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According to Jewish tradition the Men of the Great Assembly (Hebrew: כְּנֶסֶת הַגְּדוֹלָה) or Anshei Knesset HaGedolah (אַנְשֵׁי כְּנֶסֶת הַגְּדוֹלָה, "The Men of the Great Assembly"), also known as the Great Synagogue, or Synod, was an assembly of 120 scribes, sages, and prophets, in the period from the end of the Biblical prophets since the early Second Temple period to the early Hellenistic period. It comprised such prophets as Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi (who is Ezra), Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, Azariah, Nehemiah b. Hachaliah, Mordechai and Zerubabel b. Shaaltiel, among others.[1] Sometimes, the Great Assembly is simply designated as "Ezra and his court of law" (Beit Din).[2]

Among the developments in Judaism that are attributed to them are the fixing of the Jewish Biblical canon, including the Book of Ezekiel, Daniel, Esther, and the Twelve Minor Prophets; the introduction of the Feast of Purim; and the institution of the prayer known as the "Shemoneh 'Esreh" as well as the synagogal prayers, rituals, and benedictions.

Some modern scholars question whether the Great Assembly ever existed as an institution as such. Louis Jacobs, while not endorsing this view, remarks that "references in the [later] Rabbinic literature to the Men of the Great Synagogue can be taken to mean that ideas, rules, and prayers, seen to be pre-Rabbinic but post-biblical, were often fathered upon them".[3]



The members of the Great Assembly are designated in the Mishnah as those who occupied a place in the chain of tradition between the Prophets and the tannaim:

The Prophets transmitted the Torah to the men of the Great Assembly… Simon the Just was one of those who survived the Great Assembly, and Antigonus of Sokho received the Torah from him.[4]

The first part of this statement is paraphrased as follows in Avot of Rabbi Natan:

Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi received from the Prophets; and the men of the Great Assembly received from Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi.[5]

In this paraphrase, the three post-exilic prophets are separated from the other prophets, for it was the task of the former to transmit the Law to the members of the Great Assembly. It must even be assumed that these three prophets were themselves included in those members, for it is evident from the statements referring to the institution of the prayers and benedictions that the Great Assembly included prophets.

However If the three post exile prophets who were separated from the pre exile prophets by many generations received from them through writings, then naturally this would assume that the later prophets of the Great Assembly who received from the previous prophets could have also done so through inheriting their writings, and this suggests that the transmission of the Law did not require their attendance at the Great Assembly.

In reality the Great Assembly took place over 100 years from the events of Haggai and Zechariah, during the reign of Darius I. Darius under whom the 2nd temple was constructed, evident by the statement of seventy years having passed from the 1st Temples destruction to the 6th year of Darius I. For this reason Haggai and Zechariah were most likely dead in 410 B.C and their attendance at the Great Assembly can be attributed to post rabbinic tradition.

Darius I was the obvious King at the time of Haggai and Zechariah as the statements made of "These seventy years" from Zechariah 1:12 refer to exactly seventy years from the 6th year of Darius I, when the 2nd Temple was completed, which when counted inclusively, from the destruction of Jerusalem in 587 B.C equals exactly seventy years.

According to R. Johanan (3rd century),

The men of the Great Assembly instituted for Israel the benedictions and the prayers, as well as the benedictions for Kiddush and havdalah.[6]

This agrees with the sentence of R. Jeremiah (fourth century), who states (in reference to the Shemoneh Esreh) that "120 elders, including about 80 prophets, have instituted these prayers."[7]

These 120 elders are undoubtedly identical with the men of the Great Assembly. The number given of the prophets must, however, be corrected according to Megillah 17b, where the source of R. Jeremiah's statement is found:

R. Johanan said, and some say it was taught in a baraita, that 120 elders, including several prophets, instituted the Shemoneh Esreh.[8]

Hence the prophets were in a minority in the Great Assembly.

Another statement regarding the activity of this institution alludes to the establishment of the Feast of Purim according to Esther 9:27 et seq., while the Babylonian Talmud[9] states, as a matter requiring no discussion, that the celebration of the Feast of Purim on the days mentioned in Megillah 1:1 was instituted by the men of the Great Assembly. But in the Jerusalem Talmud, R. Johanan[10] speaks of eighty-five elders, among them about thirty prophets.

These divergent statements may easily be reconciled[11] by reading, in the one passage, "beside them" instead of "among them" ; and in the other passage, "thirty" instead of "eighty."

The number 85 is taken from Nehemiah 10:2–29; but the origin of the entire number (120) is not known. It was undoubtedly assumed that the company of those mentioned in Nehemiah 10 was increased to 120 by the prophets who took part in the sealing of the covenant, this view, which is confirmed by Nehemiah 7:7,14, being based on the hypothesis that other prophets besides Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi were then preaching in Israel. These passages indicate that this assembly was believed to be the one described in Nehemiah 9–10, and other statements regarding it prove that the Amoraim accepted this identification as a matter of course.

As a single generationEdit

According to Abba bar Kahana, "Two generations used the Tetragrammaton: the men of the Great Assembly and the generation of the shemad" (the persecution of Hadrian and the Bar Kochba revolt).[12] In addition, Rav Giddel[13] and Rav[14] assert that Ezra uttered the Tetragrammaton in his praise of God.

The combination of these two passages, which evidently have the same basis, support the common assumption that all the members of the Great Assembly were regarded as belonging to a single generation, which included Ezra. Rabbi Joshua ben Levi, one of the earliest amoraim, even derived the term "Great Assembly" from Nehemiah 9:32. The authors of the prayers restored the triad of the divine attributes introduced by Moses (Deuteronomy 10:17), although Jeremiah (32:18) and Daniel (9:4) had each omitted one of the three attributes from their prayers. "The Great Assembly was so called because it gave the divine attributes their ancient 'greatness' and dignity";[15] although this is merely an aggadic explanation of the old term, it indicates that the Amoraim did not think the Great Assembly could be any other assembly or council than the one mentioned as the source of the prayers in Nehemiah 9; and there are other examples in traditional literature evidencing this view. In Yerushalmi Berachot 3a (Genesis Rabbah 46, 78.) this objection is raised in regard to a thesis of R. Levi based on Genesis 17:5 and referring to Nehemiah 9:7: "Did not the men of the Great Assembly call Abraham by his former name, Abram?" In the name of the men of the Great Assembly, R. Abbahu[16] quotes the words "The heaven of heavens, with all their host"[17] as an explanation of Genesis 1:17; and the same authority is invoked in an aggadic passage by Abin[18] in reference to Nehemiah 9:5,[19] as well as in one by Samuel ben Nahman[20] alluding to Nehemiah 9:18.

R. Johanan[21] connected the following story with Nehemiah 10:1–2: "The men of the Great Assembly wrote a document in which they voluntarily agreed to pay heave-offerings and tithes. This document they displayed in the hall of the Temple; the following morning they found the divine confirmation inscribed upon it." Since Nehemiah himself was a member, Samuel b. Marta, a pupil of Rav, quoted a phrase used by Nehemiah in his prayer (1:7) as originating with his colleagues.[22] Ezra was, of course, one of the members, and, according to Nehemiah 8, he was even regarded as the leader. In one of the two versions of the interpretation of Song of Songs 7:14,[23] therefore, Ezra and his companions ("Ezra vaḥaburato") are mentioned, while the other version[24] speaks merely of the "men of the Great Assembly" (compare the statements made above regarding the pronunciation of the Tetragramaton). In the targum to Song of Songs 7:3, in addition to "Ezra the priest" the men mentioned in Ezra 2:2 as the leaders of the people returning from the Exile—Zerubbabel, Jeshua, Nehemiah, Mordecai, and Bilshan—are designated as "men of the Great Assembly." In the same targum (to 6:4), the leaders of the exiles are called the "sages of the Great Assembly."

It appears from all these passages in traditional literature that the idea of the Great Assembly was based on the narrative in Nehemiah 8–10, and that, furthermore, its members were regarded as the leaders of Israel who had returned from exile and laid the foundations of the new polity connected with the Second Temple. All these men were regarded in the tannaitic chronology as belonging to one generation; for this reason the "generation of the men of the Great Assembly" is mentioned in one of the passages already cited, this denoting (according to the chronology of Jose ben Halafta[25]) the generation of 34 years during which the Persian rule lasted, at the beginning of the period of the Second Temple. As the last prophets were still active during this time, they also were included. That prophecy began only at the end of this period, when the reign of Alexander the Great commenced, was likewise a thesis of the tannaitic chronology, which, like the canon of the 34 years, was adopted by the later Jewish chronologists,[26] although the view occurs as early as Josephus.[27]

Position in Tannaitic chronologyEdit

In view of these facts, it was natural that the Great Assembly should be regarded as the connecting-link in the chain of tradition between the Prophets and the scholars. It may easily be seen, therefore, why Simeon the Just should be termed a survivor of this body, for, according to the tradition current in the circle of scholars, it was this high priest (not his grandfather Jaddua) who met Alexander the Great, and received from him much honor.[28]

It is thus evident that, according to the only authority extant in regard to the subject (the tradition of Tannaim and Amoraim), the Great Assembly's activity was confined to the period of the Persian rule, and thus to the first 34 years of the Second Temple; and that afterward, when Simon the Just was its only survivor, there was no other fixed institution which could be regarded as a precursor of the academies. However, this statement does not imply that no such body existed in the first centuries of the Second Temple, for it must be assumed that some governing council existed in those centuries as well, although the statements regarding the Great Assembly refer exclusively to the first period. The term primarily denoted the assembly described in Nehemiah 9–10, which convened principally for religious purposes—fasting, reading of the Torah, confession of sins, and prayer.[29] Since every gathering convened for religious purposes was called "keneset",[30] this term was applied also to the assembly in question; but as it was an assembly of special importance it was designated more specifically as the "great assembly" (compare Nehemiah 5:7, "kehillah gedolah").

In addition to fixing the ritual observances for the first two quarters of the day,[31] the Great Assembly engaged in legislative proceedings, making laws as summarized in Nehemiah 10:30-40. Tradition therefore ascribed to it the character of a chief magistracy, and its members, or rather its leaders, including the prophets of that time, were regarded as the authors of other obligatory rules. These leaders of post-exilic Israel in the Persian period were called the "men of the Great Assembly" because it was generally assumed that all those who then acted as leaders had been members of the memorable gathering held on the 24th of Tishri, 444 BC. Although the assembly itself convened only on a single day, its leaders were designated in tradition as regular members of the Great Assembly. This explains the fact that the references speak almost exclusively of the members of the Great Assembly, the allusions to the body itself being very rare, and based in part on error, as, for example, the quotation from Pirkei Avot 1:2 which occurs in Ecclesiastes Rabbah 12:11.

As certain institutions supposed to have been established in the first period of the Second Temple were ascribed to Ezra, so others of them were ascribed to the "men of the Great Assembly". There is, in fact, no difference between the two classes of institutions so far as origin is concerned. In some cases Ezra (the great scribe and the leader of the Great Assembly) is mentioned as the author, in others the entire Great Assembly mentioned; in all cases the Assembly with Ezra at its head must be thought of as the real authors. In traditional literature, however, a distinction was generally drawn between the institutions of Ezra and those of the men of the Great Assembly, so that they figured separately. But it is not surprising, after what has been said above, that in the Tanhuma[32] the "Tikkunei Soferim" (called also "Tikkunei Ezra"[33]) should be ascribed to the men of the Great Assembly, since the author of the passage in question identified the Soferim (i.e., Ezra and his successors) with them.

Institutions and rulingsEdit

The following rulings were ascribed to the men of the Great Assembly:

  1. They included the books of Ezekiel, Daniel, Esther, and the Twelve Minor Prophets in the Biblical canon; this is the only possible explanation of the baraita[34] that they "wrote" those books. The first three books, which were composed outside Israel, had to be accepted by the men of the Great Assembly before they could be regarded as worthy of inclusion, while the division of the Minor Prophets was completed by the works of the three post-exilic prophets, who were themselves members of that council. The same activity in regard to these books is ascribed to the men of the Great Assembly as had been attributed to King Hezekiah and his council, including the prophet Isaiah, with regard to the three books ascribed to Solomon (see also Avot of Rabbi Natan 1) and the Book of Isaiah. In this baraita, as well as in the gloss upon it, Ezra and Nehemiah, "men of the Great Assembly," are mentioned as the last Biblical writers; while according to II Maccabees[35] Nehemiah also collected a number of the books of the Bible.
  2. They introduced the triple classification of the oral law, dividing the study of the Mishnah (in the larger sense) into the three branches of midrash, halakhot, and aggadot, although this view, which is anonymous, conflicted with that of R. Jonah, an amora of the fourth century, who declared that the founder of this threefold division of traditional science (see Jewish Encyclopedia 3:163, s.v. Bible Exegesis) was Rabbi Akiva.[36] This view is noteworthy as showing that the later representatives of tradition traced the origin of their science to the earliest authorities, the immediate successors of the Prophets. The men of the Great Assembly, therefore, not only completed the canon, but introduced the scientific treatment of tradition.
  3. They introduced the Feast of Purim and determined the days on which it should be celebrated (see above).
  4. They instituted the Shemoneh Esreh, as well as the benedictions and other prayers, as already noted. The tradition in regard to this point expresses the view that the synagogal prayers as well as the entire ritual were put into definite shape by the men of the Great Assembly.

Other activityEdit

According to Rav, the list of Biblical personages who have no share in the World to Come[37] was made by the men of the Great Assembly.[38] An aggadic ruling on Biblical stories beginning with the phrase "Va-yehi bayamim" (And it came to pass in those days) is designated by Johanan bar Nappaha, or his pupil Levi II, as a "tradition of the men of the Great Assembly".[39] This is merely another way of saying, as is stated elsewhere[40] in reference to the same ruling, that it had been brought as a tradition from the Babylonian exile. There are references also to other aggadic traditions of this kind.[41] Joshua ben Levi ascribes in an original way to the men of the Great Assembly the merit of having provided for all time for the making of copies of the Bible, tefillin, and mezuzot, stating that they instituted twenty-four fasts to ensure that wealth would not be acquired by copyists, who would cease to copy if they became rich.[42] A aggadic passage by Jose b. Hanina refers to the names of the returning exiles mentioned in Ezra 2:51 et seq.,[43] one version reading "the men of the Great Assembly" instead of "sons of the Exile," or "those that returned from the Exile" ("olei goleh"). This shows that the men of the Great Assembly included the first generation of the Second Temple. In Esther Rabbah 3:7, the congregation of the tribes mentioned in Judges 20:1 is apparently termed "men of the Great Assembly." However, this is due to a corruption of the text, for, according to Luria's skilful emendation, this phrase must be read with the preceding words "Ezra and the men of the Great Assembly"; so that the phrase corresponds to the "bene ha-golah" of Ezra 10:16.[citation needed]

There is, finally, a passage which the Mishnah[44] ascribes to the men of the Great Assembly as stated above, and which reads as follows: "Be heedful in pronouncing sentence; have many pupils; put a fence about the Torah." This aphorism, ascribed to an entire body of men, can only be interpreted as expressing their spirit and tendency, yet it must have been formulated by some individual, probably one of their number. At all events, it may be regarded as a historical and authentic statement of the dominating thought of those early leaders of post-exilic Israel who were designated in the tradition of the local schools as the men of the Great Assembly. It must also be noted that this passage, like the majority of those given in the first chapter of Avot, is addressed to the teachers and spiritual leaders rather than to the people. These three clauses indicate the program of the scholars of the Persian period, who were regarded as one generation, and evidence their harmony with the spirit of Ezra's teaching. Their program was carried out by the Pharisees: caution in pronouncing legal sentences; watchfulness over the schools and the training of pupils; assurance of the observance of the Law by the enforcement of protective measures and rulings.[citation needed]

An attempt has thus been made to assign correct positions to the texts in which the men of the Great Assembly are mentioned, and to present the views on which they are based, although no discussions can be broached regarding the views of the chroniclers and historians, or the different hypotheses and conclusions drawn from these texts concerning the history of the period of the Second Temple. For this a reference to the articles cited in the bibliography must suffice. Kuenen especially presents a good summary of the more recent theories, while L. Löw (who is not mentioned by Kuenen) expresses views totally divergent from those generally held with regard to the Great Assembly; this body he takes to be the assembly described in I Maccabees 14:25-26, which made Simeon the Hasmonean a hereditary prince (18th of Elul, 140 BC)[45].

See alsoEdit


  •   This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSinger, Isidore; et al., eds. (1901–1906). "article name needed". The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls.
  1. ^ Maimonides' Introduction to his Mishnah Commentary (ed. Nehemiah Shmuel Rot), Jerusalem 2005, p. 59 (Hebrew)
  2. ^ Maimonides' Introduction to his Code of Jewish Law (Mishne Torah).
  3. ^ Louis Jacobs (1995), Great Synagogue, Men of, in The Jewish religion: a companion, p. 201. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-826463-1
  4. ^ Pirkei Avot 1:1 et seq.
  5. ^ Avot of Rabbi Natan 1
  6. ^ Berachot 33a
  7. ^ Yerushalmi Berachot 4d
  8. ^ Megillah 17b
  9. ^ Megillah 2a
  10. ^ Yerushalmi Megillah 70d; Ruth Rabbah 2:4
  11. ^ See Krochmal, "Moreh Nebuke ha-Zeman," p. 97
  12. ^ Midrash Tehillim on Psalm 36, end
  13. ^ Yerushalmi Megillah 3, end
  14. ^ Yoma 69b
  15. ^ Yoma 69b [with other authorities]; Yerushalmi Berachot 11c and Megillah 74c; Midrash Tehillim on Psalms 19; see also Berachot 33b
  16. ^ Genesis Rabbah 6
  17. ^ Nehemiah 9:6
  18. ^ Tanhuma Shemot 1
  19. ^ ib. 2, anonymous
  20. ^ Exodus Rabbah 41, beginning; Tanhuma Ki Tissa 14
  21. ^ Ruth Rabbah 2:4
  22. ^ Exodus Rabbah 41; Tanhuma Pekudei, beginning
  23. ^ [[Leviticus Rabbah 2:11
  24. ^ Cant. Rabbah 7:14
  25. ^ Seder Olam Rabbah 30 [ed. Ratner], p. 141; Avodah Zarah 86
  26. ^ Seder 'Olam Rabbah 30; compare Sanhedrin 11a
  27. ^ "Contra Apionem" 1, § 8
  28. ^ See Yoma 69a; Megillat Ta'anit for the 21st of Kislev
  29. ^ Nehemiah 9:1 et seq.
  30. ^ Hence "bet ha-keneset" = "the synagogue"; compare the verb "kenos," Esther 4:16
  31. ^ Nehemiah 9:3
  32. ^ Tanhuma, Beshallach 16, on Exodus 15:7
  33. ^ "Okhla we-Okhla," No. 168
  34. ^ Bava Batra 15a
  35. ^ II Maccabees 2:13
  36. ^ Yerushalmi Shekalim 5, beginning
  37. ^ Sanhedrin 10:1
  38. ^ Sanhedrin 104b
  39. ^ Megillah 10b
  40. ^ Leviticus Rabbah 11
  41. ^ See Bacher, "Ag. Tan." 2d ed., i. 192; idem, "Die Aelteste Terminologie," p. 107
  42. ^ Pesachim 50b
  43. ^ Genesis Rabbah 71 et passim
  44. ^ Pirkei Avot 1:12
  45. ^ Löw, Leopold (1885). Die Grosse Synode (from Ben Chananja, vol. i), in Gesammelte Schriften. Hildesheim ; New York ; Olms. pp. 399–449.

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