álfar and huldufólk."[20] He also writes: "Huldufólk and álfar undoubtedly arose from the same need. The Norse settlers had the álfar, the Irish slaves had the hill fairies or the Good People. Over time, they became two different beings, but really they are two different sets of folklore that mean the same thing."[21]

Precursors to elves/hidden people can be found in the writings of Snorri Sturluson[22] and in skaldic verse.[23] Elves were also mentioned in Poetic Edda,[24] and appear to be connected to fertility.[25]

The Christianization of Iceland in the 11th century brought with it new religious concepts. According to one Christian folk tale, the origins of the hidden people can be traced to Adam and Eve. Eve hid her dirty, unwashed children from God, and lied about their existence. God then declared: "What man hides from God, God will hide from man."[26] Other Christian folktales claim that huldufólk originate from Lilith, or are fallen angels condemned to live between heaven and hell.[27]

In succession of Christianization, official opposition to dancing may have begun in Iceland as early as the 12th century, and the association of dancing with elves can be seen as early as the 15th century. One folktale shows the elves siding with the common people and taking revenge on a sheriff who banned dance parties. Aðalheiður Guðmundsdóttir concludes that these legends "show that Icelanders missed dancing".[28]

In the 13th and 14th centuries, books from mainland Europe reached Iceland, and may have influenced folktales about elves.[29]

Einar Ólafur Sveinsson writes: "Round about 1600 sources for hidden folk become so voluminous that we can readily define the beliefs and legends about them, and after that there is one source after another about them right down into the twentieth century."[30] According to Árni Björnsson [is], belief in hidden people grew during the 17th and 18th centuries when Iceland was facing tough times.[31]


There are four Icelandic holidays considered to have a special connection with hidden people: New Year's Eve, Thirteenth Night (January 6), Midsummer Night and Christmas night.[32] Elf bonfires (álfabrennur) are a common part of the holiday festivities on Twelfth Night (January 6).[33][34][35] There are many Icelandic folktales about elves and hidden people invading Icelandic farmhouses during Christmas and holding wild parties.[36] It is customary in Iceland to clean the house before Christmas, and to leave food for the huldufólk on Christmas.[37] On New Year's Eve, it is believed that the elves move to new locations, and Icelanders leave candles to help them find their way.[38] On Midsummer Night, folklore states that if you sit at a crossroads, elves will attempt to seduce you with food and gifts; there are grave consequences for being seduced by their offers, but great rewards for resisting.[39]

Icelandic and Faroese folkloreEdit

Several scholars have commented on the connections between hidden people and the Icelandic natural environment. B. S. Benedikz, in his discussion of Jón Árnason's grouping of folktales about Elves, Water-dwellers, and Trolls together, writes:

The reason is of course perfectly clear. When one's life is conditioned by a landscape dominated by rocks twisted by volcanic action, wind and water into ferocious and alarming shapes... the imagination fastens on these natural phenomena".[40]

Ólina Thorvarðardóttir (Ólína Þorvarðardóttir) writes: "Oral tales concerning Icelandic elves and trolls no doubt served as warning fables. They prevented many children from wandering away from human habitations, taught Iceland's topographical history, and instilled fear and respect for the harsh powers of nature."[41]

Michael Strmiska writes: "The Huldufólk are... not so much supernatural as ultranatural, representing not an overcoming of nature in the hope of a better deal beyond but a deep reverence for the land and the mysterious powers able to cause fertility or famine."[42] Pálsdóttir claims that in a landscape filled with earthquakes, avalanches, and volcanoes, "it is no wonder that the native people have assigned some secret life to the landscape. There had to be some unseen powers behind such unpredictability, such cruelty."[43] Alan Boucher writes: "Thus the Icelander's ambivalent attitude towards nature, the enemy and the provider, is clearly expressed in these stories, which preserve a good deal of popular—and in some cases probably pre-christian—belief."[44]

Robert Anderson writes that syncretism "is active in Iceland where Christianity, spiritism, and Icelandic elf lore have syncretized in at least a couple instances."[45]

Terry Gunnell notes that huldufólk legends recorded in the 18th and 19th centuries showed them to be "near mirror-images of those humans who told stories about them—except they were beautiful, powerful, alluring, and free from care, while the Icelanders were often starving and struggling for existence. The huldufólk seem in many ways to represent the Icelander's dreams of a more perfect and happy existence."[46] Anthropologist Jón Haukur Ingimundarson claimed that huldufólk tales told by 19th-century Icelandic women were a reflection of how only 47% of women were married, and "sisters often found themselves relegated to very different functions and levels of status in society... the vast majority of Icelandic girls were shunted into supporting roles in the household." He goes on to say that these stories justified the differences in role and status between sisters, and "inculcated in young girls the... stoic adage never to despair, which was a psychological preparedness many would need as they found themselves reduced in status and denied the proper outlet for their sexuality in marriage, thereby sometimes having to rely on infanticide to take care of the unsolicited and insupportable effects of their occasional amours, an element... related in huldufólk stories."[47]

Anna Pietrzkiewicz contends that the huldufólk symbolize idealized Icelandic identity and society, the key elements of which are seeing the "past as a source of pride and nature as unique and pure."[48]

Hidden people often appear in the dreams of Icelanders.[49] They are usually described as wearing 19th-century Icelandic clothing,[50] and are often described as wearing green.[51]

In one version of modern Faroese folklore, the Huldfolk vanished in the 1950s when electricity was brought to the island. [52]

Contemporary IcelandEdit


Árni Björnsson [is], the former director of the ethnological department of the National Museum of Iceland, did a study of Icelanders born between 1870 and 1920. He was disappointed to find that only 10% believed in supernatural beings.[53][54]

According to a 1975 survey by psychologist Erlendur Haraldsson, Icelanders’ level of belief in hidden people and fairies can be broken down into the following percentages:

  • Impossible, 10%
  • Unlikely, 18%
  • Possible, 33%
  • Probable, 15%
  • Certain, 7%
  • No opinion, 17%[55]
Question Total Men Women Age 30–39 Age 40–49 Age 50–59 Age 60–70 Education: Primary Education: Secondary Education: College
20 Percentage of Respondents Claiming Various Types of Psychic Experiences: Fairies or "hidden folks" 5 5 5 3 4 8 6 8 3 0
41 Attitudes Towards Paranormal Phenomena Etc.: "Hidden Folks" and fairies
impossible 10 14 7 14 10 5 10 7 10 24
unlikely 18 19 16 18 21 14 16 10 18 38
possible 33 31 34 28 33 38 33 35 32 26
probable 15 14 16 14 15 17 17 21 14 5
certain 7 7 8 8 7 9 4 10 8 0
no opinion 17 15 19 18 14 17 20 17 18 17


There was also a 1995 survey by Pétur Pétursson, which only looked at people interested in alternative belief systems and alternative medicine rather than the general population. According to the survey, among the people of this group, belief in elves broke down as follows: 70% believed in their existence, 6% did not believe in their existence, 23% were unsure, and 1% would not answer.[57]

A July 1998 survey by Dagblaðið Vísir found that 54.4% of Icelanders surveyed claimed to believe in elves, while 45.6% did not.[58][59] Notably, it also showed that supporters of Framsóknarflokkur (Progressive Party) believed in elves more than other political parties.

A 2006 rerun of Erlendur Haraldsson's 1975 survey by Erlendur and Terry Gunnell[19] found that "There is a little bit more doubt than there used to be, but generally the figures were much the same as they were."[60] Sontag summarises its results: "8.0% of 650 persons ... were certain about the existence of huldufólk and álfar, 16.5% thought it was likely they existed, 31.0% assumed it was possible, 21.5% thought it was unlikely, 13.5% thought it was impossible and 8.5% did not have an opinion on this."[61]

Anthropologist Kirsten Hastrup found that different ways of asking Icelanders about Huldufólk could elicit very different responses.[62] Similarly, folklore professor Terry Gunnell has said: "Very few will say immediately that they 'believe' in such, but they won't deny it either."[60]

Icelandic communities in other countries may have lower levels of belief in huldufólk.[63] Daisy L. Neijmann claims that among Icelanders in Canada, "Belief in these creatures... was geographically bound seeing that they were part of the Icelandic landscape, and therefore they could not, ultimately, survive among Icelandic Canadians."[64]


The Icelandic Elf School in Reykjavík organizes five-hour-long educational excursions for visitors.[65][66]

Hafnarfjörður offers a "Hidden Worlds tour", a guided walk of about 90 minutes. It includes a stroll through Hellisgerdi Park, where the paths wind through a lava field planted with tall trees and potted bonsai trees in summer, and said to be peopled with the town's largest elf colony.

Stokkseyri has the Icelandic Wonders museum, where "Museum guests will walk into a world of the Icelandic elves and hidden people and get a glimpse of their life."[67]

Road construction stoppedEdit

Álfhóll in Kópavogur. Since the elves are believed to live here, the road narrows.

Álfhóll (Elf Hill) is the most famous home of elves in Kópavogur, and Álfhólsvegur (Elf Hill Road) is named after it. Late in the 1930s, road construction began on Álfhólsvegur, which was supposed to go through Álfhóll, which meant that Álfhóll would have to be demolished. Nothing seemed to go well, and construction was stopped due to money problems. A decade later road construction through Álfhóll was to be continued, but when work resumed machines started breaking and tools got damaged and lost. The road remained routed around the hill, not through it as originally planned. In the late 1980s, the road was to be raised and paved. Construction went as planned until it came time to demolish part of Álfhóll. A rock drill was used, but it broke. Another drill was fetched, but that one broke, as well. After both drills broke to pieces, the workers refused to go near the hill with any tools. Álfhóll is now protected by the city as a cultural heritage, and remains much as it was after the last Ice Age.[68] Kópavogur has remained one of the most prominent sites of stories about elves disrupting road-building,[69] and this is the subject of the 2010 film Sumarlandið, which depicts the Kópavogur stone Grásteinn as an elf-home.

In 2013, proposed road construction from the Álftanes peninsula to the Reykjavík suburb of Garðabær, undertaken by the Icelandic Road and Coastal Commission, was stopped because elf supporters and environmental groups protested, stating that the road would destroy the habitat of elves and local cultural beliefs.[70]

One of the foremost public commentators on building projects in relation to elves was the self-proclaimed seer and expert Erla Stefánsdóttir.

Other incidentsEdit

In 1982, 150 Icelanders went to the NATO base in Keflavík to look for "elves who might be endangered by American Phantom jets and AWACS reconnaissance planes."[71] In 2004, Alcoa had to have a government expert certify that their chosen building site was free of archaeological sites, including ones related to huldufólk folklore, before they could build an aluminium smelter in Iceland.[72][73] In 2011, elves/huldufólk were believed by some to be responsible for an incident in Bolungarvík where rocks rained down on residential streets.[74][75][76]

Changing beliefsEdit

Insofar as Icelanders do believe in huldufólk, it is clear that beliefs are changing from those current in the 19th century; indeed, this change is itself evidence that, at least among some people, folklore about huldufólk is a meaningful part of contemporary culture. Unnur Jökulsdóttir found that:

Í byrjun ferðar var ég dálítið ringluð á öllum þessum tegundum hulduvera sem fólk sagði mér frá og uppgötvaði innra með mér að ég var að leita að "hreinræktuðu huldufólki", svona eins og því er lýst í þjóðsögunum og eins og talað var um það í minni sveit. En smám saman sætti ég mig við að í huldufólkstrúnni eru nýbúar, nýjar sortir af álfum sem sjáendur tala um og lýsa. Eitthvað sem ekki er til í eldri sögum og sannar að þessi trú er á hreyfingu. Og það koma nýjar verur inn í sagnaheiminn, enda er munnleg sagnahefð alltaf sambland af ytri áhrifum og gömlum arfi.[77]

At the beginning of my journey I was somewhat confused by all the different kinds of hidden beings that people told me about, and realised that I was looking for the "pure huldufólk" of the sort that are described in folk tales and were talked out in my own district. But gradually I got used to the idea that in huldufólk-beliefs there are immigrants, new kinds of elves which clairvoyants talk about and describe. Something that does not exist in the older stories and which demonstrates that this belief is alive. And new beings come into the world of stories, as oral story-tradition is always a mixture of influences from outside and ancient heritage.

Significant sitesEdit

Álfaborg, Iceland

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ huldu·fólk
  2. ^ Jón Árnason; George E. J. Powell; Eiríkur Magnússon (1866). "Introductory Essay". Icelandic Legends, Volume 2. London: Richard Bentley. pp. xlii–lvi. Retrieved 20 June 2010.
  3. ^ Einar Ólafur Sveinsson; Einar G. Pétursson; Benedikt Benedikz; Anthony Faulkes (2003). The Folk-Stories of Iceland (PDF). University College London: Viking Society For Northern Research. pp. 170–183. ISBN 978-0-903521-53-6.
  4. ^ a b c Sarah Lyall (13 July 2005). "Building in Iceland? Better Clear It With the Elves First". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
  5. ^ William H. Swatos; Loftur Reimar Gissurarson (1997). Icelandic spiritualism: mediumship and modernity in Iceland. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers. pp. 46–49. ISBN 978-1-56000-273-4.
  6. ^ Viktor Arnar Ingólfsson (December 2007). "The Icelandic Road Administration (ICERA) and the Belief in Elves". Icelandic Road Administration. Retrieved 12 June 2010.
  7. ^ Tony Horwitz (13 July 1990). "Iceland Has Elves, Who Live in Rocks, Nowhere to Be Seen — Roads Are Diverted to Avoid Disturbing Elf Dwellings". The Wall Street Journal. p. A1.
  8. ^ Libby Casey (23 December 2007). "Many Icelanders Believe in Elves". All Things Considered. NPR. Retrieved 2011-06-18.
  9. ^ Anne Brydon (September 1991). The eye of the guest: Icelandic nationalist discourse and the whaling issue. Montreal: McGill University. p. 276.
  10. ^ Colin Nickerson (25 December 1999). "In Iceland, spirits are in the material world; Many on island nation believe in other-worldly beings". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved 26 February 2009.
  11. ^ Jonathan Wylie (1987). The Faroe Islands: Interpretations of History. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 59–60. ISBN 978-0-8131-1578-8.
  12. ^ J. Dyneley Prince (1922). "The Faroe Language". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 61 (2): 156–7. JSTOR 984412.
  13. ^ E. Paul Durrenberger (1987). "Review of The Faroe Islands: Interpretations of History by Jonathan Wylie". American Anthropologist. 89 (4): 992–993. doi:10.1525/aa.1987.89.4.02a00610. JSTOR 677915.
  14. ^ John Frederick West; Barður Jákupsson (1980). Faroese folk-tales & legends. Lerwick: Shetland Publishing Company. pp. vi, viii, 103. ISBN 978-0-906736-01-2.
  15. ^ Stephen Pax Leonard (17 June 2010). "Faroese skjaldur: An endangered oral tradition of the North Atlantic". World Oral Literature Project Occasional Papers. 1: 7–8. Archived from the original on 22 October 2016. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  16. ^ Dennis L. Gaffin (1996). In place: spatial and social order in a Faeroe Islands community. Prospect Heights, Illinois: Waveland Press. p. 201. ISBN 978-0-88133-879-9.
  17. ^ Katrin Sontag (2007). Parallel worlds: fieldwork with elves, Icelanders and academics. University of Iceland. pp. 13–14.
  18. ^ Katrin Sontag (2007). Parallel worlds: fieldwork with elves, Icelanders and academics. University of Iceland. pp. 15–18.
  19. ^ a b Erlendur Haraldsson (2011). "Psychic Experiences a Third of a Century Apart: Two Representative Surveys in Iceland with an International Comparison" (PDF). Journal of the Society for Psychical Research. 75: 88 – via University of Iceland.
  20. ^ Terry Gunnell (2007). "How Elvish Were The Álfar?". The 13th International Saga Conference. Archived from the original on 2007-03-04. Retrieved 2008-09-01.
  21. ^ Marc Vincenz (27 May 2009). "To Be or Not to Be: Álfar, Elves, Huldufólk, Fairies and Dwarves: Are They Really All the Same Thing?". The Reykjavík Grapevine. Archived from the original on 2010-04-04. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
  22. ^ Alaric Timothy Peter Hall (2004). The Meanings of Elf and Elves in Medieval England (PDF). Department of English Language, University of Glasgow. pp. 31–37.
  23. ^ Alaric Timothy Peter Hall (2004). The Meanings of Elf and Elves in Medieval England (PDF). Department of English Language, University of Glasgow. pp. 37–44.
  24. ^ Ármann Jakobsson (2006). "The Extreme Emotional Life of Völundr the Elf". Scandinavian Studies. 78 (3): 227–254. Retrieved 2010-05-26.
  25. ^ Jón Hnefill Aðalsteinsson (1990). "Folk Narrative and Norse Mythology". Arv: Nordic yearbook of folklore. 46: 120. Retrieved 18 February 2009.
  26. ^ D. L. Ashliman. "Origin of the Hidden People: Two Legends from Iceland by Jón Arnason". D. L. Ashliman's folktexts. Retrieved 18 September 2008.
  27. ^ Brian Pilkington; Terry Gunnell (2008). The Hidden People of Iceland. Reykjavík: Mál og menning. p. 4. ISBN 978-9979-3-2955-8.
  28. ^ Aðalheiður Guðmundsdóttir (2006). "How Icelandic legends reflect the prohibition on dancing" (PDF). Arv: Nordic yearbook of folklore. 61: 25–52. Retrieved 18 February 2009.
  29. ^ Einar Ólafur Sveinsson; Einar G. Pétursson; Benedikt Benedikz; Anthony Faulkes (2003). The Folk-Stories of Iceland (PDF). University College London: Viking Society For Northern Research. p. 175. ISBN 978-0-903521-53-6.
  30. ^ Einar Ólafur Sveinsson; Einar G. Pétursson; Benedikt Benedikz; Anthony Faulkes (2003). The Folk-Stories of Iceland (PDF). University College London: Viking Society For Northern Research. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-903521-53-6.
  31. ^ David Wallis (19 September 1999). "The World: Gnome Is Where the Heart Is; What Little Elves Tell Icelanders". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 October 2008.
  32. ^ Katrin Sontag (2007). Parallel worlds: fieldwork with elves, Icelanders and academics. University of Iceland. pp. 94–95.
  33. ^ "Álfabrenna í Bolungarvík". 4 January 2007. Retrieved 18 February 2009.
  34. ^ Bjarni Brynjólfsson (27 December 2007). "Charming Season". Iceland Review. Retrieved 18 February 2009.
  35. ^ Jeffrey Cosser (1994). "Elves and electricity: Midwinter in Iceland". Scandinavian Review. 82 (3): 62–66. Retrieved 18 February 2009.
  36. ^ Terry Gunnell (2004). "The Coming of the Christmas Visitors: Folk Legends Concerning the Attacks on Icelandic Farmhouses Made by Spirits at Christmas" (PDF). Northern Studies. 38: 51–75. Retrieved 18 March 2009.
  37. ^ Kristiana Magnusson (13 December 1991). "As Christmas Bells Ring Out". Lögberg-Heimskringla. p. 16. Retrieved 7 June 2009.
  38. ^ Merle Alexander (19 December 1995). "Christmas abounds with spirits". The Oregonian. pp. FD02.
  39. ^ Sigrún María Kristinsdóttir (6 January 2006). "Getting down with the elves". Yukon News. Retrieved 19 December 2010.
  40. ^ B. S. Benedikz (1973). "Basic Themes in Icelandic Folklore". Folklore. 84 (1): 1–26. doi:10.1080/0015587x.1973.9716492. JSTOR 1260433.
  41. ^ Ólina Thorvarðardóttir (1999). "Spirits of the Land: A Tool for Social Education". Bookbird. 37 (4): 34. Retrieved 28 December 2010.
  42. ^ Michael Strmiska (October 2000). "Ásatrú in Iceland: The Rebirth of Nordic Paganism?". Nova Religio. 4 (1): 126. doi:10.1525/nr.2000.4.1.106. Retrieved 6 March 2009.
  43. ^ Anna Heida Pálsdóttir (2002). History, Landscape and National Identity: A Comparative Study of Contemporary English and Icelandic Children's Literature (PDF). University of Coventry. p. 206.
  44. ^ Alan Boucher (1977). Elves, trolls and elemental beings: Icelandic folktales II. Reykjavik: Iceland Review Library. p. 12. OCLC 4277414.
  45. ^ Robert Thomas Anderson (2005). The Ghosts of Iceland. Belmont, California: Thomson Wadsworth. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-534-61052-4.
  46. ^ Terry Gunnell (2007). Introduction. Hildur, Queen of the Elves. By Jane M. Bedell. Northampton, Massachusetts: Interlink Books. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-56656-633-9.
  47. ^ Kevin Jon Johnsan (24 February 1995). "Huldufólk and Social History". Lögberg-Heimskringla. pp. 1, 6. Retrieved 18 September 2009.
  48. ^ Anna Pietrzkiewicz (9 May 2009). "Huldufólk Beliefs in Iceland and the Problem of Isolation: Interpreting Supernatural Folklore in the Context of Building Identity" (PDF). Taking Shetland out of the Box: Island Cultures and Shetland Identity. Lerwick: 27.
  49. ^ Gabriel Turville-Petre (June 1958). "Dreams in Icelandic Tradition". Folklore. 69 (2): 102–3. JSTOR 1258718.
  50. ^ Brian Pilkington; Terry Gunnell (2008). The Hidden People of Iceland. Reykjavík: Mál og menning. p. 2. ISBN 978-9979-3-2955-8.
  51. ^ Anna Zanchi (2006). "The Colour Green in Medieval Icelandic Literature: Natural, Supernatural, Symbolic?". The 13th International Saga Conference. Durham and York: 5–6.
  52. ^ Susan Salter Reynolds (27 April 2003). "Hunting Whales in West L.A.: Political Correctness, Cultural Imperialism and the Long, Long Journey for the Real Taste of Blubber". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
  53. ^ Árni Björnsson (26 September 2007). "False Myths concerning Iceland". the Beck Lectures on Icelandic Literature. University of Victoria.
  54. ^ Árni Björnsson (1996). "Hvað merkir þjóðtrú?" [What does popular belief mean?]. Skírnir. 170: 91–92. Retrieved 9 February 2009.
  55. ^ Erlendur Haraldsson (1975). "Results of a survey on psychic, religious and folkloric experiences and beliefs in Iceland" (DOC). Retrieved 1 September 2008.
  56. ^ Erlendur Haraldsson (1975). "Survey of Psychic Experiences" (DOC). Retrieved 1 September 2008A hardcopy was obtained from the author, which had additional demographic information not available on the web version.
  57. ^ Pétur Pétursson (1996). Milli himins og jarðar: könnun meðal áhugafólks um dulspeki og óhefðbundnar lækningar. Háskólaútgáfan. pp. 47–48. ISBN 9979-54-125-3.
  58. ^ "Skoöanakönnun DV um álfatrú: Meirihluti þjoðarinnar trúir á álfa og huldufólk". DV (in Icelandic). 22 July 1998. p. 2. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
  59. ^ Valdimar Hafstein (2000). "The Elves' Point of View: Cultural identity in contemporary Icelandic elf tradition" (PDF). Fabula. 41 (1–2): 87. doi:10.1515/fabl.2000.41.1-2.87. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 October 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2008.
  60. ^ a b Sveinn Birkir Björnsson; Terry Gunnell (6 October 2007). "Elves in Cultural Vocabulary". The Reykjavík Grapevine Online. Retrieved 1 September 2008.
  61. ^ Katrin Sontag (2007). Parallel worlds: fieldwork with elves, Icelanders and academics. University of Iceland. p. 24.
  62. ^ Kirsten Hastrup (2004). "Getting it right: Knowledge and evidence in anthropology". Anthropological Theory. 4 (4): 465–466. doi:10.1177/1463499604047921. Retrieved 1 September 2008.
  63. ^ Finnbogi Guðmundsson; Birna Bjarnadóttir (2007). My parents: memoirs of New World Icelanders. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-88755-699-9. Retrieved 10 June 2010.
  64. ^ Daisy Neijmann (1997). The Icelandic Voice in Canadian Letters: The Contribution of Icelandic–Canadian Writers to Canadian Literature. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-88629-317-8.
  65. ^ Douglas McArthur (13 March 1996). "Elfschool tries to make a believer out of everyone". The Globe and Mail.
  66. ^ Sally Kindberg (12 November 2000). "Elves are alive and well in Iceland". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 5 February 2009.
  67. ^ "Icelandic Wonders — Elves, Trolls, Myths, Folklore". Retrieved 2 October 2010.
  68. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-05-08. Retrieved 2012-12-06.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  69. ^ Valdimar Tr. Hafstein (2000). "The Elves' Point of View: Cultural Identity in Contemporary Icelandic Elf-Tradition". Fabula: Journal of Folklore Studies. 41: 91–93.
  70. ^ Kashmira Gander (23 December 2013). "Road project in Iceland delayed to protect 'hidden' elves". The Independent. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
  71. ^ James M. Markham (30 March 1982). "Iceland's elves are enlisted in anti-NATO effort". The New York Times. pp. A2. Retrieved 1 May 2009.
  72. ^ Michael Lewis (April 2009). "Wall Street on the Tundra". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 9 March 2009.
  73. ^ Jonas Moody (18 March 2009). "Vanity Fair's Fishy Tales From Iceland". New York. Retrieved 26 July 2009.
  74. ^ "Angry Elves Said to Have Wreaked Havoc in West Fjords". Iceland Review Online. 24 June 2011. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  75. ^ "Icelandic town hopes angry elves have been soothed by songs". IceNews. 2 July 2011. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  76. ^ Birgir Olgeirsson (24 June 2011). "Á von á frekari hamförum verði álfar ekki beðnir afsökunar: Segir veru hafa látist við gerð Bolungarvíkurganga". Dagblaðið Vísir (in Icelandic). Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  77. ^ Unnur Jökulsdóttir, 'Hefurðu séð huldufólk? Ferðasaga' (Reykjavík: Mál og menning, 2007), p. 273.
  78. ^ Jesse Byock; Jon Erlandson (2005). "A Viking-age Valley in Iceland: The Mosfell Archaeological Project" (PDF). Medieval Archaeology. 49 (1): 196. doi:10.1179/007660905x54080. Retrieved 2008-12-26. When we dug our first test trench at Kirkjuhóll, Ólafur informed us that no agricultural machinery had ever been used on the knoll because of the reverence attached to Kirkjuhóll in oral memory as the site of an ancient church. To date this remains the case, a situation that is relatively rare on contemporary Icelandic farms which are highly mechanized. The same has held true for Hulduhóll, with oral story attaching to it the interdiction that it was to be left alone because it was inhabited by ‘the hidden people’ or elves.
  79. ^ a b c Fran Parnell; Etain O'Carroll (2007). Iceland. Footscray, Victoria: Lonely Planet. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-74104-537-6.
  80. ^ Erla Stefánsdóttir (1993). Hafnarfjörður, huliðsheimakort. Hafnarfjörður: Ferðamálanefnd Hafnarfjörður.
  81. ^ Gulli Amason (14 June 2001). "Travel: Land of the national elf service Far out: Hafnarfjörður, Iceland (where the hidden people live)". The Independent. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2008.
  82. ^ Sigurbjörg Karlsdottir. "Hidden world walks". Retrieved 27 December 2008.
  83. ^ "Ferðamenn nýta sér þjónustu álfagöngufyrirtækisins Horft í hamarinn: Það er meira en augað sér". Morgunblaðið (in Icelandic). 13 February 2003. p. 17. Retrieved 8 June 2009.
  84. ^ Erla Stefánsdóttir (1993). Hafnarfjörður, huliðsheimakort. Hafnarfjörður: Ferðamálanefnd Hafnarfjörður. 1. Colourful, kindly elves live near the swimming pool in particularly beautiful houses.
  85. ^ Erla Stefánsdóttir (1993). Hafnarfjörður, huliðsheimakort. Hafnarfjörður: Ferðamálanefnd Hafnarfjörður. 4. Setbergshamar cliff is the home of dwarfs, elves and hidden people with their own elven workshops, churches, schools and libraries.
  86. ^ Elisa Mala (2008). "Global Psyche: Magic Kingdom; In Iceland, the land of elves, you're never alone". Psychology Today. Retrieved 26 December 2008.
  87. ^ Markaðsstofa Austurlands. "East Iceland : Álfaborg". Retrieved 10 January 2009. Right by the village, the legally protected hill of Álfaborg, which the "fjord of Borg", Borgarfjörður eystri, is named after, rises about 30 m high. Accessed by an easy trail and with an observation point on top, Álfaborg is home to the queen of the Icelandic elves.
  88. ^ Fran Parnell; Etain O'Carroll (2007). Iceland. Footscray, Victoria: Lonely Planet. p. 261. ISBN 978-1-74104-537-6.
  89. ^ Bill Holm (2007). The windows of Brimnes: an American in Iceland. Minneapolis: Milkweed Editions. pp. 63–72. ISBN 978-1-57131-302-7. On the south face of the headland stand several basalt columns called Búðarbrekkur (the Shop Slope). Local lore has it that this is the church, shop, and dwelling of the elves.
  90. ^ Jonathan Wilcox; Zawiah Abdul Latif (2007). Cultures of the World: Iceland. Tarrytown, New York: Marshall Cavendish. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-7614-2074-3.
  91. ^ "Attraction: Stapafell". Visit Iceland. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
  92. ^ "Attraction: Laugar in Saelingsdal". Visit Iceland. Retrieved 20 June 2011. At about 3 km from Laugar you may find the rocky hill Tungustapi, home of elves.
  93. ^ "Attraction: Londrangar basalt cliffs". Visit Iceland. Retrieved 20 June 2011. The farmers in the area never made or make hay on the hill, because it is said to belong to the elves living in the area.
  94. ^ Sigurður Kristjánsson (2002). "Áminning". Glettingur (in Icelandic). 12 (2): 30.
  95. ^ "Iceland Road Guide: Grímsey". Vegahandbókin ehf. 2009. Retrieved 11 July 2011. Grímsey is said to be the home of many elves or "hidden people", whose church is supposed to be at Nónbrík.
  96. ^ Diane Slawych (15 September 2004). "Gimli's hidden people". Canoe Travel. Retrieved 31 May 2009.
  97. ^ Dilla Narfason (9 July 1993). "Huldufólk Found and Exposed in Gimli". Lögberg-Heimskringla. p. 2. Retrieved 7 June 2009.

Citation #40 should be reset to

Further readingEdit