Heteroneura is a natural group (or clade) in the insect order Lepidoptera that comprises over 99% of all butterflies and moths.[1] This is the sister group of the infraorder Exoporia (swift moths and their relatives),[2] and is characterised by wing venation which is not similar or homoneurous[3] in both pairs of wings. Though basal groups within the Heteroneura cannot be identified with much confidence,[4] one major subgroup is the leaf-mining Nepticuloidea. Species in this subgroup include some of the smallest lepidoterans identified.[5]

Plume moth on Boerhavia diffusa W IMG 1002.jpg
Plume moth from family Pterophoridae on Boerhavia diffusa in Hyderabad, India.
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Clade: Neolepidoptera
Infraorder: Heteroneura


  1. ^ Niels P. Kristensen (1999). Handbuch der Zoologie : eine Naturgeschichte der Stämme des Tierreiches. Bd. 4, Arthropoda : Hälfte 2, Insecta : Teilbd. 35, Lepidoptera, moths and butterflies : Vol. 1. Evolution, systematics, and biogeography. Walter de Gruyter. p. 65. ISBN 978-3-11-015704-8.
  2. ^ Niels Kristensen (1 January 2003). Vol 2: Morphology, Physiology, and Development. Walter de Gruyter. p. 88. ISBN 978-3-11-089372-4.
  3. ^ https://en.m.wiktionary.org/wiki/homoneurous. Retrieved 17 February 2021. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. ^ "Variety of Life". Retrieved 17 February 2021.
  5. ^ Grimaldi, David (2005). Evolution of the Insects. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-82149-0.[page needed]