|Subdivisions of the Quaternary System|
|Subdivision of the Quaternary period according to the ICS, as of 2018.|
For the Holocene, dates are relative to the year 2000 (e.g. Greenlandian began 11,700 years before 2000). For the begin of the Northgrippian a date of 8,236 years before 2000 has been set . The Meghalayan has been set to begin 4,250 years before 2000, apparently from a calibrated radio-carbon date of 4,200 years BP i.e. before 1950.[clarification needed]
'Chibanian' and 'Tarantian' are informal, unofficial names proposed to replace the also informal, unofficial 'Middle Pleistocene' and 'Upper Pleistocene' subseries/subepochs respectively.
In Europe and North America, the Holocene is subdivided into Preboreal, Boreal, Atlantic, Subboreal, and Subatlantic stages of the Blytt–Sernander time scale. There are many regional subdivisions for the Upper or Late Pleistocene; usually these represent locally recognized cold (glacial) and warm (interglacial) periods. The last glacial period ends with the cold Younger Dryas substage.
In the geologic time scale, the Greenlandian is the earliest age or lowest stage of the Holocene epoch or series, part of the Quaternary. It is one of three subdivisions of the Holocene. The lower boundary of the Greenlandian Age is the GSSP sample from the North Greenland Ice Core Project in central Greenland (75.1000°N 42.3200°W). The Greenlandian GSSP has been correlated with the end of Younger Dryas (from near-glacial to interglacial) and a “shift in deuterium excess values”.
The age began 11,700 years prior to the year 2000.
- Cohen, K.M.; Finney, S.C.; Gibbard, P.L.; Fan, J.-X. "International Chronostratigraphic Chart". International Commission on Stratigraphy. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
- "IUGS ratifies Holocene". Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "announcement ICS chart v2018/07". Retrieved 9 August 2018.
- International Commission on Stratigraphy. "ICS chart containing the Quaternary and Cambrian GSSPs and new stages (v 2018/07) is now released!". Retrieved 15 July 2018.
- Cohen, Kim Mikkel, David A. T. Harper, Philip Leonard Gibbard, and Junxuan Fan. "The ICS International Chronostratigraphic Chart". International Commission on Stratigraphy. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
- International Commission on Stratigraphy. "GSSP Table - All Periods". GSSPs. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
- Amos, Jonathan (18 July 2018). "Welcome to the Meghalayan Age - a new phase in history". BBC News. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
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