Helsinki commuter rail

Helsinki commuter rail (Finnish: Helsingin seudun lähijunaliikenne, Swedish: Huvudstadsregionens närtrafik, literal translation Local rail traffic of the Helsinki region) is the commuter rail system serving Greater Helsinki, Finland. The network is part of the HSL network, and is operated by VR, the Finnish state-owned national railway company. Together with the Helsinki Metro, buses, and trams, the network forms the heart of Helsinki's public transportation infrastructure.

Helsinki commuter rail
Helsingin seudun lähijunaliikenne
Huvudstadsregionens närtrafik
Helsingin lähiliikenteen logo.png
JKOY Sm5 at Tuomarila Station 2019.jpg
Overview
Area servedUusimaa, Päijät-Häme, Kanta-Häme, Pirkanmaa
Finland Finland
LocaleGreater Helsinki and Tampere
Finland Finland
Transit typeCommuter rail
Number of lines14
Number of stations44 in the HSL region
70 in total [1][2]
Daily ridership200,000 daily (2018)[3]
Annual ridership70 million (2018)[4]
Websitehttps://www.hsl.fi/en
https://www.vr.fi/cs/vr/en/frontpage
Operation
Began operation1886 (original)
1969 (current form)
Operator(s)VR on behalf of HSL
Technical
System length235 km (146 mi) (total length)
99.2 km (62 mi) (dedicated "city rail" tracks located entirely within the HSL zone)
Track gauge1,524 mm (60.0 in)
Electrification25 kV / 50 Hz
Average speed54 km/h (34 mph)
Top speed120 to 160 km/h

Trains run primarily above ground in the Helsinki metropolitan area. Within the municipalities of Espoo, Helsinki, Kauniainen, Kerava, Kirkkonummi, Siuntio, Vantaa and Tuusula, the system uses tickets that are interchangeable with the bus, metro, and tram networks managed by HSL. The HSL area is divided into four zones (A-D).[5] Travelling beyond the HSL area, one must use VR commuter tickets. Passengers travelling from the HSL area to stations located within Järvenpää (Ainola, Järvenpää, Saunakallio, Haarajoki) and vice versa can use both VR and HSL commuter tickets, despite Järvenpää not being within the HSL area. This is due to its being situated between the Kerava and Jokela stations, both of which belong in the HSL area.

The network is composed of 14 separate services, pictured in the network map below. They operate on four branches of railway lines that all begin, and terminate, at the Helsinki Central Station. The system has a total of 70 stations, 14 of which are located within the city of Helsinki. There are about 676 departures every weekday.[6] The commuter rail services carried a total 70 million passengers in 2018.[4]

Tickets used to be sold aboard all the commuter trains by conductors until June 2017. Afterwards conductors have been repurposed to inspect tickets, assist passengers and do light maintenance tasks. Nowadays the tickets must be purchased beforehand, from ticket-vending machines, kiosks or via mobile.

In September 2018, HSL prequalified seven parties that had expressed interest in operating the services from June 2021 until 2031, namely VR, Arriva, FirstGroup, Go-Ahead Group, MTR Nordic, SJ and Transdev.[7] On 5 May 2020, HSL announced that VR has been selected to continue to operate the Helsinki commuter rail in said upcoming contract, citing higher than expected cost savings in VR's proposal.[8]

HistoryEdit

Local train services were initiated in the Helsinki region on 1 June 1886 with four services per day in each direction: two services terminated in Malmi, one in Kerava and one in Järvenpää. At first, until 1896, these services only ran from June to September.[9]

RantarataEdit

The Rantarata ("coastal line") was completed in 1903. In 1904, the railway was used by three services in each direction, two running between Helsinki and Kirkkonummi and one between Karis and Helsinki. This line was built mostly with commuter traffic in mind. The construction of housing began near the stations. By 1910, the number of daily services had increased to 10.[9]

Steam locomotive eraEdit

During the steam locomotive era, local traffic was handled with locomotives like the Pr1 and wooden carriages with wide doors for embarkment. The number of trips increased vastly after Finland gained independence in 1917, with 4 million trips made in 1920 and 9 million in 1924. The depression of the 1930s decreased the number of commuters; at its lowest, there were only 3 million trips per year. By 1939, the amount of trips had risen back to 4 million.[10]

Diesel locomotive eraEdit

During the short diesel locomotive era from the end of the 1950s to the beginning of the 1970s, commuter services used DMUs of classes Dm7, Dm8, and Dm9.

ElectrificationEdit

The tracks were not upgraded during either the steam or diesel eras. Both Päärata and the beginning of Rantarata west to Kirkkonummi were the only sections of track to accommodate long-distance, freight, and commuter trains. Parts of Rantarata are still single-tracked between Kirkkonummi and Turku.

Operation similar to the system's current state started in 1969 when the first stretch, between Helsinki and Kirkkonummi, was electrified. Electrification of the Helsinki–Riihimäki railway followed suit soon after, and EMU traffic on the Helsinki–Hiekkaharju section started on 1 September 1970. Electrification was extended further to Kerava in early December 1970 and to Riihimäki in early 1972. With electric traction came a significant drop in journey times: while the Dm7 railbus took an hour to reach Kirkkonummi from Helsinki while stopping at all stations, the Sm1 EMU did the same in 45 minutes.[9]

Route designation letters were introduced on 28 May 1972. The system was inspired by the designations of the Copenhagen S-train network, and the first letters (A, H, K, L, N, P, R, S and T) were deliberately selected to minimize the risk of ambiguity between both the appearance and pronunciation of the letters.[9] In the same year, a third track was added between Helsinki and Tikkurila. The third track was extended up to Kerava in 1981.

Martinlaakso extensionEdit

The railway branch from Huopalahti to Martinlaakso, opened in 1975, was built exclusively for commuter trains, being the first of its kind in Finland. It was later further extended to Vantaankoski in 1991.

Currently, on the track sections between both Helsinki and Leppävaara and Helsinki and Kerava, the commuter services use rails parallel to, but separate from those used by long-distance trains, following the German-style S-Bahn principle. The fourth track, which enabled separate city track traffic, was ready up to Tikkurila in 1996 and extended to Kerava in 2004. On the Rantarata, the section between Pasila and Leppävaara was upgraded directly from dual track to four tracks in 2001.

Z service to LahtiEdit

The railway branch from Kerava to Lahti, opened in 2006, was built as a shortcut for long-distance services, and also for the use of the new commuter service line Z.

Ring Rail LineEdit

Service on the Ring Rail Line, connecting Helsinki Airport to the existing railway network at Vantaankoski and Tikkurila, started on 1 July 2015. The station at the airport was opened later, with the Tietotie entrance opening on 10 July and the direct connection to the terminal opening later in the fall. The newly built line extended the Vantaankoski branch via Aviapolis and Helsinki Airport to the Päärata just north of Tikkurila station. The extension introduced five new stations with reservations for three more. Unlike other tracks, a section of the Ring Rail Line beneath the airport runs underground with tunnel stations serving both the airport and Aviapolis. It is possible to construct a branch line to Klaukkala in the future.

Future extensionsEdit

 
The map with planned extensions. Thick brown lines represent lines with dedicated commuter rail tracks located entirely within the HSL zone. The Helsinki commuter rail itself extends beyond the boundaries of this map.

There are plans to extend the four track line from Leppävaara to Espoo. This would enable a shorter headway service to Kauklahti and also benefit long-distance traffic to Turku, which is now hampered by commuter trains on the same tracks on the section between Kirkkonummi and Leppävaara.

A major increase in capacity of the Helsinki Central railway station has been planned, as rail capacity at Helsinki station is fully used at peak hours, preventing increases in service. The City Rail Loop would feature an underground, drop-shaped section of rail beginning south of Pasila station and coming back after traveling in a loop around under the city centre. There would be three underground stations: Töölö (west), Helsinki city centre (south), and Hakaniemi metro station (east). The Rail Loop will be 7 kilometres (4 mi) long.[11] The extension is estimated to cost about €956 million and is planned to be completed in the 2020s. The Kerava–Porvoo rail line (fi; sv), which is still operated from Kerava to Kilpilahti oil refinery as a freight line and from Olli to Porvoo as a museum railway (fi:Porvoon museorautatie), is currently not in use for passenger traffic, however there are proposals to reinstate commuter traffic up to Nikkilä using this line.[12] A branch from Petas on the Ring Rail Line to Klaukkala is also proposed.[13] In the longer term, once the Helsinki–Turku high-speed railway from Espoo to Salo is completed, commuter services will operate to Lohja.

RoutesEdit

Rantarata (Coastal/Turku Line)Edit

Y Helsinki – Pasila – Huopalahti – Leppävaara – Kauklahti – Masala – Kirkkonummi – Siuntio

The Y line is the longest line on the Coastal Line. It operates between Helsinki and Siuntio with very few intermediate stops. The services run quite infrequently, with seven daily departures in each direction on weekdays and with no departures on weekend. When Finland's first electrified line (from Helsinki to Kirkkonummi) was opened, the first service was Y. In 1987 the former Y train service ended and was replaced by S and U trains in 1988. In 2002, the route designation Y was introduced again, as after the Leppävaara city tracks were finished, there was a possibility to add a fast commuter train connection to Karis. Before this, a few of the S and U services continued from Kirkkonummi to Karis. In March 2016 the Y line was shortened to Siuntio. In August 2019, the Y train started stopping at Kauklahti station.[14] This change was made due to increased passenger amounts on the coastal line and in order to equalize the passenger amounts on both the Y train and the slower U train.

U Helsinki – Pasila – Huopalahti – Leppävaara – Kilo – Kera – Kauniainen – Koivuhovi – Tuomarila – Espoo – Kauklahti – Masala – Jorvas – Tolsa – Kirkkonummi – X Siuntio

Train U runs from Helsinki to Kirkkonummi. The line operates with 30 minutes intervals, and aside from Pasila and Huopalahti makes stops all stations after the latter. The line was originally introduced in 1988, but had only few departures during peak hours back then and stopped at fewer stations then nowadays. As of 10 August 2020, the line X designates those services that proceed further to Siuntio after calling in Kirkkonummi.[15] In March 2016, the two lesser used stations of Mankki and Luoma between Kauklahti and Masala were closed and U train began to operate every 30 minutes, replacing the S line.

L Helsinki – Pasila – Ilmala – Huopalahti – Valimo – Pitäjänmäki – Mäkkylä – Leppävaara – Kilo – Kera – Kauniainen – Koivuhovi – Tuomarila – Espoo – Kauklahti – Masala – Jorvas – Tolsa – Kirkkonummi

Train L runs from Helsinki to Kirkkonummi. The service runs only at nights and on weekend mornings, stopping at all stations. The L train was originally the basic train on the route Helsinki-Kirkkonummi operating primarily with 1 hour intervals. When Leppävaara city tracks were opened for traffic in 2002, the L train became a low traffic train.

E Helsinki – Pasila – Huopalahti – Leppävaara – Kilo – Kera – Kauniainen – Koivuhovi – Tuomarila – Espoo – Kauklahti

Train E runs from Helsinki to Kauklahti, making most of its stops at stations in Espoo. The line operates with 30 minute intervals. The E train was originally introduced in 1974 as an additional line to the L train and used to stop at all stations until 2002, when Leppävaara city tracks were opened for traffic. The route was continued in August 2007 to Kauklahti from the former terminus at Espoo station. If city tracks extension from Leppävaara to Espoo station is constructed, E train will form backbone of commuter traffic on the Coastal Line, calling at every station between Helsinki and Kauklahti and replacing the current A train.

A Helsinki – Pasila – Ilmala – Huopalahti – Valimo – Pitäjänmäki – Mäkkylä – Leppävaara

Train A runs from Helsinki to Leppävaara, stopping at all stations. The train operates with 10-minute intervals during rush hours, otherwise at 20-minute intervals on working days and at 30-minute intervals on weekends. The route designation A was originally used from 28 May 1972 to 25 May 1974 for Kirkkonummi service, and it was re-introduced in June 2002.

Ring Rail Line and Vantaankoski LineEdit

 
A map showing the Ring Rail Line with potential future stations
P & I Helsinki – Pasila – Ilmala – Huopalahti – Pohjois-Haaga – Kannelmäki – Malminkartano – Myyrmäki – Louhela – Martinlaakso – Vantaankoski – Vehkala – Kivistö – Aviapolis – Airport – Leinelä – Hiekkaharju – Tikkurila – Puistola – Tapanila – Malmi – Pukinmäki – Oulunkylä – Käpylä – Pasila – Helsinki

Trains P and I run in opposing directions to each other in a ring pattern between Helsinki and Helsinki Airport in Vantaa. The P train does this clockwise (in the order listed above), while the I train does this counterclockwise (in reverse order).

The Ring Rail line was completed in 2015, and acted as a continuation of the Vantaankoski Line, simultaneously replacing the M train with P, and extending the I train past its original stop at Tikkurila.

Main/Riihimäki LineEdit

K Helsinki – Pasila – Käpylä – Oulunkylä – Pukinmäki – Malmi – Tapanila – Puistola – Tikkurila – Hiekkaharju – Koivukylä – Rekola – Korso – Savio – Kerava

Train K runs from Helsinki to Kerava, stopping at all stations. During 1970's and 1980's the train did not stop at any station between Pasila and Tikkurila. Malmi was added to the stopping pattern in 1988 and Puistola was added in 1996. Oulunkylä was added only after completion of city tracks to Kerava in 2004. In August 2019, the K train started to stop at all stations between Helsinki and Kerava, replacing the N train entirely.[14] This change was made in order to make the stopping pattern of commuter trains on Kerava city tracks clearer by having the trains (I, P, K, T) stopping all stations. The change should also make the operation of commuter trains easier during traffic disruptions. An extension of the line the Nikkilä railway station in Sipoo has been planned using a part of the existing branch to the Kilpilahti oil refinery.

R Helsinki – Pasila – Tikkurila – Kerava – Ainola – Järvenpää – Saunakallio – Jokela – Hyvinkää – Riihimäki – Ryttylä – Turenki – Hämeenlinna – Parola – Iittala – Toijala – Viiala – Lempäälä – Tampere

Train R runs from Helsinki to Riihimäki, making stops at the largest towns on its way and operating primarily with 30 minute intervals. Some of the services continue from Riihimäki further to Tampere, making stops at all stations after. These trains are operated with a more irregular interval. All R trains have low floor fleet and timetable requires trains to be capable of 160 km/h speed. R is an original letter from 1972 and has been running on same stop scheme since the inception with one exception which was adding Tikkurila stop in the 80s and both Ainola and Saunakallio in March 2016. The R train also increased the service frequency when the H train was discontinued. On weekends, one commuter train service on R-line, departing Helsinki at 0:40 a.m. is operated all up to Hämeenlinna.[16]

D Helsinki – Pasila – Tikkurila – Kerava – Järvenpää – Hyvinkää – Riihimäki – Ryttylä – Turenki – Hämeenlinna

Train D runs from Helsinki to Riihimäki. It is operated only on weekdays during peak hour, with three morning departures from Riihimäki and two afternoon departures from Helsinki. The D train departing Helsinki at 15:50 is operated up to Hämeenlinna, also making stops on two intermediate stations. The first D train service towards Helsinki in the morning is operated all up from Hämeenlinna.[16] The trains are operated with three to four Sm2 class train units, the D train operated to Hämeenlinna however is operated with Sm4 class train units. The D train was introduced in March 2016, replacing the former peak hour services that did not use any letter. The trains were originally operated with Eil/Eilf class commuter coaches pulled by a locomotive. The original stops were at Pasila, Tikkurila, Järvenpää and Hyvinkää. In August 2016, the stop at Tikkurila was abolished and replaced by a stop at Kerava. Tikkurila was re-added to the stopping pattern in June 2017, when the D train was started to be operated with Sm2 class train units, replacing the commuter coaches.

T Helsinki – Pasila – Käpylä – Oulunkylä – Pukinmäki – Malmi – Tapanila – Puistola – Tikkurila – Hiekkaharju – Koivukylä – Rekola – Korso – Savio – Kerava – Ainola – Järvenpää – Saunakallio – Jokela – Hyvinkää – Riihimäki

Train T runs at night once in an hour from Helsinki to Riihimäki, stopping at all stations. The line has three services during weekdays and eight during weekends.

Lahti LineEdit

Z Helsinki – Pasila – Tikkurila – Kerava – Haarajoki – Mäntsälä – Henna – Lahti – Villähde – Nastola – Uusikylä – Kausala – Koria – Kouvola

Train Z runs from Helsinki to Lahti via the Kerava-Lahti railway line, making stops at significant junction points in the Helsinki area as well as at all stations between Kerava and Lahti. Two Z trains depart from Kouvola in the morning and return there in the evening rush hour; these services make stops at all stations between Lahti and Kouvola. These trains are driven with Sm2 class train units. All Z trains have low floors and timetable requires trains to be capable of 160 km/h speed. The Z trains are often crowded during peak hours, especially between Helsinki and Kerava and are therefore operated with longer trains.

Riihimäki−Lahti LineEdit

G Riihimäki – Hikiä – Oitti – Mommila – Lappila – Järvelä – Herrala – Lahti

Train G runs from Riihimäki to Lahti, and is one of two lettered services not terminating in Helsinki. The train makes intermediate stops at three stations in Hausjärvi, two in Kärkölä and one in Hollola, and is operated with one hour intervals. The letter G was reintroduced on this route in 2017, replacing earlier services that didn't use any letter.

Former servicesEdit

P Helsinki – Pasila – Käpylä – Oulunkylä – Pukinmäki – Malmi – Tapanila – Puistola – Tikkurila – Hiekkaharju

Train P ran from Helsinki to Hiekkaharju, stopping at all stations. The service was started in 1972 and stopped in August 2004. The letter P was reintroduced in 2015 as a clockwise Ring Rail train.

G Helsinki – Pasila – Ainola – Järvenpää – Saunakallio

Train G ran from Helsinki to Saunakallio. The line had six services a day in both directions and it was the only train with letter designation on the Helsinki–Riihimäki route that did not stop at Tikkurila. The service was started on 4 June 2007. It was abolished in 2011 in order to improve management of traffic and timetable keeping on the Main Line especially during winter conditions. The letter G was reintroduced in 2017 on the previously unlettered line between Riihimäki and Lahti.

M Helsinki – Pasila – Ilmala – Huopalahti – Pohjois-Haaga – Kannelmäki – Malminkartano – Myyrmäki – Louhela – Martinlaakso – Vantaankoski

Train M ran from Helsinki to Vantaankoski. The train operated with 10–30 minutes intervals, stopping at all stations. The service ran continuously between 1975, when the track to Martinlaakso was completed, and 2015, when the Vantaankoski Line was continued by the Ring Rail Line. In 1991, the line was continued one stop further to Vantaankoski. The letter M stood for Martinlaakso, though the M train was substituted in 2015 with the P train, to avoid confusion with the Helsinki Metro. The letter M is now (since 2019) used for Tampere commuter rail service entirely operating in the Tampere region in Pirkanmaa.

S Helsinki – Pasila – Ilmala – Huopalahti – Leppävaara – Kilo – Kera – Kauniainen – Koivuhovi – Tuomarila – Espoo – Kauklahti – Masala – Kirkkonummi

Train S ran from Helsinki to Kirkkonummi. The train was operated with one hour intervals in both directions. Of the two daytime trains running between Helsinki and Kirkkonummi, the S trains were faster. From 28 May 1972 to 25 May 1974, the S trains were running between Helsinki and Kauniainen. The route was continued to Kirkkonummi on 27 September 1987. The S train was abolished in March 2016 when two small stops located between Kauklahti and Masala and served only by the U-line were closed and the U line now runs twice an hour.

X Helsinki – Pasila – Huopalahti – Leppävaara – Espoo – Masala – Kirkkonummi

Train X ran from Helsinki to Kirkkonummi and was the fastest commuter train service on Helsinki-Kirkkonummi line along with the Y train. The X train had only one service in both directions on weekdays. The X train was introduced in March 2016 and abolished in June 2018.

H Helsinki – Pasila – Tikkurila – Kerava – (Kytömaa) – (Ristinummi) – Ainola – Järvenpää – Saunakallio – Purola – Nuppulinna – (Huikko) – Jokela – (Takoja) – (Palopuro) – Hyvinkää – (Monni) – Riihimäki

Train H ran from Helsinki to Riihimäki and operated with an interval of one hour. After stopping in Pasila, Tikkurila and Kerava, the line proceeded to stop at all stations. The letter H is an original designation from 1972. Several stops (listed above in parentheses) were procedurally closed in 1990–98 due to low passenger numbers and the H trains disturbing other traffic by being too slow. In March 2016, the Purola and Nuppulinna stations were closed and the H trains were replaced with the R train that now has two additional stops and double the frequency.

N Helsinki – Pasila – Käpylä – Oulunkylä – Pukinmäki – Malmi – Tapanila – Puistola – Tikkurila – Hiekkaharju – Koivukylä – Rekola – Korso – Savio – Kerava

Train N ran from Helsinki to Kerava, stopping at all stations. On its final years in operation, the train operated only on early morning and on evening during weekdays, with 30 minute intervals. On weekends the train operated more frequently with 10 minute intervals on Saturday and 15 minute intervals on Sunday. The N train was abolished in August 2019 and was replaced by K train, which started to stop at all stations.[14]

Lengths of the linesEdit

  • Helsinki–Riihimäki 71 km (44 mi) (54 min)
  • Helsinki–Tampere 187 km (116 mi) (2h 8 min)
  • Helsinki–Lahti 104 km (65 mi) (61 min)
  • Helsinki–Kerava 29 km (18 mi) (23 min)
  • Helsinki–Siuntio 51 km (32 mi) (41 min)
  • Helsinki–Kirkkonummi 38 km (24 mi) (30 min)
  • Helsinki–Kauklahti 24 km (15 mi) (29 min)
  • Helsinki–Leppävaara 11 km (7 mi) (12 min)
  • Helsinki–Airport via Huopalahti 26 km (16 mi) (32 min)
  • Helsinki–Airport via Tikkurila 23 km (14 mi) (27 min)

Schematic of the lines[17]Edit

M
Nokia   
Tesoma    R
 

   Tampere
 

   Lempäälä G Z
 

   Viiala  
   Lahti
 

   Toijala    Herrala  
M    Iittala    Järvelä  
D    Parola    Lappila    Henna
     Hämeenlinna    Mommila  
     Turenki    Oitti  
T      Ryttylä    Hikiä    Mäntsälä
Y X      
   Riihimäki  
Siuntio      U L        Hyvinkää G  
Kirkkonummi                           Jokela    Haarajoki
Tolsa                           Saunakallio   
Jorvas          Martinlaakso           Vantaankoski        Järvenpää  
Masala          E Louhela           Vehkala K        Ainola  
Kauklahti            Myyrmäki           Kivistö        


   Kerava
Espoo            Malminkartano           Aviapolis        


   Savio
Tuomarila            Kannelmäki           Airport        


   Korso
Koivuhovi            Pohjois-Haaga           Leinelä        


   Rekola
Kauniainen                           


   Koivukylä
Kera                   


       


   Hiekkaharju
Kilo            A        


       


   Tikkurila
Leppävaara                                     


       


   Puistola
Mäkkylä                     


       


   Tapanila
Pitäjänmäki                     


       


   Malmi
Valimo                     


       


   Pukinmäki
Huopalahti             


       


       


   Oulunkylä
Ilmala             


       


       


   Käpylä
Pasila             


   
   


       


   Pasila
Helsinki             


   
   


       


   Helsinki
  Y X U L E A P I I P K T D R Z
  = train stops at station
  = transfers to other transport modes at station
  = train passes station without stopping
  = train bypasses station
  = train stops at station, but only in the marked direction

Rolling stockEdit

Starting in July 2017, all commuter train services within the HSL zone will be operated by Sm5 FLIRT trains. The outgoing Sm2- and Sm4-trains will be repurposed for longer-distance lines by VR.[18]

Currently used units:

  • Sm2, 50 units delivered in 1975–81 (Valmet/Strömberg)
  • Sm4, 30 units delivered in 1998–2005 (Fiat Ferroviaria/CAF/Alstom)
  • Sm5, 81 units delivered in 2008–17 (Stadler, model FLIRT). These trains are run by VR but owned by Pääkaupunkiseudun Junakalusto Oy. The first Sm5 unit started commercial operations in November 2009. A total of 81 units were ordered and the series replaced aging Sm1 and Sm2 units in the local traffic services.[18]
  • In 2019 VR launched the acquisition of about 40 new commuter trains which will replace the sm2 fleet.
  • Sm1, 50 units delivered in 1968–73 (Valmet/Strömberg), now phased out by Sm5 fleet. Removed from regular traffic in 2016.
  • Eil/Eilf commuter traffic cars pulled by a locomotive, 57 cars delivered in 1982–87 (so-called "red cars"). Use in regular traffic suspended between June 2017 and early-2020.

Commuter traffic was the last type of commercial traffic where wooden-bodied cars were utilized on Finnish railways. They were retired in the late 1980s when the Eil cars replaced them.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ https://www.hsl.fi/sites/default/files/uploads/hsl_lahiliikennelinjat_pysty_700x1000_2017_v04_esikatselu_0.pdf
  2. ^ https://yle.fi/uutiset/3-9968240
  3. ^ "VR listaa vahvuutensa lähijunakilpailutuksessa: Täsmällisyys, turvallisuus ja tehokkuus". 30 August 2018.
  4. ^ a b "Herkkua junamatkustajille: VR laski lähiliikenteen lipunhintoja". Vantaan Sanomat. 12 February 2018.
  5. ^ https://www.hsl.fi/uudetvy%C3%B6hykkeet HSL (in Finnish). Retrieved 2019-5-22
  6. ^ junakalusto.fi. "Pääkaupunkiseudun Junakalusto Oy | Lähijunaliikenne". junakalusto.fi (in Finnish). Retrieved 2017-02-20.
  7. ^ Seven approved to bid for Helsinki operating contract Railway Gazette International 4 September 2018
  8. ^ https://yle.fi/uutiset/3-11335123
  9. ^ a b c d Tolmunen, Tapio (2016). Viisi minuuttia seuraavaan lähtöön: HSL-alueen joukkoliikenteen historia (in Finnish). Helsinki: Helsinki Region Transport Authority. ISBN 978-952-253-288-6.
  10. ^ Herranen, Timo (1988) Från hästomnibussar till metro. Helsingfors stads publikationer nr 39
  11. ^ "Kari Ruohonen". The Future of AirRail. also be linked to the City Rail Loop, a 7-km long underground railway line running under the Helsinki city centre. The railway design will begin in 2012 and a decision about its implementation can be made in 2014.[permanent dead link]
  12. ^ "HSL aloittaa selvitykset Talman ja Nikkilän junavuoroista". Sipoon Sanomat (in Finnish). 12 June 2014. Retrieved 13 June 2014.
  13. ^ "Tämä juna ei mennyt jo – Nurmijärvi haluaa oman raiteen". Nurmijärven Uutiset (in Finnish). 23 March 2017. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
  14. ^ a b c https://www.hs.fi/kaupunki/art-2000006187119.html hs.fi. Retrieved on 2019-10-09.
  15. ^ "Joukkoliikenteessä muutoksia 10.8. – liikenne palaa talvikauden aikatauluihin". HSL.fi. 23 July 2020. Archived from the original on 20 September 2020. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  16. ^ a b https://www.vr.fi/cs/vr/doc/3_Helsinki-Tampere_12-2019.pdf Retrieved 2019-12-30.
  17. ^ Commuter train stations and region map
  18. ^ a b junakalusto.fi. "Pääkaupunkiseudun Junakalusto Oy | Kalusto". junakalusto.fi (in Finnish). Retrieved 2017-02-20.

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