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Haplogroup M, also known as M-P256 and Haplogroup K2b1b (previously K2b1d) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. M-P256 is a descendant haplogroup of Haplogroup K2b1, and is believed to have first appeared between 32,000 and 47,000 years ago (Scheinfeldt 2006).

Haplogroup M-P256
Melanesia M ADN-Y.PNG
Possible time of origin32,000-47,000 years BP (Scheinfeldt 2006)
Possible place of originWallacea (eastern Indonesia)
or New Guinea [1]
AncestorK2b1
Defining mutationsP256

M-P256 is the most frequently occurring Y-chromosome haplogroup in West Papua and western Papua New Guinea (Kayser 2003). It is also found in neighbouring parts of Melanesia, Indonesia and among indigenous Australians.

It and Haplogroup S (B254) are the only primary subclades of K2b1, also known as haplogroup MS.

Phylogenetic structureEdit

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup subclades is based primarily on the trees published by ISOGG in 2016 (ISOGG 2016) and YCC in 2008.(Karafet 2008)

  • M* (P256)
    • M1 (M4, M5/P73, M106, M186, M189, M296, P35)
      • M1a(P34_1, P34_2, P34_3, P34_4, P34_5)
        • M1a1 (P51)
        • M1a2 (P94)
      • M1b (P87)
        • M1b1 (M104_1/P22_1, M104_2/P22_2)
          • M1b1a (M16)
          • M1b1b (M83)
    • M2 (M353, M387)
      • M2a (M177/SRY9138)
    • M3 (P117, P118)

DistributionEdit

M* (M-P256*)Edit

The paragroup M-P256* is found at low incidences in New Guinea (6.3%) and Flores (2.5%).[1]

M1 (M-M4)Edit

Haplogroup M-M4
Possible time of origin8,200 [3,800–20,600] years BP (Kayser 2003)
Possible place of originSoutheast Asia - Melanesia[citation needed]
AncestorM-P256
Defining mutationsM4, M5/P73, M106, M186, M189, M296, P35[citation needed]

Found frequently in New Guinea and Melanesia, with a moderate distribution in neighboring parts of Indonesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia.

An extreme geographical outlier was apparently identified in a 2012 study, which reported a Hazara individual from Mazar-e Sharif, Afghanistan, with M1 among a sample of 60 males from Mazar-e Sharif.(Haber 2012). The Hazara individual carried the SNP M186 (which is believed to be equivalent to M4).

Old names (YCC 2002/2008) M-M4
Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000 24
Underhill 2000 VIII
Hammer 2001 1U
Karafet 2001 37
Semino 2000 Eu16
Su 1999 H17
Capelli 2001 E
YCC 2002 (Longhand) M*
YCC 2005 (Longhand) M
YCC 2008 (Longhand) M1
YCC 2010r (Longhand) M1

M1a (M-P34)Edit

M1a (M-P34) is the most frequently occurring Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup in Western New Guinea. It is also found with moderate frequency in neighboring parts of Indonesia (Maluku, Nusa Tenggara) and throughout Papua New Guinea, including offshore islands (Karafet 2005 and Kayser 2008).

Old names (YCC 2002/2008) M-P34
Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000 24
Underhill 2000 VIII
Hammer 2001 1U
Karafet 2001 37
Semino 2000 Eu16
Su 1999 H17
Capelli 2001 E
YCC 2002 (Longhand) M1
YCC 2005 (Longhand) M1
YCC 2008 (Longhand) M1a
YCC 2010r (Longhand) M1a

M1b (M-P87)Edit

M1b M-P87(xM104/P22) has been found in approximately 18% (20/109) of a pool of samples from New Ireland, approximately 12% (5/43) of a sample of Lavongai from New Hanover, approximately 5% (19/395) of a pool of samples from New Britain (and, in particular, in about 24% (15/63) of Baining from East New Britain), in one Saposa individual from northern Bougainville, and in another individual from the north coast of Papua New Guinea (Scheinfeldt 2006).

The subclade M1b1 (M104_1/P22_1, M104_2/P22_2) is found frequently in populations of the Bismarck Archipelago and Bougainville Island, with a moderate distribution in New Guinea, Fiji, Tonga, East Futuna, and Samoa. (Kayser 2008 and Scheinfeldt 2006).

Old names (YCC 2002/2008) M-P22
Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000 24
Underhill 2000 VIII
Hammer 2001 1U
Karafet 2001 38
Semino 2000 Eu16
Su 1999 H17
Capelli 2001 E
YCC 2002 (Longhand) M2*
YCC 2005 (Longhand) M2a
YCC 2008 (Longhand) M1b1
YCC 2010r (Longhand) M1b1

M2 (M-M353)Edit

Found at a low frequency in Fiji and East Futuna (Kayser 2006).

The subclade M2a (M-M177 a.k.a. M-SRY9138) is found in one Nasioi individual from the eastern coast of Bougainville and in one individual from Malaita Province of the Solomon Islands (Cox 2006).

Historic names for M-SRY9138 (a.k.a. M-M177) from peer reviewed literature.

Old names (YCC 2002/2008) K-SRY9138/M-SRY9138
AKA M-M177
Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000 23
Underhill 2000 VIII
Hammer 2001 1E
Karafet 2001 25
Semino 2000 Eu16
Su 1999 H5
Capelli 2001 F
YCC 2002 (Longhand) K1
YCC 2005 (Longhand) K1
YCC 2008 (Longhand) M2a
YCC 2010r (Longhand) M2a

M3 (M-P117)Edit

M3 (P117, P118) is found frequently in populations of New Britain, and also observed occasionally in northern Bougainville, Fiji, and East Futuna (Kayser 2008 and Scheinfeldt 2006).

Previous phylogenetic historyEdit

Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.

YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) (α) (β) (γ) (δ) (ε) (ζ) (η) YCC 2002 (Longhand) YCC 2005 (Longhand) YCC 2008 (Longhand) YCC 2010r (Longhand) ISOGG 2006 ISOGG 2007 ISOGG 2008 ISOGG 2009 ISOGG 2010 ISOGG 2011 ISOGG 2012
M4 24 VIII 1U 37 Eu16 H17 E M* M M1 M1 - - - - - - -
M-P34 24 VIII 1U 37 Eu16 H17 E M1 M1 M1a M1a - - - - - - -
M-P22/M-M104 24 VIII 1U 38 Eu16 H17 E M2* M2a M1b1 M1b1 - - - - - - -
M-M16 24 VIII 1U 39 Eu16 H17 E M2a M2a1 M1b1a M1b1a - - - - - - -
M-M83 24 VIII 1U 38 Eu16 H17 E M2b M2a2 M1b1b M1b1b - - - - - - -
K-SRY9138/M-SRY9138 23 VIII 1E 25 Eu16 H5 F K1 K1 M2a M2a - - - - - - -
Sources

The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC Tree.

Karafet's 2008 paper introduced a number of changes, compared to the previous 2006 ISOGG tree. Before the discovery of the P256 marker, the current subgroup M-M4 (defined by the M4 marker) previously represented the whole of Haplogroup M-P256; and subgroups M2 and M3 were formerly classed as subgroups K1 and K7 of the parent Haplogroup K.[citation needed]

ReferencesEdit

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ a b Tatiana M. Karafet, Brian Hallmark, Murray P. Cox, Herawati Sudoyo, Sean Downey, J. Stephen Lansing and Michael F. Hammer, "Major East–West Division Underlies Y Chromosome Stratification across Indonesia", Molecular Biological Evolution, (2010), vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 1833-1844.

Works citedEdit

  • Cox, Murray P.; Mirazón Lahr, Marta (2006). "Y-chromosome diversity is inversely associated with language affiliation in paired Austronesian- and Papuan-speaking communities from Solomon Islands". American Journal of Human Biology. 18 (1): 35–50. doi:10.1002/ajhb.20459. PMID 16378340.
  • Haber, Marc; Platt, Daniel E.; Ashrafian Bonab, Maziar; Youhanna, Sonia C.; Soria-Hernanz, David F.; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Douaihy, Bouchra; Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Michella; Rafatpanah, Hoshang (2012). Kayser, Manfred (ed.). "Afghanistan's Ethnic Groups Share a Y-Chromosomal Heritage Structured by Historical Events". PLoS ONE. 7 (3): e34288. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...734288H. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034288. PMC 3314501. PMID 22470552.
  • Karafet, Tatiana M.; Lansing, J. S.; Redd, Alan J.; Watkins, Joseph C.; Surata, S. P. K.; Arthawiguna, W. A.; Mayer, Laura; Bamshad, Michael; Jorde, Lynn B. (2005). "Balinese Y-Chromosome Perspective on the Peopling of Indonesia: Genetic Contributions from Pre-Neolithic Hunter-Gatherers, Austronesian Farmers, and Indian Traders" (PDF). Human Biology. 77 (1): 93–114. doi:10.1353/hub.2005.0030. hdl:1808/13586. PMID 16114819.
  • Karafet, T. M.; Mendez, F. L.; Meilerman, M. B.; Underhill, P. A.; Zegura, S. L.; Hammer, M. F. (2008). "New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree". Genome Research. 18 (5): 830–8. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008. PMC 2336805. PMID 18385274.
  • Kayser, Manfred; Brauer, Silke; Weiss, Gunter; Schiefenhövel, Wulf; Underhill, Peter; Shen, Peidong; Oefner, Peter; Tommaseo-Ponzetta, Mila; Stoneking, Mark (2003). "Reduced Y-Chromosome, but Not Mitochondrial DNA, Diversity in Human Populations from West New Guinea". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 72 (2): 281–302. doi:10.1086/346065. PMC 379223. PMID 12532283.
  • Kayser, M.; Brauer, S; Cordaux, R; Casto, A; Lao, O; Zhivotovsky, LA; Moyse-Faurie, C; Rutledge, RB; Schiefenhoevel, W (2006). "Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: MtDNA and Y Chromosome Gradients Across the Pacific". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 23 (11): 2234–44. doi:10.1093/molbev/msl093. PMID 16923821.
  • Kayser, M.; Choi, Y.; Van Oven, M.; Mona, S.; Brauer, S.; Trent, R. J.; Suarkia, D.; Schiefenhovel, W.; Stoneking, M. (2008). "The Impact of the Austronesian Expansion: Evidence from mtDNA and Y Chromosome Diversity in the Admiralty Islands of Melanesia". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 25 (7): 1362–74. doi:10.1093/molbev/msn078. PMID 18390477.
  • Scheinfeldt, L.; Friedlaender, F; Friedlaender, J; Latham, K; Koki, G; Karafet, T; Hammer, M; Lorenz, J (2006). "Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 23 (8): 1628–41. doi:10.1093/molbev/msl028. PMID 16754639.
  • Nagle, N.; et al. (2015). "Antiquity and diversity of aboriginal Australian Y-chromosomes". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 159 (3): 367–81. doi:10.1002/ajpa.22886. PMID 26515539.

External linksEdit

See alsoEdit