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The Hrusish or Southeast Kamengic languages[1] constitute a Sino-Tibetan branch in Arunachal Pradesh, northeast India. They are Hruso (Aka) and Miji (which includes Bangru).[1] In Glottolog, Hammarström, et al.[2] does not accept Hrusish, and considers similarities between Hruso and Miji to be due to loanwords.

Hrusish
Southeast Kamengic
Hruso-Miji
Geographic
distribution
Arunachal Pradesh
Linguistic classification possibly Sino-Tibetan
Subdivisions
Glottolog None

Contents

NamesEdit

George van Driem (2014) and Bodt & Lieberherr (2015)[3] use the name Hrusish, while Anderson (2014)[1] prefers Southeast Kamengic.

ClassificationEdit

Anderson (2014)[1] considers Hrusish to be a branch of Tibeto-Burman. However, Blench and Post (2011) suggest that the Hruso languages likely constitute an independent language family.[4]

Bodt's & Lieberherr's (2015:69)[3] internal classification of the Hrusish languages is as follows.

Hrusish
  • Hruso (ʁuso, Aka)
  • Miji-Bangru
    • Western Miji (Đəmmai, Sadʑalaŋ)
    • Eastern Miji (Nəmrai, Wadu Baŋru)
    • Bangru (Tadə Baŋru, Tadʑu Baŋru, Ləwjɛ)

Comparative vocabularyEdit

The following comparative vocabulary table of Hrusish vocabulary items (Bangru, Miji, and Hruso) is from Anderson (2014), with additional Bangru data from Li (2003).[5] Anderson's (2014) Hruso data is from Anderson's own field notes and from Simon (1970).[6] Anderson's (2014) Miji data is from his own field notes as well as Simon (1979)[7] and Weedall (2014).[8] Bangru data is from Ramya (2011, 2012).[9][10]

Gloss Bangru (Li 2003)[5] Bangru (Anderson 2014)[1] Miji (Anderson 2014)[1] Hruso (Anderson 2014)[1]
sun dʑu⁵⁵wai⁵³ dʒu dʒo ~ zuʔ; zo ~ ʒʲoʔ dʒu ~ dʑu; dʲu
snow də³¹ɣai⁵⁵ tene dɨlen; təlɛn tʰiɲɲo
ashes laʔ⁵⁵bu⁵³ lag-bow maj-bu xukʰes-pu
mother's brother - kiː-ni a-kʰiw; akju a-kʰi
son mə³¹dʑu⁵⁵ mu-dʒu-ɲiːib zu sou ~ sa ~ seu
I ȵoŋ⁵⁵ ɲo(ʔ) ɲaŋ
we ga³¹ni⁵⁵ k-aɲi aɲi ɲi
bear si⁵⁵tsuaŋ⁵⁵ sutʃow ʃutsaŋ sitso ~ sutso
insect(s) bə³¹loŋ⁵⁵ beloŋ-siɲi biluʔŋ; bəɫuʔŋ; biluŋʰ bəlu
nose mə³¹ȵi³³guaŋ⁵³ mi-niː-ko ɲi un-su ~ nu-su
hand mə³¹gai⁵⁵ me-gej (mə)gi əgzə
thumb ('hand' + 'mother') - me-gej-nea gi-nuiʔ; gi-batʃo əgzə-i-aɲ
saliva, spit - je ʒeʔ ze-mdʑiu; əʒʲəxu ~ əɣʲəxu
sleep dʑe⁵⁵ zeu dʒi dʒum
dream dai⁵⁵mu³¹mu⁵⁵ tjameiː tajme tʰimjeu
four bu³¹rai⁵⁵ poraji bli; b(ə)le pʰiri; pʰiji
five buŋ⁵⁵ puŋ bungu, buŋu pʰum ~ pʰóm
six rai⁵³ reh reʔ; reʔ ~ réʔ rijɛ; ʑje
seven muai⁵³ moji myaʔ, mjaʔ mrjo; mrɔ
eight sə³¹cai⁵³ sagaik sɨgiʔ, sɨgeʔ; səguj səgzə ~ sɨgdʒɨ ~ sɨɣdʒɨ
nine sə³¹təŋ⁵⁵ sataŋ sɨtʰɨn; stʰɨn; stən stʰə; stʰɨ ~ stʰə
ten rəŋ⁵⁵ raŋ lin; lən ʁə; ʁɨ ~ ʁə
bow - karaik gɨriʔ; gəri kʰiri
dry mə³¹ci⁵⁵ miː-kji mɨ-kʰyang; məkjaŋ kʰrou
mother a³¹nai⁵³ aːneja aɲʲi aɲi; aɲ
red ja³¹dʑu⁵³ ja-tʃuk mu-tsu tsu
stream - wu-dʒu vu-zuʔ 'creek' xu-sa
shoulder mə³¹pu⁵⁵zi⁵⁵ m-podʒ pas-t(ʰ)uŋ; pastoŋ ə-pos-tu
finger mə³¹gai⁵⁵tsuo⁵³ me-gej-tʃowa gi-tsoʔ; məgitso əgzi-tsə
pig ʑəu⁵³ dʒu ʒo; ʒoʔ vo
bird ('bird' + 'son/child') pu⁵⁵dʑu³¹ pu-dʒu buzu(ʔ); bɨ-zɨ ~ b-zɨ ~ bə-zu ~ bə-zə; bə-zuʔ mu-su
seed - mete tʰei-zʰo; (me)tẽ isi; dʒʲe; ʃe-die

ReconstructionEdit

Proto-Hrusish has been reconstructed in by Bodt & Lieberherr (2015). Bodt & Lieberherr (2015:101) note that Proto-Hrusish displays a sound change from Proto-Tibeto-Burman *s- to t-, which they note had also occurred in Bodo-Garo, Kuki-Chin, Tangkhulic, Central Naga, and Karbi languages. The Proto-Tibeto-Burman *-l and -r have also been lost in Proto-Hrusish.

Reconstructed Proto-Hrusish forms from Bodt & Lieberherr (2015) are given below.

  • *nə-paŋ ‘aconite’
  • *si-ni ‘ant’
  • *pri ‘awake’
  • *bə-ru(d͡ziŋ) ‘axe’
  • *mə-niŋ ‘bad’
  • *bra ‘bamboo (big)’
  • *(g)o-prja ‘bark (tree)’
  • *sə-t͡saŋ ‘bear’
  • *majk ‘bee’
  • *mə-doʔ ‘big (thick, wide)’
  • *bə-dow ‘bird’
  • *taʔ ‘bite’
  • *kam ‘bitter’
  • *jaC ‘blood’
  • *mə-muC ‘body’
  • *lu ‘boil (water)’
  • *mə-ri-jaŋ ‘bone’
  • *gə-raj ‘bow’
  • *mə-nuŋ ‘breast; milk’
  • *(nam)sjaj ‘broom’
  • *su ‘cane; rope’
  • *dowC ‘chicken’
  • *mə-ga-daʔ ‘chin’
  • *gi-le ‘cloth’
  • *majməwŋ ‘cloud’
  • *ku ‘cook’
  • *su ‘cow’
  • *kraC ‘cry’
  • *taj ‘cut’
  • *ga ‘day’
  • *mə-ruk ‘deep’
  • *θəj ‘die’
  • *taC ‘dig’
  • *ni-t͡ɕi ‘dirty’
  • *ru ‘do’
  • *piŋ ‘door’
  • *tai-mə ‘dream’
  • *tuŋ ‘drink’
  • *t͡ɕa ‘eat’
  • *do-riŋ ‘egg’
  • *sə-giC ‘eight’
  • *(a/mə)ko ‘elder brother’
  • *mə-hi-laŋ ‘empty’
  • *t͡səj ‘excrete, defecate’
  • *mə-jaʔ ‘eye’
  • *mə-rəŋ ‘far’
  • *mə-baC ‘fat (n)’
  • *ri ‘fear’
  • *mejʔ ‘few’
  • *rəj ‘fight’
  • *mə-guC-t͡ɕoʔ ‘finger’
  • *maj ‘fire’
  • *laC ‘fireplace’
  • *trV ‘fish’
  • *bə-ŋu ‘five’
  • *mə-boC ‘flower’
  • *mə-d͡ʑoC ‘friend’
  • *d͡ʑuC ‘frog’
  • *θai ‘fruit’
  • *bə-ləj ‘four’
  • *liŋ ‘full’
  • *kikmuŋ ‘garlic, onion’
  • *bəj ‘give’
  • *se-preN ‘goat’
  • *rajC ‘grind, crush’
  • *mə-luŋ ‘guts’
  • *go-pu ‘hair’
  • *mə-gaŋ-lo ‘hard’
  • *mə-guC ‘hand, arm’
  • *du ‘have, exist’
  • *mə-go-kuŋ ‘head’
  • *mə-luŋ-wəwC ‘heart’
  • *mə-ləj ‘heavy’
  • *mə-su ‘horn’
  • *nam ‘house’
  • *kə-na ‘how many’
  • *niC ‘human’
  • *bə-luŋ ‘hundred’
  • *noC ‘ill’
  • *bəw-luŋ ‘insect’
  • *suN ‘iron’
  • *gə-d͡ʑuk ‘itch’
  • *dəgraŋ ‘kick’
  • *gajC ‘kill’
  • *vaj-t͡suŋ ‘knife’
  • *ni ‘know’
  • *toC ‘laugh’
  • *mə-rajC ‘leaf’
  • *lə-wajC ‘leech’
  • *laj ‘leg’
  • *laŋ ‘lift’
  • *mə-lə-taŋ ‘light’
  • *t͡ɕi ‘liquor’
  • *rej ‘listen, hear’
  • *siŋ ‘live, grow up’
  • *mə-θin ‘liver’
  • *mə-pjaŋ ‘long’
  • *gaŋ ‘look, see’
  • *saC ‘louse’
  • *daj ‘make; do’
  • *niC ‘man (male)’
  • *su ‘meat’
  • *lu ‘month’
  • *lu ‘moon’
  • *mə-nuŋ ‘mouth; language’
  • *lu-lV ‘mortar’
  • *me-naj ‘mother’
  • *mə-mjiŋ ‘name’
  • *mə-nej ‘near’
  • *ta- ‘negative imperative’
  • *mə-gə-nu ‘new’
  • *nə-gaC ‘night’
  • *sə-tiŋ ‘nine’
  • *mə-ɕoʔ ‘old’
  • *a-ken ‘one’
  • *an ‘paddy rice’
  • *bə-laC ‘pestle’
  • *jowʔ ‘pig’
  • *go-kuN ‘pillow’
  • *nə-dəj; *pro ‘rain’
  • *t͡ɕaʔ ‘red’
  • *gə-leC ‘ring’
  • *lam-baŋ ‘road’
  • *mə-kriŋ ‘root’
  • *mə-də-rəw ‘round’
  • *lu ‘salt’
  • *sə-gə-raj ‘sand’
  • *mə-θai ‘seed’
  • *laC ‘sell’
  • *mə-ljak ‘seven’
  • *k(r)iC ‘sew’
  • *mə-nuŋ ‘short’
  • *mə-ma ‘sister (elder)’
  • *d͡ʑuC ‘sit, stay’
  • *reC ‘six’
  • *mə-prja ‘skin’
  • *nə-də-laŋ ‘sky’
  • *d͡ʑV ‘sleep’
  • *maj-kən ‘smoke (n)’
  • *bəw ‘snake’
  • *dəren ‘snow’
  • *mə-lə-prjuC ‘soft, smooth’
  • *naʔ ‘soil’
  • *təwC ‘speak’
  • *d͡ʑuŋ ‘spear’
  • *məsu ‘spicy’
  • *jeʔ ‘spittle’
  • *gu ‘stand’
  • *lə-t͡ɕuŋ ‘star’
  • *kə ‘steal’
  • *t͡ɕuŋ ‘storehouse, granary’
  • *mə-gə-raŋ ‘straight’
  • *bə-nuŋ ‘suck’
  • *d͡ʑuʔ ‘sun’
  • *bə-ljaC ‘swallow’
  • *mə-jaŋ ‘sweet’
  • *liŋ ‘swell’
  • *wa ‘(swidden) field’
  • *d͡ʑaC ‘swim’
  • *mə-lə-mrjaj ‘tail’
  • *ləw ‘take’
  • *t͡ɕaC ‘tell’
  • *rəŋ ‘ten’
  • *paj-t͡ɕi ‘that’
  • *pu-t͡ɕi ‘that (lower)’
  • *mə-lu ‘thigh’
  • *huŋ ‘this’
  • *gə-θəm ‘three’
  • *gə-d͡ʑuC ‘thorn’
  • *bə-laj ‘tongue’
  • *mə-taC ‘tooth’
  • *(g)o-naj ‘tree’
  • *gə-niC ‘two’
  • *an-lə-giN ‘uncooked rice’
  • *pen ‘vegetable’
  • *mu ‘vomit’
  • *daj ‘walk’
  • *t͡ɕaC ‘hot, warm’
  • *wi ‘water’
  • *kua-suʔ ‘waterfall’
  • *traj ‘weave’
  • *tiŋ ‘what’
  • *kəʔ ‘where’
  • *mə-gə-raN ‘white’
  • *θu ‘who’
  • *low ‘wind’
  • *gə/mə-t͡ɕəwC ‘wing’
  • *d͡ʑVru ‘with’
  • *(g)o ‘wood’
  • *nəməraj ‘woman’
  • *də-niŋ ‘year’
  • *də-gaC ‘yesterday’
  • *mə-nuŋ ‘younger sibling’
  • *na(-jaŋ) ‘1SG’
  • *ni ‘2SG’
  • *ʔi ‘3SG’
  • *ka-ni ‘1PL’
  • *d͡ʑV ‘2PL’
  • *na ‘3PL’

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Anderson, Gregory D.S. 2014. On the classification of the Hruso (Aka) language. Paper presented at the 20th Himalayan Languages Symposium, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
  2. ^ http://glottolog.org/resource/languoid/id/hrus1242
  3. ^ a b Bodt, Timotheus Adrianus; Lieberherr, Ismael (2015). "First notes on the phonology and classification of the Bangru language of India". Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area. 38 (1): 66–123. doi:10.1075/ltba.38.1.03bod . 
  4. ^ Blench, Roger; Post, Mark (2011), (De)classifying Arunachal languages: Reconstructing the evidence (PDF), archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-26 
  5. ^ a b Li Daqin [李大勤]. 2003. "A sketch of Bengru" [崩如语概况]. Minzu Yuwen 2003(5), 64-80.
  6. ^ Simon, I. M. 1970. Aka language guide. Shillong: NEFA. 1993 Reprint Itanagar.
  7. ^ Simon, I. M. 1979/1974. Miji Language Guide. Shillong. (Govt. Arunachal).
  8. ^ Weedall, Christopher. 2014. Sajolang-English lexicon. m.s.
  9. ^ Ramya, Tame. 2011. An Ethnographic Study Bangrus of in Kurung Kumey District, Arunachal Pradesh. M Phil. Thesis. Rajiv Gandhi University, Itanagar.
  10. ^ Ramya, Tame. 2012. Sociolinguistic profile of the Bangru languages of Arunachal Pradesh. Presented at ICOLSI, Shillong. m.s.
  • Anderson, Gregory D.S. 2014. On the classification of the Hruso (Aka) language. Paper presented at the 20th Himalayan Languages Symposium, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
  • Bodt, Timotheus Adrianus; Lieberherr, Ismael (2015). "First notes on the phonology and classification of the Bangru language of India". Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area. 38 (1): 66–123. doi:10.1075/ltba.38.1.03bod . 
  • George van Driem (2001) Languages of the Himalayas: An Ethnolinguistic Handbook of the Greater Himalayan Region. Brill.