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Hindustani vocabulary, also known as Hindi-Urdu vocabulary, like all Indo-Aryan languages, has a core base of Sanskrit, which it gained through Prakrit.[1] As such the standardized registers of the Hindustani language (Hindi-Urdu) share a common vocabulary, especially on the colloquial level.[2] However, in formal speech, Hindi tends to draw on Sanskrit, while Urdu turns to Persian and sometimes Arabic.[3] This difference lies in the history of Hindustani, in which the Khariboli dialect started to gain more Persian words in urban areas (such as Lucknow and Hyderabad), under the Delhi Sultanate; this dialect came to be termed Urdu.[4][5]

The original Hindi dialects continued to develop alongside Urdu and according to Professor Afroz Taj, "the distinction between Hindi and Urdu was chiefly a question of style. A poet could draw upon Urdu's lexical richness to create an aura of elegant sophistication, or could use the simple rustic vocabulary of dialect Hindi to evoke the folk life of the village. Somewhere in the middle lay the day to day language spoken by the great majority of people. This day to day language was often referred to by the all-encompassing term Hindustani."[5] In Colonial India, Hindi-Urdu acquired vocabulary introduced by Christian missionaries from the Germanic and Romanic languages, e.g. pādrī (Devanagari: पादरी, Nastaleeq: پادری) from padre, meaning pastor.[6]

When describing the state of Hindi-Urdu under the British Raj, Professor Śekhara Bandyopādhyāẏa stated that "Truly speaking, Hindi and Urdu, spoken by a great majority of people in north India, were the same language written in two scripts; Hindi was written in Devanagari script and therefore had a greater sprinkling of Sanskrit words, while Urdu was written in Persian script and thus had more Persian and Arabic words in it. At the more colloquial level, however, the two languages were mutually intelligible."[7] After the partition of India, political forces within India tried to further Sanskritize Hindi,[8] while political forces in Pakistan campaigned to remove Prakit/Sanksrit derived words from Urdu and supplant them with Persian and Arabic words.[9] Despite these government efforts, the film industry, Bollywood continues to release its films in the original Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu) language, easily understood and enjoyed by speakers of both registers;[10] in addition many of the same television channels are viewed across the border.[11]

Linguistic classificationEdit

Hindi (हिन्दी Hindi) is one of the Indo-Aryan languages of the Indo-European language family. The core of Hindi vocabulary is thus etymologically Indo-European. However, centuries of borrowing has led to the adoption of a wide range of words with foreign origins.

Examples of borrowed wordsEdit

Due to centuries of contact with Europeans, Turkic peoples, Arabs, Persians, and East Asians, Hindi has absorbed countless words from foreign languages, often totally integrating these borrowings into the core vocabulary. The most common borrowings from foreign languages come from three different kinds of contact. Close contact with neighboring peoples facilitated the borrowing of words from other Indian languages, Chinese, Burmese, and several indigenous Austroasiatic languages of North India. After centuries of invasions from Persia and the Middle East, particularly under the Mughal Empire, numerous Turkish, Arabic, and Persian words were absorbed and fully integrated into the lexicon. Later, European colonialism brought words from Portuguese, French, Dutch, and most significantly English. Some very common borrowings are shown below.

Borrowings from neighboring languagesEdit

Austroasiatic languages ( देशज دیشج Deshaj)Edit

Word Meaning
आलू آلو alu potato
खोज کھوج khoj discovery
चावल چاول chawal rice grains
चूल्हा چولہا chulha oven, stove
झोल جھول jhol gravy
टांग ٹانگ ṭang leg
ढोल ڈھول ḍhol dhol, drum
पेट پیٹ peṭ belly

Chinese ( चीनी چینی Cheeni)Edit

Word Meaning Original form
चाय chay tea chá
चीनी چینی cheeni sugar
लीची لیچی leechi lychee 茘枝 lìzhī
एलायची ایلیچی elaychi cardamom

Burmese (बर्मी برمی Barmi)Edit

लुंगी لنگی lungi "lungi"

Borrowings from the Mughal eraEdit

Arabic (अरबी عربی Arabi)Edit

Word Meaning Original form
अक़्ल عقل aqal wisdom عقل ‘aql
असली اصلیasali real أصل ’aṣl "root"
इलाक़ा علاقہ ilaaqa area علاقة `alāqa "relationship, connection"
वज़न وزن vazan weight وزن wazn "scale"
क़बर قبر qabr grave قبر qubr
ख़बर خبر khabar news خبر khabar
ख़ाली خالی khali empty خالي khālī
ख़्याल خیال khayal consideration خيال khayal " imagination"
ग़रीब غریب ghareeb poor غريب gharīb "strange"
जवाब جواب javaab answer جواب jawāb
जमा جمع jamaa collect جمع jam‘
तारीख़ تاریخ tareekh date تاريخ tārīkh "history, date"
दुनिया دنیا duniya world دنيا dunya
नक़ल نقل naqal fake نقل naql
फ़क़ीर فقیر faqir poor person فقير faqīr
बदल بدل badal exchange بدل badl
बाक़ी باقی baaqi remaining بقي baqīy
साहब صاحب sahab sir صاحب ṣāḥib "friend"
हिसाब حساب hisab calculation حساب ḥisāb

Persian (फ़ारसी فارسی)Edit

Word Meaning Original form
आवाज़ آواز aavaaz sound آواز āvāz
अंदाज़ انداز andaaz guess اندازه andāzah "measure"
आईना آینا aayna mirror آینه āynah
आराम آرام aaram comfort آرام ārām
आहिस्ता آھستہ aahista slowly, softly آهسته āhistah "slowly"
काग़ज़ کاغذ kaghaz paper كاغذ kāghaz
ख़राब خراب kharaab bad خراب xarāb
ख़ूब خوب khoob good خوب xūb "good"
गरम گرم garam hot گرم garm
चश्मा چشمہ chashmaa glasses چشم chashm "eye"
चाकरी چاکری chaakri job چاکر chākar
चादर چادر chaadar blanket چادر chādur
जान جان jaan dear جان jān
जगह جگہ jagah place جايگاه jāegāh
देगची دگچی degchi pot ديگچه dēgchah
दम دم dam breath دم dam
देर دير der late دير dēr
दुकान دكان dukaan store دكان dukān(This word comes from Arabic)
पर्दा پردہ pardaa curtain پرده pardah
बद بد bad bad بد bad
बाग़ باغ baagh garden باغان bāghān (orig = bāgh)
मज़ा مزہ mazaa fun maza
रास्ता راستہ raasta road راسته rāstah
रोज़ روز roz everyday روز rōz "day"
हिन्दू ہندو Hindu Hindu هندو hindū
पसंद پسند pasand like, appreciate پسند pasand

Turkish (तुर्की ترکی Turki)Edit

Word Meaning Original form
उर्दू Urdu Urdu ordu "army"
क़ैंची قینچی qãinchi scissors
क़ोरमा قورمہ qorma korma kavurma in Turkish
बावर्ची باورچی bawarchi cook, chef Ashchi (soupmaker) in modern Turkish
बेगम بیگم begam lady begüm
लाश لاش lash corpse

(Turkish pron. = lesh)

क़ुली قلي quli laborer, porter porter, servant

Borrowings from the Colonial EraEdit

Portuguese (पुर्तगाली پرتگالی Purtgali)Edit

Portuguese borrowings mostly describe household items, fruits, and religious concepts dealing with Catholicism:

Household

Word Meaning Original form
अलमारी الماری almari closet, cupboard armário
इस्तरी استریistri to iron estirar (means to lengthen a cable)
इस्पात ایسپات ispat steel espada "sword"
क़मीज़ قمیض qamiz shirt camisa
गमला گملا gamla basket gamela "wooden trough"
चाबी چابی chabi key chave
जंगला جنگلا jangla window-railing janela
तम्बाकू تمباکوtambaku tobacco tobacco
तौलिया تولیہ taulia / তোয়ালে toale towel toalha
फ़ीता فیتا fita / फ़ीते فیتے fite lace, ribbon fita
बराम्दा برآمدہ 'baramda verandah varanda
बाल्टी بالٹی balti pail balde
बटन بٹن batan button botão
मेज़ میز mez table mesa
साबुन صابن sabun soap sabão

Food

Word Meaning Original form
अनानास انناس ananas pineapple ananás
काजू کاجو kaju cashew caju
गोभी گوبھیgobhi cabbage, cauliflower couve
पाउ रोटी پاو روٹی pau roti sliced bread pão "bread" (generic name for bread)
पपीता پپیتا papita papaya papaia
साबूदाना سابودانا 'sabudana sago sagu
सलाद سلاد salad salad salada

Religion

Word Meaning Original form
क्रूस کروس kroos cross cruz
गिरजा گرجا girja church igreja
पादरी پادری padri Christian priest/minister padre

Other

Word Meaning Original form
अँगरेज़ انگریز angrez English inglês

French (फ़्रान्सीसी Fransisi)Edit

Only a handful of French borrowings are still used in Hindi today.

Word Meaning Original form
कारतूस کارتوسkartoos cartridge cartouche
रेस्तराँ ریستوراںrestorã restaurant restaurant
क़मीज़ قمیض qhemiz chemise chemise "shirt"
अस्पताल اسپتال aspatal hospital hopital

English (अंग्रेज़ी انگریزو Angrezi)Edit

Most borrowed words of European origin in Hindi-Urdu were imported through English and involve civic and household concepts:

Civic Life

Word Original form
अफ़सर افسر afsar officer
जेल جیل jel jail
डॉक्टर ڈاکٹر ḍaktar doctor
पुलिस پولیس pulis police
बैंक بینک baink bank
वोट ووٹ voṭ vote
स्कूल اسکول skul/iskul school

Household

Word Original form
कप کپ kap cup
गिलास گلاس gilas glass
टेबल ٹیبل ṭebal table
बक्स بکس baks box
लालटेन لالٹین laalṭen lantern
कनस्तर کنستر kanastar canister

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Sebeok, Thomas Albert (1971). Current Trends in Linguistics. Walter de Gruyter. p. 688. Retrieved 21 November 2014. This Proto-Prakrit differs from Sanskrit partly in the phonology and the vocabulary which are common to all modern Indo-Aryan vernaculars.
  2. ^ Bhatia, Tej K.; Koul, Ashok (2000). Colloquial Urdu. Psychology Press. p. 11. ISBN 9780415135405. Retrieved 21 November 2014. The languages share a virtually identical grammar and also possess a very large body of common vocabulary which consists mainly of words used in everyday, normal conversation.
  3. ^ Bhatia, Tej K.; Koul, Ashok (2000). Colloquial Urdu. Psychology Press. p. 12. ISBN 9780415135405. Retrieved 21 November 2014. In additional, although Urdu and Hindi share a large number of colloquial words, formal and literary Hindi and Urdu can differ markedly in terms of vocabulary. For higher registers, Urdu still continues to draw on Perso-Arabic resources, but Hindi turns to Sanskrit.
  4. ^ Simpson, Andrew (30 August 2007). Language and National Identity in Asia. Oxford University Press. pp. 62–63. ISBN 9780191533082. Retrieved 21 November 2014. Considered from a historical point of view, the Hindustani-Hindi-Urdu complex developed out of a common boradly-spoken lingua franca that came to be used through much of north and central India from the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries during the dynasties of Muslim rulers that pre-dated the Mughal rule. During this time, Persian was in force as the official language of administration and writing but was supplemented by a mixture of the speech of the Delhi area ('Khari Boli', which had Sanksrit as its ultimate ancestor) together with many Persian loanwords as very general means of oral communication among different parts of the Muslim-controlled territories. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, this form of speech was patronized by the rulers of various southern kingdoms and resulted in the growth of an early literature in a language known as Dakhini or southern Hindi-Urdu.
  5. ^ a b Taj, Afroz (1997). "About Hindi-Urdu". The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved 21 November 2014. Then, about seven centuries ago, the dialects of Hindi spoken in the region of Delhi began to undergo a linguistic change. In the villages, these dialects continued to be spoken much as they had been for centuries. But around Delhi and other urban areas, under the influence of the Persian-speaking Sultans and their military administration, a new dialect began to emerge which would be called Urdu. While Urdu retained the fundamental grammar and basic vocabulary of its Hindi parent dialects, it adopted the Persian writing system, "Nastaliq" and many additional Persian vocabulary words. Indeed, the great poet Amir Khusro (1253-1325) contributed to the early development of Urdu by writing poems with alternating lines of Persian and Hindi dialect written in Persian script. What began humbly as a hodge-podge language spoken by the Indian recruits in the camps of the Sultan's army, by the Eighteenth Century had developed into a sophisticated, poetic language. It is important to note that over the centuries, Urdu continued to develop side by side with the original Hindi dialects, and many poets have written comfortably in both. Thus the distinction between Hindi and Urdu was chiefly a question of style. A poet could draw upon Urdu's lexical richness to create an aura of elegant sophistication, or could use the simple rustic vocabulary of dialect Hindi to evoke the folk life of the village. Somewhere in the middle lay the day to day language spoken by the great majority of people. This day to day language was often referred to by the all-encompassing term "Hindustani."
  6. ^ Shackle, C. (1 January 1990). Hindi and Urdu Since 1800. Heritage Publishers. p. 6. ISBN 9788170261629. Retrieved 21 November 2014.
  7. ^ Bandyopādhyāẏa, Śekhara (1 January 2004). From Plassey to Partition: A History of Modern India. Orient Blackswan. p. 243. ISBN 9788125025962. Retrieved 21 November 2014.
  8. ^ George, Rosemary Marangoly (21 November 2013). Indian English and the Fiction of National Literature. Cambridge University Press. p. 213. ISBN 9781107729551. Retrieved 21 November 2014. =Elsewhere Gandhi advocated for both Hindi and Hindustani (an amalgam of Hindi and Persianized Urdu that was in use in the north and could be written in either Nagri or Urdu/Persian script). In 1945, Gandhi resigned from the Hindi Sahitya when it advocated that Hindi was to be written exclusively in the Devanagri script. Over time, as both Hindi and Urdu became increasingly linked with Hindu and Muslim identity respectively, Hindustani had few advocates in India with voices powerful enough to drown out the opposition to it, especially after the trauma of partition. Hindi was deliberately Sanskritized to underline its Hindu roots and to create a purer etymology for the language.
  9. ^ Everaert, Christine (2010). Tracing the Boundaries Between Hindi and Urdu. Brill. p. 268. ISBN 9789004177314. Retrieved 21 November 2014. According to some, Pakistani Urdu has been following the path of religious fanatics in the last twenty-five to thirty years, removing Hindi words from Urdu and replacing them by Persian and Arabic words. The Arab states of the Persian Gulf, where Pakistanis go in huge numbers to work during several years of their lives and who sponsor the conservative madaris, are taking the blame for this evolution. The foreign labourers returning to Pakistan after several years in Saudi Arabic and neighbouring countries are said to have been indoctrinated by their Arab hosts.
  10. ^ Simpson, Andrew (30 August 2007). Language and National Identity in Asia. Oxford University Press. p. 62. ISBN 9780191533082. Retrieved 21 November 2014. In their formal spoken and written forms, Hindi and Urdu share a common grammar and much basic vocabulary. When Hindi and Urdu are spoken informally by most of the population, the differences present and clearly discernible in formal language tend to disappear to a very significant extent, and the two varieties become both mutually intelligible and often difficult to tell apart. This frequently used, colloquial form of Hindi and Urdu used in everyday conversation by the majority of speakers has in the past regularly been referred to with the term 'Hindustani'. It is also the form of language standardly used in Bollywood films, which are widely enjoyed by speakers of both Hindi and Urdu.
  11. ^ Patel, Aakar. "Kids have it right: boundaries of Urdu and Hindi are blurred". Firstpost. Network 18. Retrieved 21 November 2014. Cartoon Network, Pogo and the rest were available in English also, of course. However, according to a cable operator from Allama Iqbal Town also quoted in the story, Pakistani children preferred their cartoons in Hindi. This is true of India also, where children including those studying in English schools, watch their cartoons only in Hindi.

See alsoEdit