Gonbad-e Sorkh, Maragheh

The Gonbad-e Sorkh (means The Red Dome) is the name of a historical building in Maragheh, Iran, built in 1147 AD (542 AH) in the Seljuq dynasty period. The architectural style of this building is Razi style.[3] The Gonbad-e Sorkh is one of the oldest buildings of the Islamic period in the East Azerbaijan Province, which is located in the southwestern part of the city of Maragheh and it is one of the most important historical monuments of this city.[4] The name of the founder of the building and the date of its construction can be seen from the inscription of the northern front and the name of its builder can be seen from the western inscription.[5][6][7][8]

Gonbad-e Sorkh
Native name
Persian: گنبد سرخ
Gonbad-e Sorkh picture
TypeDome, Observatory
EtymologyThe Red Dome
LocationMaragheh, Maragheh County, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran
Nearest cityMaragheh
CoordinatesCoordinates: 37°22′53.42″N 46°14′25.53″E / 37.3815056°N 46.2404250°E / 37.3815056; 46.2404250
AreaA square with dimensions of 8.4 meters from outside and 5.95 meters from inside[1]
HeightAbout 10 meters[2]
FounderAbdul Aziz Ibn Mahmoud Ibn Saad Yadim
Built1147 AD (542 AH)
Built forSeljuq dynasty
ArchitectBani Bakr Mohammad Ibn Bandan Ibn Mohsen Memar
Architectural style(s)Razi style
Governing bodyGovernment of Iran
Gonbad-e Sorkh, Maragheh is located in Iran
Gonbad-e Sorkh, Maragheh
Location of Gonbad-e Sorkh in Iran

HistoryEdit

The Gonbad-e Sorkh has seven inscriptions. From the inscriptions in this building, it is understood that the building of the Gonbad-e Sorkh (Red Dome) was built in 1147 AD (542 AH) by the order of "Abdul Aziz Ibn Mahmoud Ibn Saad Yadim", the president of Azerbaijan during the Seljuq dynasty period, and architectured by "Bani Bakr Mohammad Ibn Bandan Ibn Mohsen Memar".[9][10][11][12]

Cultural heritage experts believe that this building was used before the Maragheh observatory to determine the months of the year and the hours of the day, and the holes created on the sides of this building indicate this. The building was registered as one of the Iran National Heritage on 6 January 1932 with the registration number 134.[13][14][15]

The Gonbad-e Sorkh (Red Dome) is the oldest of the five tombs in Maragheh, and despite the existence of legible inscriptions, it is not clear who owns the tomb under the dome.[16][17][18][5]

ArchitectureEdit

The Gonbad-e Sorkh is the last building which constructed in Razi style in Iranian architecture history. Razi style is a style in Iranian architecture and is related to the fifth to the beginning of the seventh Hijri lunar century (Samanid Empire, Seljuk Empire and Khwarazmian dynasty).[19][20][21][22] The building also has some Azeri architecture theme so it is the turning point and the beginning of Azeri architecture, which is a combination of bricks and tiles and the use of tiles in decorating historical buildings in Iran.[23][24][25]

The Gonbad-e Sorkh is a square building with 2 floors consisting of a crypt and a main room which is located on a stone platform and can be accessed by seven rows of stairs. The height of seven steps from the surrounding area is about 1.50 meters.[26] Five steps are located in front of the platform and the sixth and seventh steps are part of the gate threshold.[27][28][29][30][31][32] The crypt is located in the middle of the platform and can be accessed from the eastern front. The tombstone is in the crypt.[24] The entrance to the Gonbad-e Sorkh, which faces north, consists of a tall and beautiful gate adorned with delicate brickwork and delicate turquoise tiles, which had just become common in Seljuk architecture. In the center of this brickwork is an inscription in Kufic script. In the four outer corners of the building, there are circular columns with brick decorations that help the building stand. The substructure is made of cut stone.[17][2]

This dome has 4 sides as a square with dimensions of 8.4 meters from outside and 5.95 meters from inside[1] and its height is about 10 meters,[2] the inscription on the north side indicates the name and titles of the founder of the dome and the date of construction of the building, and the inscription on the east and south sides contain the Quranic verses and the west side indicate the name of the architect.[6] This building has a two-covered dome, the outer pyramidal cover of which has collapsed and only the inner dome remains. Therefore, it can be considered as a memorial tower.[33] According to German orientalist Eric Schurder, the building is a masterpiece of world architecture in terms of brickwork.[5]

 
Perspective of the Gonbad-e Sorkh

GalleryEdit

BibliographyEdit

In Persian:

  • مروارید، یونس. مراغه (افرازه رود). تهران (ویرایش دوم): نشر، ۱۳۷۰.
  • صدرالاسلامی، فخرالدین. دیدنی‌های مراغه و عجب شیر. تهران: نشر، ۱۳۸۱.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "گنبد سرخ مراغه – مجله کلبه هنر" (in Persian). Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  2. ^ a b c "گنبد سرخ قدیمی ترین گنبد سرخ رنگ مراغه – آدینه پرس" (in Persian). Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  3. ^ سبک‌شناسی معماری ایرانی. محمد کریم پیرنیا. نشر معمار. ۱۳۸۳. ص۱۵۷ (in Persian).
  4. ^ "گنبد سرخ مراغه؛ سفری به سال ۵۴۲ هجری قمری – کجارو" (in Persian). Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  5. ^ a b c "گنبد سرخ مراغه یکی از قدیمی ترین بناهای دورهٔ اسلامی آذربایجان شرقی – باشگاه خبرنگاران جوان" (in Persian). Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  6. ^ a b "گنبد سرخ مراغه – پایگاه اطلاع رسانی رصد مراغا" (in Persian). Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  7. ^ "معماری ایرانی: گنبد سرخ مراغه – پایگاه خبری راه برترین ها" (in Persian). Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  8. ^ "گنبد سرخ مراغه – سایت گردشگری ایران" (in Persian). Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  9. ^ "گنبد سرخ مراغه، یادمان سلجوقیان – ارک توریسم" (in Persian). Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  10. ^ "گنبد سرخ سلجوقی ها در مراغه – اقتصاد آنلاین" (in Persian). Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  11. ^ "مراغه؛ شهر گنبدهای ایران – تبیان" (in Persian). Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  12. ^ "ویژگیهای معماری و تزیینات به کار رفته در گنبد سرخ مراغه – مرجع دانش" (in Persian). Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  13. ^ "گنبد سرخ سلجوقی ها در مراغه + تصاویر – باشگاه خبرنگاران جوان" (in Persian). Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  14. ^ "بنیاد ایران شناسی شعبه آذربایجان شرقی – تبریز" (in Persian). Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  15. ^ "گنبد سرخ مراغه – پایگاه اطلاع رسانی رصد مراغا" (in Persian). Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  16. ^ "گنبند سرخ مراغه – جهانگردی آناهیتا" (in Persian). Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  17. ^ a b "آثار تاريخي شهرستان مراغه – سازمان تبلیغات اسلامی آذربایجان شرقی" (in Persian). Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  18. ^ "گنبد سرخ مراغه – آذربایجان" (in Persian). Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  19. ^ "گنبدی سرخ در مراغه + عکس – خبرگزاری میزان" (in Persian). Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  20. ^ "سبک معماری رازی – آبستا سازه" (in Persian). Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  21. ^ "گنبد سرخ آذربایجان شرقی – شهرسازی آنلاین" (in Persian). Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  22. ^ "ويژگي هاي معماري و تزئينات بکار رفته در گنبد سرخ مراغه – پایگاه مرکز اطلاعات علمی جهاد دانشگاهی" (in Persian). Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  23. ^ "گنبد سرخ مراغه نخستین بنای سبک آذری در ایران – خبرگزاری صدا و سیما" (in Persian). Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  24. ^ a b "آشنایی با گنبد سرخ – آذربایجان شرقی – همشهری آنلاین" (in Persian). Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  25. ^ "قدس گشت – درباره گنبد سرخ" (in Persian). Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  26. ^ "گنبد سرخ – مجله مستر بلیط" (in Persian). Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  27. ^ "گنبد سرخ مراغه – صدا و سیمای تبریز" (in Persian). Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  28. ^ "گنبد سرخ مراغه – مجموعه تاریخی خیر آباد" (in Persian). Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  29. ^ "گنبدی سرخ در مراغه + عکس – اقتصاد آنلاین" (in Persian). Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  30. ^ "رسانه مجازی نگاه – گنبد سرخ مراغه – ايران، طبيعت و صنايع دستی" (in Persian). Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  31. ^ "گنبد سرخ ، یکی از ارزشمندترین بناهای دوره سلجوقی" (in Persian). Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  32. ^ "آثارباستانی – دانشگاه مراغه" (in Persian). Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  33. ^ "گنبد سرخ سلجوقی ها در مراغه – بیتوته" (in Persian). Retrieved 7 November 2020.

External linksEdit