Hippopotamus pentlandi

Hippopotamus pentlandi is an extinct species of hippopotamus from Sicily, known from the late Middle Pleistocene to early Late Pleistocene.[2] It is the largest of the insular dwarf hippos known from the Pleistocene of the Mediterranean, "at most 20% smaller than the mainland forms",[3] with an estimated body mass of approximately 1100 kg.[4] It is suggested that it arrived in Sicily between 250,000 and 150,000 years ago, probably descending from the modern hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), with an origin from Hippopotamus antiquus being less likely. In comparison to those species, the muzzle was shorter, the occipital and nasal regions were more developed, the mastoid process was enlarged, and the dental row was shortened, and the condyle of the mandible is low. In comparison to H. amphibius, the orbits are also elevated.[2] It was present in Sicily until at least the latest Middle Pleistocene around 120 kya,[5] and was probably extinct by the beginning of Marine Isotope Stage 4 (~71,000 years ago).[2] Contemporaneous species include the dwarf elephant Palaeoloxodon mnaidriensis, the aurochs, red deer, steppe bison, fallow deer, wild boar, brown bear, wolves, red foxes, cave hyena and cave lions.[2] Its diet was likely grazing dominated, similar to that of modern H. amphibius. It is probably ancestral to Hippopotamus melitensis from Malta, which is substantially smaller than H. pentlandi.[4]

Hippopotamus pentlandi
Temporal range: late Middle to Late Pleistocene
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Hippopotamidae
Genus: Hippopotamus
H. pentlandi
Binomial name
Hippopotamus pentlandi

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ · Von Meyer, H., 1832. Palaeologica zur Geschichte der Erde und ihrer Geschöpfe. Frankfurt. 11. 560pp.
  2. ^ a b c d Martino, R.; Pandolfi, L. (2022-07-03). "The Quaternary Hippopotamus records from Italy". Historical Biology. 34 (7): 1146–1156. doi:10.1080/08912963.2021.1965138. ISSN 0891-2963.
  3. ^ Alexandra van der Geer; George Lyras; John de Vos; Michael Dermitzakis (14 February 2011). Evolution of Island Mammals: Adaptation and Extinction of Placental Mammals on Islands. John Wiley & Sons. p. 88. ISBN 978-1-4443-9128-2.
  4. ^ a b Bethune, Elehna; Kaiser, Thomas M.; Schulz-Kornas, Ellen; Winkler, Daniela E. (November 2019). "Multiproxy dietary trait reconstruction in Pleistocene Hippopotamidae from the Mediterranean islands". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 533: 109210. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2019.05.032.
  5. ^ Mangano, Gabriella; Insacco, Gianni; Bonfiglio, Laura; Mazza, Paul Peter Anthony (2020-06-27). "New finds from San Teodoro Cave: an updating of the Middle Pleistocene fossil record from Acquedolci (north-eastern Sicily)". Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments. 100 (4): 1065–1076. doi:10.1007/s12549-020-00430-7. hdl:2158/1216333. ISSN 1867-1594. S2CID 220071825.

External links edit