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Haplogroup K2b1, known sometimes as haplogroup MS, is a human Y-DNA haplogroup, defined by SNPs P397 and P399. It has a complex, diverse and not-yet fully understood internal structure; its downstream descendants include the major haplogroups Haplogroup M (P256) and Haplogroup S (M230).[3][2]

Haplogroup K2b1
Possible time of origin30,000-40,000
Possible place of originSoutheast Asia; Oceania.
AncestorK2b (P331)
DescendantsS (K2b1a) and M (K2b1b)
Defining mutationsP397, P399 [1][2]

It is not clear at present whether the basal paragroup K2b1* is carried by any living males. Individuals carrying subclades of K2b1 are found primarily among Papuan peoples, Micronesian peoples, indigenous Australians, and Polynesians.


K2b1 is a direct descendant of K2b – known previously as Haplogroup MPS.

Its only primary branches are: the major haplogroups S (B254), also known as K2b1a (and previously known as Haplogroup S1 or K2b1a4) and M (P256), also known as K2b1b (previously K2b1d).


K2b1 is strongly associated with the indigenous peoples of Melanesia (especially the island of New Guinea) and Micronesia, and to a lesser extent Polynesia, where it is generally found only among 5–10% of males. It is found in 83% of males in Papua New Guinea, and up to 60% in the Aeta of the Philippines.[4] The vast majority of living males carrying K2b1 are members of downstream subclades within the major haplogroups M (also known as K2b1b) and S (K2b1a).

Studies of indigenous Australian Y-DNA published in 2014 and 2015, suggest that, before contact with Europeans, about 29% of Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander males belonged to downstream subclades of K2b1. That is, up to 27% indigenous Australian males carry haplogroup S1a1a1 (S-P308; previously known as K2b1a1 or K-P308),[4] and one study found that approximately 2.0% – i.e. 0.9% (11 individuals) of the sample in a study in which 45% of the total was deemed to be non-indigenous – belonged to haplogroup M1 (M-M4; also known as M-M186 and known previously as haplogroup K2b1d1). All of these males carrying M1 were Torres Strait Islanders.[5] (The other Y-DNA haplogroups found were: basal K2* [K-M526], C1b2b [M347; previously Haplogroup C4], and basal C* [M130].)

Population K2b1 (including Haplogroups M & S) as a % [6]
Papua New Guinea 82.76%
New Zealand 03.82% (i.e. 1.95% of the 51% Maori males with indigenous Y-DNA)
Fiji 60.75%
Solomon Islands 71.9%
French Polynesia 08.00%
Vanuatu 76.5%
Guam 33.3% (small sample size)
Samoa 08.04%
Kiribati 0% (small sample size)
Tonga 20.69%
Micronesia FDR 66.67%
Marshall Islands 63.64%
Palau 61.5% small sample size
Cook Islands 03.9%
Wallis and Futuna 26%
Tuvalu 36%
Nauru 28.6% (small sample size)
Niue 0% (small sample size)
Tokelau 50% (small sample size)
Hawaii 20% (small sample size from FTDNA)
Aboriginal Australians 29% (657 samples; 56% assumed to be non-indigenous) [5]
Timor 25%
Aeta 60%
Filipinos 04.00% (samples includes a diverse number of minority Filipino ethno-linguistic groups and ethnic minorities.)
Malaysia 02.40% ( small sample size)
Flores 35%
Sulawesi 11.3%
Eastern Indonesia 25.9%
Java 0%
Bali 0.90%
Sumatra 0%
Borneo (Indonesia) 05.80%
West Papua 52.6%
Papua Province 82.6%
Sumba 25.2%
Chuukkese people (Micronesia) 76.5%
Pohnpeian people (Micronesia) 70% (small sample size)


  1. ^ "PhyloTree y - Minimal y tree".
  2. ^ a b Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Sudoyo H, Lansing JS, Hammer MF (June 2014). "Improved phylogenetic resolution and rapid diversification of Y-chromosome haplogroup K-M526 in Southeast Asia". Eur J Hum Genet. 23 (3): 369–373. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.106. PMC 4326703. PMID 24896152.
  3. ^ van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau MH (Feb 2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. 35 (2): 187–191. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809.
  4. ^ a b Karafet 2014
  5. ^ a b Nagle, N. et al., 2015, "Antiquity and diversity of aboriginal Australian Y-chromosomes", American Journal of Physical Anthropology (epub ahead of print version; abstract).
  6. ^ (i. e. individuals indigenous to Oceania are assumed to be K2b1)
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
I   J     LT [χ 5]       K2 [χ 6]
L     T    K2a [χ 7]        K2b [χ 8]     K2c     K2d K2e [χ 9]  
K-M2313 [χ 10]     K2b1 [χ 11] P [χ 12]
NO   S [χ 13]  M [χ 14]    P1     P2