Gordon Gray (politician)
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Gordon Gray (May 30, 1909 – November 26, 1982) was an official in the government of the United States during the administrations of Harry Truman (1945–53) and Dwight Eisenhower (1953–61) associated with defense and national security.
|5th United States National Security Advisor|
June 24, 1958 – January 13, 1961
|Preceded by||Robert Cutler|
|Succeeded by||McGeorge Bundy|
|Director of the Office of Defense Mobilization|
March 14, 1957 – June 24, 1958
|Preceded by||Arthur Flemming|
|Succeeded by||Position abolished|
|Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs|
July 14, 1955 – February 27, 1957
|Preceded by||Struve Hensel|
|Succeeded by||Mansfield Sprague|
|President of the University of North Carolina System|
October 12, 1950 – June 10, 1955
|Preceded by||Frank Graham|
|Succeeded by||Bill Friday|
|United States Secretary of the Army|
April 28, 1949 – April 12, 1950
|Preceded by||Kenneth Royall|
|Succeeded by||Frank Pace|
|Born||May 30, 1909|
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
|Died||November 26, 1982 (aged 73)|
Washington, D.C., U.S.
|Spouse(s)||Jane Boyden Craige|
Nancy Maguire Beebe
|Children||4 (including Burton and Boyden)|
|Education||University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (BA)|
Yale University (LLB)
|Branch/service||United States Army|
|Years of service||1942-1945|
Gordon Gray was born in Baltimore, Maryland, the son of Bowman Gray Sr. and Nathalie Lyons Gray. He was married in 1938 to the former Jane Boyden Craige, and they had four sons: Gordon Gray Jr., Burton C. Gray, C. Boyden Gray and Bernard Gray. After Jane's death, Gray married the former Nancy Maguire Beebe. His father Bowman, his uncle James A. Gray Jr. and later his brother, Bowman Gray Jr., were all heads of R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company.
His son, C. Boyden Gray, a graduate of Harvard and the University of North Carolina Law School, served as White House counsel for President George Herbert Walker Bush. His nephew, Lyons Gray, also a graduate of both North Carolina and Yale, is chief financial officer for the Environmental Protection Agency
Gordon Gray attended Woodberry Forest School for high school. He graduated from the University of North Carolina in 1930, where he was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity (Beta chapter) & the secretive, Order of Gimghoul. He earned his law degree from Yale Law School in 1933 and practiced law for two years in New York City before returning to Winston-Salem. UNC presented Gray with an honorary law degree in 1949.
Gray began his public life as a lawyer and was elected to the North Carolina General Assembly in 1939, 1941, and 1947, representing Forsyth County. He entered the U.S. Army in 1942 as a private and rose to captain, serving in Europe with General Omar Bradley's forces. Gray's service to the federal government began with his appointment as President Harry S. Truman's assistant secretary of the army in 1947; two years later, he was appointed Secretary of the Army. He served in this post from 1949 until 1950. The following year he became director of the newly formed Psychological Strategy Board which planned for and coordinated government psychological operations; he remained in the post until his resignation in January 1952, all the while continuing to lead the University of North Carolina. He was the second president of the Consolidated University of North Carolina, succeeding Frank Porter Graham in 1950.
In 1954 Gray chaired a committee appointed by AEC chairman Lewis Strauss which recommended revoking Robert Oppenheimer's security clearance. The Gray Board, as it was known, issued its split decision on May 27, 1954, with Gray and Thomas A. Morgan recommending the revocation, despite their finding that Oppenheimer was a "loyal citizen." Dr. Ward V. Evans, a conservative Republican and the third member of the board, dissented, saying that most of the allegations against Oppenheimer had been heard before, in 1947, when he had originally received his clearance. In the book American Prometheus: The Triumph and Tragedy of J. Robert Oppenheimer the chairmanship of Gray during the hearings was described as severely lacking. Gray had allowed that the prosecutors briefed the committee for a full week without representatives from the defendants being present. Moreover, Gray let the prosecutors use documents and testimonies that the defendants attorneys were denied access to, as well as material that was obtained by illegal means such as unwarranted wiretaps. The authors called the Gray Board a "veritable kangaroo court in which the head judge accepted the prosecutors lead".
Gray shocked proponents of public education in North Carolina when he said, in a November 1954 Founder's Day speech at Guilford College, that "if I had to make a choice between a complete system of publicly supported higher education or a complete system of private higher education, I would choose the latter as a greater safeguard of the things for which we live." Less than a year later, Secretary of Defense Charles Erwin Wilson named Gray assistant secretary for international security affairs and Gray's brief career in academia was ended.
President Dwight D. Eisenhower appointed him to head the Office of Defense Mobilization in 1957, where he served until the office's consolidation in 1958. Eisenhower then appointed Gray his National Security Advisor from 1958 until 1961. On January 18, 1961, President Eisenhower awarded Gray the Presidential Medal of Freedom. He served on the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board under Presidents John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson, Richard M. Nixon and Gerald R. Ford. In 1976, he was awarded the United States Military Academy's Sylvanus Thayer Award.
- Prados, John (2006). Safe for Democracy: The Secret Wars of the CIA. Ivan R. Dee. p. 82. ISBN 9781615780112.
- "Staff Member and Office Files: Psychological Strategy Board Files". Harry S. Truman Presidential Library and Museum.
- Crow, Jeffrey J. (April 2008). "'The Paradox and the Dilemma': Gordon Gray and the J. Robert Oppenheimer Security Clearance Hearing". North Carolina Historical Review. 85 (2): 163–190. JSTOR 23523398.
- Bird, Kai; Sherwin, Martin J. (2005). American Prometheus: The Triumph And Tragedy of J. Robert Oppenheimer (1st ed.). A.A. Knopf. ISBN 9780375412028. Retrieved April 29, 2019.
- quoted in Crow, p. 188
- Hailey, Albon B. (January 9, 1962). "Gray Elected to Federal Council Post". The Washington Post. p. A1
- Smith, J.Y. (November 27, 1982). "Gordon Gray, Former Secretary Of U.S. Army, Dies at Age 73". The Washington Post. p. B4.
- Inventory of the Office of President of the University of North Carolina (System): Gordon Gray Records, 1950-1955, in the University Archives, UNC-Chapel Hill.
- Papers of Gordon Gray, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library
- Records of the White House Office of the Special Assistant for National Security Affairs, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library
- Undersecretary of the Army biography
- Gordan Gray biography in Secretaries of War and Secretaries of the Army, United States Army Center of Military History.
- The American Presidency Project
- Gordon Gray Photograph Collection United States Army Heritage and Education Center, Carlisle, Pennsylvania
|New office|| Assistant Secretary of the Army
| United States Under Secretary of the Army|
| United States Secretary of the Army
| Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs
| Director of the Office of Defense Mobilization
| National Security Advisor
| President of the University of North Carolina System