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Bipolar planetary nebula PN Hb 12.[1]

A bipolar nebula is a type of nebula characterized by two lobes either side of a central star. About 10-20% of planetary nebulae are bipolar.[2]

Contents

FormationEdit

Though the exact causes of this nebular structure are not known, it is often thought to imply the presence of a binary central star with a period of a few days to a few years. As one of the two stars expelled its outer layers, the other disrupted the outflow of material to form the bipolar shape.[3]

ExamplesEdit

 
Planetary Nebula M2-9, otherwise known as the Twin Jet Nebula or the Wings of a Butterfly Nebula, is a bipolar nebula.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Bizarre alignment of planetary nebulae". ESA/Hubble Press Release. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
  2. ^ The Macquarie/AAO/Strasbourg Hα Planetary Nebula Catalogue: MASH, Parker et al. 2006, MNRAS, 373, 79
  3. ^ Binary Progenitor Models for Bipolar Planetary Nebulae, Soker 1998, ApJ, 496, 833
  4. ^ NewsCenter - Doomed Star Eta Carinae (06/10/1996) - Release Images. HubbleSite (10 June 1996). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  5. ^ Nemiroff, R.; Bonnell, J., eds. (12 July 1995). "Eta Carinae Before Explosion". Astronomy Picture of the Day. NASA. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  6. ^ Nemiroff, R.; Bonnell, J., eds. (26 March 2006). "Doomed Star Eta Carinae". Astronomy Picture of the Day. NASA. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  7. ^ Eta Carinae Nebula (NGC 3372). Daviddarling.info (1 February 2007). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  8. ^ HubbleSite – NewsCenter – Hubble Witnesses the Final Blaze of Glory of Sun-Like Stars (12/17/1997) – Release Images
  9. ^ Nemiroff, R.; Bonnell, J., eds. (12 June 2005). "M2 9: Wings of a Butterfly Nebula". Astronomy Picture of the Day. NASA. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  10. ^ Nemiroff, R.; Bonnell, J., eds. (21 October 1997). "The Butterfly Planetary Nebula". Astronomy Picture of the Day. NASA. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  11. ^ Butterfly Nebula (M 2-9). Daviddarling.info (1 February 2007). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  12. ^ NewsCenter - The "Rotten Egg" Nebula: A Planetary Nebula in the Making (10/19/1999) - Introduction. HubbleSite (19 October 1999). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  13. ^ APOD: 1 November 1999 - The Rotten Egg Planetary Nebula. Antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov (1 November 1999). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  14. ^ Nemiroff, R.; Bonnell, J., eds. (3 September 2001). "The Making of the Rotten Egg Nebula". Astronomy Picture of the Day. NASA. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  15. ^ Calabash Nebula (OH231.8+4.2). Daviddarling.info (1 February 2007). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  16. ^ NewsCenter - Astro-Entomology? Ant-like Space Structure Previews Death of Our Sun (02/01/2001) - Introduction. HubbleSite (1 February 2001). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  17. ^ Nemiroff, R.; Bonnell, J., eds. (1 May 2005). "Planetary Nebula Mz3: The Ant Nebula". Astronomy Picture of the Day. NASA. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  18. ^ Ant Nebula (Menzel 3). Daviddarling.info (1 February 2007). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  19. ^ NewsCenter - Hubble Finds Searchlight Beams and Multiple Arcs around a Dying Star (01/16/1996) - Introduction. HubbleSite (16 January 1996). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  20. ^ Nemiroff, R.; Bonnell, J., eds. (26 June 1999). "Shells in the Egg Nebula". Astronomy Picture of the Day. NASA. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  21. ^ Nemiroff, R.; Bonnell, J., eds. (9 April 2003). "The Egg Nebula in Polarized Light". Astronomy Picture of the Day. NASA. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  22. ^ Egg Nebula (CRL 2688). Daviddarling.info (1 February 2007). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  23. ^ NewsCenter - Dying Star Sculpts Rungs of Gas and Dust (05/11/2004) - Release Images. HubbleSite (11 May 2004). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  24. ^ Nemiroff, R.; Bonnell, J., eds. (13 May 2004). "Rungs of the Red Rectangle". Astronomy Picture of the Day. NASA. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  25. ^ Red Rectangle. Daviddarling.info (1 February 2007). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  26. ^ NewsCenter - Hubble Finds an Hourglass Nebula around a Dying Star (01/16/1996) - Release Images. HubbleSite (16 January 1996). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  27. ^ Nemiroff, R.; Bonnell, J., eds. (18 January 1996). "MyCn18: An Hourglass Nebula". Astronomy Picture of the Day. NASA. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  28. ^ Nemiroff, R.; Bonnell, J., eds. (15 June 2002). "MyCn18: An Hourglass Nebula". Astronomy Picture of the Day. NASA. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  29. ^ Nemiroff, R.; Bonnell, J., eds. (9 February 1996). "The Eye of an Hourglass Nebula". Astronomy Picture of the Day. NASA. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  30. ^ Hourglass Nebula (MyCn 18). Daviddarling.info (1 February 2007). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  31. ^ NewsCenter - Symbiotic Star Blows Bubbles into Space (08/24/1999) - Release Images. HubbleSite (24 August 1999). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  32. ^ Nemiroff, R.; Bonnell, J., eds. (31 August 1999). "Symbiotic Star Bubbles". Astronomy Picture of the Day. NASA. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  33. ^ Southern Crab Nebula (He2-104) Archived 9 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Daviddarling.info (1 February 2007). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  34. ^ NewsCenter - Hubble Catches Scattered Light from the Boomerang Nebula (09/13/2005) - Release Images. HubbleSite (13 September 2005). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  35. ^ Nemiroff, R.; Bonnell, J., eds. (14 September 2005). "The Boomerang Nebula in Polarized Light". Astronomy Picture of the Day. NASA. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  36. ^ Nemiroff, R.; Bonnell, J., eds. (20 February 2003). "Cold Wind from the Boomerang Nebula". Astronomy Picture of the Day. NASA. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  37. ^ Nemiroff, R.; Bonnell, J., eds. (15 October 1997). "Cold Wind From The Boomerang Nebula". Astronomy Picture of the Day. NASA. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  38. ^ Boomerang Nebula. Daviddarling.info (1 February 2007). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  39. ^ APOD: 28 October 2001 – NGC 2346: A Butterfly-Shaped Planetary Nebula

See alsoEdit