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Gram flour or chickpea flour or besan (Hindi: बेसन; Burmese: ပဲမှုန့်; Urdu: بيسن‎), is a pulse flour made from a variety of ground chickpea known as Bengal gram. It is a staple ingredient in the cuisine of the Indian subcontinent, including in Indian, Bangladeshi, Burmese, Nepali, Pakistani and Sri Lankan cuisines. Gram flour can be made from either raw or roasted gram beans. The roasted variety is more flavorful, while the raw variety has a slightly bitter taste.

Gram flour
Gram flour AvL.jpg
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 1,619 kJ (387 kcal)
57 g
Sugars 10 g
Dietary fiber 10 g
6 g
22 g
Vitamins Quantity
%DV
Niacin (B3)
7%
1 mg
Folate (B9)
109%
437 μg
Minerals Quantity
%DV
Calcium
5%
45 mg
Iron
31%
4 mg
Magnesium
47%
166 mg
Phosphorus
45%
318 mg
Potassium
18%
846 mg
Selenium
11%
8 μg
Sodium
4%
64 mg
Zinc
21%
2 mg
Other constituents Quantity
Water 10 g
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Contents

CharacteristicsEdit

Gram flour contains a high proportion of carbohydrates[1], higher fiber relative to other flours, no gluten,[2] and a higher proportion of protein than other flours.[1]

DishesEdit

South AsiaEdit

Gram flour is under popular use in the Indian subcontinent, where it is used to make the following:

In Andhra Pradesh, it is used in a curry with gram flour cakes called Senaga Pindi Kura (Telugu: శెనగ పిండి కూర) and is eaten with Chapati or Puri, mostly during winter for breakfast.[3] Chila (or chilla), a pancake made with gram flour batter, is a popular street food in India.

Southeast and East AsiaEdit

Southern EuropeEdit

Along the coast of the Ligurian Sea, flour made from garbanzo beans, which are a different variety of chickpea closely related to Bengal gram, is used to make a thin pancake that is baked in the oven. This popular street food is called farinata in Italian cuisine, fainâ in Genoa, and is known as socca or cade in French cuisine. It is used to make panelle, a fritter in Sicilian cuisine. In Spanish cuisine, gram flour is an ingredient for tortillitas de camarones. Also in Cyprus and Greece, it is used as a garnishing ingredient for the funeral ritual food Koliva, blessed and eaten during Orthodox Memorial services.

North AfricaEdit

In Morocco, they make a dish called karan from gram flour and eggs, which is baked in the oven. A similar famous dish is prepared in Algeria called Garantita or Karantita (believed to be originated from the Spanish term Calentica that means hot [4]).

Other usesEdit

In the form of a paste with water or dahi (yogurt), it is also popular as a facial exfoliant in the Indian Subcontinent.[5] When mixed with an equal proportion of water, it can be used as an egg replacement in vegan cooking.[6]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Chickpea flour (besan)". Nutrition Data: Nutrition Facts and Calorie Counter. Retrieved 2007-09-29. 
  2. ^ "Grains and Flours Glossary: Besan". Celiac Sprue Association. Archived from the original on 2007-10-03. Retrieved 2007-09-29. 
  3. ^ "Senagapindi Kura (Onion curry with Besan)". Archived from the original on January 6, 2014. Retrieved January 6, 2014. 
  4. ^ "Karantita, Garantita, La Petite Panière". Retrieved July 18, 2016. 
  5. ^ "What is gram flour?". Blurtit.com. Retrieved 2007-09-29. 
  6. ^ The Vegan Society. "Egg Substitutes". Vegansociety.com. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2009-12-31.