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HD 168625 (V4030 Sagittarii) is a blue hypergiant and candidate luminous blue variable located in the constellation of Sagittarius easy to see with amateur telescopes. It forms a visual pair with the also blue hypergiant (and luminous blue variable) HD 168607 and is located to the south-east of M17, the Omega Nebula.

HD 168625
Observation data
Epoch J2000      Equinox J2000
Constellation Sagittarius
Right ascension  18h 21m 19.548s[1]
Declination −16° 22′ 16.0572″[1]
Apparent magnitude (V) 8.30 - 8.41[2]
Characteristics
Spectral type B6Ia+[3] (B2 - B8[4])
U−B color index +0.37[5]
B−V color index +1.41[5]
J−K color index 0.599
Variable type α Cygni[6]
Astrometry
Radial velocity (Rv)-4.00[7] km/s
Proper motion (μ) RA: -0.71 ± 1.20[1] mas/yr
Dec.: +0.01 ± 0.74[1] mas/yr
Parallax (π)0.6212 ± 0.0640[8] mas
Distanceapprox. 5,300 ly
(approx. 1,600 pc)
Absolute magnitude (MV)−8.39[4]
Details[4]
Luminosity380,000 L
Surface gravity (log g)1.74 cgs
Temperature14,000 K
Rotational velocity (v sin i)60 km/s
Other designations
V4030 Sgr, HD 168625, BD -16°4830, SAO 161375, HIP 89963, AAVSO 1815-168
Database references
SIMBADdata

Contents

DistanceEdit

The distance of HD 168625 and its association with the Omega Nebula and HD 168607 is dubious; while some authors think both stars are physically associated and belong to the stellar association Serpens OB1,[9] at a distance to the Sun of 2.2 kiloparsecs (7.200 light years),[10] others think HD 168625 is farther, at a distance estimated to be 2.8 kiloparsecs (kpc) (9,100 light years) and unrelated to the former objects.[11] The parallax published in Gaia Data Release 2 indicates a distance close to 1,600 pc, consistent with HD 168607.[8]

Physical characteristicsEdit

Assuming a distance of 2.2 kiloparsecs, HD 168625 is 220,000 times brighter than the Sun, having a surface temperature of 12,000 K.[10] It is losing mass through a very strong stellar wind at a rate of roughly 1.46×10−6 solar masses per year[12] and observations realized in 2012 with the help of the VLT show it's actually a binary star,[13] with the companion being around 4.5 magnitudes fainter than the primary.[14]

NebulaEdit

 
HD 168625 is the left star of the pair below the Omega Nebula. The other is the hypergiant HD 168607.

The most notable characteristic of HD 168625 is the presence of a nebula surrounding it that was discovered in 1994[15] and that has been studied with the help of several instruments and observatories and telescopes that include among others the Hubble Space Telescope[11] and the VLT.[12]

Said studies show that HD 168625 is actually surrounded by two nebulae: an inner one that has an elliptical shape and a very complex structure that includes arcs and filaments,[11] and a much larger outer one discovered with the help of the Spitzer Space Telescope that has a bipolar shape and that looks like a clone of the one surrounding Sanduleak -69° 202, the progenitor of the supernova 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud.[16] This suggests Sanduleak -69° 202 was also a luminous blue variable as well as the possibility of HD 168625 exploding as a Type II supernova in the near future.[16]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Van Leeuwen, F. (2007). "Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 474 (2): 653. arXiv:0708.1752. Bibcode:2007A&A...474..653V. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078357.
  2. ^ Samus, N. N.; Durlevich, O. V.; et al. (2009). "VizieR Online Data Catalog: General Catalogue of Variable Stars (Samus+ 2007-2013)". VizieR On-line Data Catalog: B/gcvs. Originally published in: 2009yCat....102025S. 1. Bibcode:2009yCat....102025S.
  3. ^ Chentsov, E. L.; Ermakov, S. V.; Klochkova, V. G.; Panchuk, V. E.; Bjorkman, K. S.; Miroshnichenko, A. S. (2003). "An atlas of spectra of B6-A2 hypergiants and supergiants from 4800 to 6700Å". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 397 (3): 1035–1042. Bibcode:2003A&A...397.1035C. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20021430.
  4. ^ a b c Mahy, L.; Hutsemékers, D.; Royer, P.; Waelkens, C. (2016). "Tracing back the evolution of the candidate LBV HD168625". Astronomy & Astrophysics. arXiv:1608.01087. Bibcode:2016A&A...594A..94M. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201628584.
  5. ^ a b Ducati, J. R. (2002). "VizieR Online Data Catalog: Catalogue of Stellar Photometry in Johnson's 11-color system". CDS/ADC Collection of Electronic Catalogues. 2237: 0. Bibcode:2002yCat.2237....0D.
  6. ^ Sterken, C.; Arentoft, T.; Duerbeck, H. W.; Brogt, E. (1999). "Light variations of the blue hypergiants HD 168607 and HD 168625 (1973-1999)". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 349: 532. Bibcode:1999A&A...349..532S.
  7. ^ Kharchenko, N.V.; Scholz, R.-D.; Piskunov, A.E.; Röser, S.; Schilbach, E. (2007). "Astrophysical supplements to the ASCC-2.5: Ia. Radial velocities of ∼55000 stars and mean radial velocities of 516 Galactic open clusters and associations". Astronomische Nachrichten. 328 (9): 889–896. arXiv:0705.0878. Bibcode:2007AN....328..889K. doi:10.1002/asna.200710776.
  8. ^ a b Brown, A. G. A.; et al. (Gaia collaboration) (August 2018). "Gaia Data Release 2: Summary of the contents and survey properties". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 616. A1. arXiv:1804.09365. Bibcode:2018A&A...616A...1G. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201833051. Gaia DR2 record for this source at VizieR.
  9. ^ Chentsov, E.L.; Gorda, E.S. (2004). "Spatial Closeness of the White Hypergiants HD 168607 and HD 168625". Astronomy Letters. 30 (7): 145–180. Bibcode:2004AstL...30..461C. doi:10.1134/1.1774398.
  10. ^ a b Nazé, Y.; Rauw, G.; Hutsemékers, D. (2012). "The first X-ray survey of Galactic luminous blue variables". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 538: A47. arXiv:1111.6375. Bibcode:2012A&A...538A..47N. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201118040. A47.
  11. ^ a b c Pasquali, A.; Nota, A.; Smith, L.J.; Akiyama, S.; Messineo, M.; Clampin, M. (2002). "Multiwavelength Study of the Nebula Associated with the Galactic LBV Candidate HD 168625". The Astronomical Journal. 124 (3): 1625–1635. arXiv:astro-ph/0207613. Bibcode:2002AJ....124.1625P. doi:10.1086/341820.
  12. ^ a b Umana, G.; Buemi, C.S.; Trigilio, C.; Leto, P.; Hora, J.L. (2010). "Spitzer, Very Large Telescope, and Very Large Array Observations of the Galactic Luminous Blue Variable Candidate HD 168625". The Astrophysical Journal. 718 (2): 1036–1045. Bibcode:2010ApJ...718.1036U. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/718/2/1036.
  13. ^ Martayan, C.; Lobel, A.; Baade, D.; Blomme, R.; Frémat, Y.; Lebouquin, J.-B.; Selman, F.; Girard, J.; Mérand, A.; Montagnier, G.; Patru, F.; Mawet, D.; Martins, F.; Rivinius, Th.; Štefl, S.; Zorec, J.; Semaan, T.; Mehner, A.; Kervella, P.; Sana, H.; Schödel, R. (2012). "On the Binarity of LBV Stars". ASP Conference Proceedings. 464: 293. Bibcode:2012ASPC..464..293M.
  14. ^ Martayan, C.; Lobel, A.; Baade, D.; Mehner, A.; Rivinius, T.; Boffin, Henry M. J.; Ronny, B.; Girard, J.; Mérand, A.; Montagnier, G.; Patru, F.; Mawet, D.; Martins, F.; Rivinius, Th.; Štefl, S.; Zorec, J.; Semaan, T.; Mehner, A.; Kervella, P.; Sana, H.; Schödel, R. (2016). "Luminous blue variables: An imaging perspective on their binarity and near environment" (PDF). Astronomy & Astrophysics. 587. arXiv:1601.03542. Bibcode:2016A&A...587A.115M. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201526578. A115.
  15. ^ Hutsemekers, D.; vanDrom, E.; Gosset, E.; Melnick, J. (1994). "A dusty nebula around the luminous blue variable candidate HD 168625". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2904: 906–914. Bibcode:1994A&A...290..906H.
  16. ^ a b Smith, Nathan (2007). "Discovery of a Nearby Twin of SN 1987A's Nebula around the Luminous Blue Variable HD 168625: Was Sk -69 202 an LBV?". The Astronomical Journal. 133 (3): 1034–1040. arXiv:astro-ph/0611544. Bibcode:2007AJ....133.1034S. doi:10.1086/510838.