Graham flour is a type of coarse-ground whole wheat flour named after Sylvester Graham. It is similar to conventional whole wheat flour in that both are made from the whole grain, but graham flour is ground more coarsely and is not sifted during milling (i.e. unbolted).:9 A report from 1913 claimed that bread made from graham flour had a protein content of 12.1% – only slightly less than white wheat flour and essentially the same as whole wheat flour.
A substitute for it would be a mix of unbleached white flour and wheat middlings; this was a common substitute prior to and after the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act in 1906, but the FDA gradually established standards and eliminated imitations from the market.:13
Graham flour is named after Sylvester Graham (1794–1851), an early advocate for dietary reform. Graham despised the discarding of nutrients such as germ and bran when making flour for white bread, and believed that using all of the grain in the milling of flour and baking of bread was a remedy for the poor health of his fellow Americans during changes in diet brought on by the Industrial Revolution.:7-8
- Le Clerc, Joseph Arthur; Jacobs, Benjamin R. (12 April 1913). "Graham Flour: A Study of the Physical and Chemical Differences Between Graham Flour and Imitation Graham Flours". USDA Bureau of Chemistry Bulletin. Government Printing Office (164).
- Wihlfahrt, Julius Emil (1913) . A treatise on flour, yeast, fermentation and baking, together with recipes for bread and cakes. The Fleischmann Co. p. 25. Retrieved 2012-04-29.
After baking, the white wheat flour not only proved the more digestible, but the protein contents were as follows: White wheat flour 12.5% protein; Graham flour 12.1%; Entire wheat flour 11.9% .
- Iacobbo, Karen; Iacobbo, Michael (2004). Vegetarian America : a history. Westport, CT: Praeger. pp. 21, 29. ISBN 978-0275975197.