Haplogroup K2b1 (Y-DNA)
Haplogroup K2b1, known sometimes as haplogroup MS, is a human Y-DNA haplogroup, defined by SNPs P397 and P399. It has a complex, diverse and not-yet fully understood internal structure; its downstream descendants include the major haplogroups Haplogroup M (P256) and Haplogroup S (M230).
|Possible time of origin||30,000-40,000|
|Possible place of origin||Southeast Asia; Oceania.|
|Descendants||S (K2b1a) and M (K2b1b)|
|Defining mutations||P397, P399 |
It is not clear at present whether the basal paragroup K2b1* is carried by any living males. Individuals carrying subclades of K2b1 are found primarily among Papuan peoples, Micronesian peoples, indigenous Australians, and Polynesians.
K2b1 is a direct descendant of K2b – known previously as Haplogroup MPS.
K2b1 is strongly associated with the indigenous peoples of Melanesia (especially the island of New Guinea) and Micronesia, and to a lesser extent Polynesia, where it is generally found only among 5–10% of males. It is found in 83% of males in Papua New Guinea, and up to 60% in the Aeta of the Philippines. The vast majority of living males carrying K2b1 are members of downstream subclades within the major haplogroups M (also known as K2b1b) and S (K2b1a).
Studies of indigenous Australian Y-DNA published in 2014 and 2015, suggest that, before contact with Europeans, about 29% of Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander males belonged to downstream subclades of K2b1. That is, up to 27% indigenous Australian males carry haplogroup S1a1a1 (S-P308; previously known as K2b1a1 or K-P308), and one study found that approximately 2.0% – i.e. 0.9% (11 individuals) of the sample in a study in which 45% of the total was deemed to be non-indigenous – belonged to haplogroup M1 (M-M4; also known as M-M186 and known previously as haplogroup K2b1d1). All of these males carrying M1 were Torres Strait Islanders. (The other Y-DNA haplogroups found were: basal K2* [K-M526], C1b2b [M347; previously Haplogroup C4], and basal C* [M130].)
|Population||K2b1 (including Haplogroups M & S) as a % |
|Papua New Guinea||82.76%|
|New Zealand||03.82% (i.e. 1.95% of the 51% Maori males with indigenous Y-DNA)|
|Guam||33.3% (small sample size)|
|Kiribati||0% (small sample size)|
|Palau||61.5% small sample size|
|Wallis and Futuna||26%|
|Nauru||28.6% (small sample size)|
|Niue||0% (small sample size)|
|Tokelau||50% (small sample size)|
|Hawaii||20% (small sample size from FTDNA)|
|Aboriginal Australians||29% (657 samples; 56% assumed to be non-indigenous) |
|Filipinos||04.00% (samples includes a diverse number of minority Filipino ethno-linguistic groups and ethnic minorities.)|
|Malaysia||02.40% ( small sample size)|
|Chuukkese people (Micronesia)||76.5%|
|Pohnpeian people (Micronesia)||70% (small sample size)|
- "PhyloTree y - Minimal y tree".
- Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Sudoyo H, Lansing JS, Hammer MF (June 2014). "Improved phylogenetic resolution and rapid diversification of Y-chromosome haplogroup K-M526 in Southeast Asia". Eur J Hum Genet. 23 (3): 369–373. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.106. PMC 4326703. PMID 24896152.
- van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau MH (Feb 2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. 35 (2): 187–191. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809.
- Karafet 2014
- Nagle, N. et al., 2015, "Antiquity and diversity of aboriginal Australian Y-chromosomes", American Journal of Physical Anthropology (epub ahead of print version; abstract).
- (i. e. individuals indigenous to Oceania are assumed to be K2b1)
|A00||A0-T [χ 3]|
|A0||A1 [χ 4]|
|I||J||LT [χ 5]||K2 [χ 6]|
|L||T||K2a [χ 7]||K2b [χ 8]||K2c||K2d||K2e [χ 9]|
|K-M2313 [χ 10]||K2b1 [χ 11]||P [χ 12]|
|NO||S [χ 13]||M [χ 14]||P1||P2|