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Gold bars stacked in a pyramid
1kg gold bars

A gold bar, also called gold bullion or a gold ingot, is a quantity of refined metallic gold of any shape that is made by a bar producer meeting standard conditions of manufacture, labeling, and record keeping. Larger gold bars that are produced by pouring the molten metal into molds are called ingots. Smaller bars may be manufactured by minting or stamping from appropriately rolled gold sheets. The standard gold bar held as gold reserves by central banks and traded among bullion dealers is the 400-troy-ounce (12.4 kg or 438.9 ounces) Good Delivery gold bar. The kilobar, which is 1000 grams in mass (32.15 troy ounces), is the bar that is more manageable and is used extensively for trading and investment. The premium on these bars when traded is very low over the spot value of the gold, making it ideal for small transfers between banks and traders. Most kilobars are flat, although some investors, particularly in Europe, prefer the brick shape.[1] Asian markets differ in that they prefer gram gold bars as opposed to Troy ounce measurements. Popular sizes in the Asian region include 10 grams, 100 grams and 1,000 gram bars.[2]



A minted bar (left) and a cast bar (right)

Based upon how they are manufactured, gold bars are categorized as having been cast or minted, with both differing in their appearance and price.[1] Cast bars are created in a similar method to that of ingots, whereby molten gold is poured into a bar-shaped mold and left to solidify. This process often leads to malformed bars with uneven surfaces which, although imperfect, make each bar unique and easier to identify. Cast bars are also cheaper than minted bars, because they are quicker to produce and require less handling.

Minted bars are made from gold blanks that have been cut to a required dimension from a flat piece of gold. These are identified by having smooth and even surfaces.

Security featuresEdit

To prevent bars from being counterfeited or stolen, manufacturers have developed ways to verify genuine bars, with the most common way being to brand bars with registered serial numbers or providing a certificate of authenticity. In a recent trend, many refineries would stamp serial numbers even on the smallest bars, and the number on the bar should match the number on its accompanying certificate.[3]

In contrast to cast bars (which are often handled directly), minted bars are generally sealed in protective packaging to prevent tampering and keep them from becoming damaged. A hologram security feature known as a Kinegram can also be inserted into the packaging. Bars that contain these are called Kinebars.[4]

Standard bar weightsEdit

Gold prices (US$ per troy ounce), in nominal US$ and inflation adjusted US$ from 1914 onward

Gold is measured in troy ounces, often simply referred to as ounces when the reference to gold is evident. One troy ounce is equivalent to 31.1034768 grams. Commonly encountered in daily life is the avoirdupois ounce, an Imperial weight in countries still using British weights and measures or United States customary units. The avoirdupois ounce is lighter than the troy ounce; one avoirdupois ounce equals 28.349523125 grams.[5]

The super-size is worth more than the standard gold bar held and traded internationally by central banks and bullion dealers is the Good Delivery bar with a 400 oz (troy-ounce) (12.4 kg or 438.9 ounces) nominal weight. However, its precise gold content is permitted to vary between 350 oz and 430 oz. The minimum purity required is 99.5% gold. These bars must be stored in recognized and secure gold bullion vaults to maintain their quality status of Good Delivery. The recorded provenance of this bar assures integrity and maximum resale value.[6]

  • One tonne = 1000 kilograms = 32,150.746 troy ounces.
  • One kilogram = 1000 grams = 32.15074656 troy ounces.
  • One tola = 11.6638038 grams = 0.375 troy ounces.
  • One tael = 50 grams.[notes 1]
  • TT (ten tola) = 117 grams (3.75 oz)

Tola is a traditional Indian measure for the weight of gold and prevalent to this day. Many international gold manufacturers supply tola bars of 999.96 purity.

Gold bar manufacturersEdit

Manufacturer Bar Sizes Ref.
Grams Ounces Taels Tolas
0.3g 0.5g 1g 2g 2.5g 5g 10g 20g 50g 100g 250g 500g 1 kg 1/10
Baird & Co.  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y [7]
Emirates Gold  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y [8]
Heraeus  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y [9]
Metalor  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y [10]
PAMP  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y [11][12]
Perth Mint  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y [13]
Royal Mint  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y [14]
Umicore  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y [15]
Valcambi  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y [16][17]

Largest gold barEdit

The world's largest gold bar at the Toi Gold Museum.

The world's largest gold bar stands at 250 kg (551 lb), measuring at the base 45.5 cm × 22.5 cm (17.9 in × 8.9 in) and 17 cm (6.7 in) high with 5 degree draft angle (equal to 15,730 cm3 or 960 cu in). It was manufactured by the Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, a subsidiary of Mitsubishi. It went on display at the Toi Gold Museum on 11 July 2005. Its gold content was valued in 2005 at 400 million yen (approximately US$3,684,000 at the time).[18][19][20] As of 6 May 2019, it is worth approximately US$10.325M,[21] not accounting for the premium associated with being the world's largest gold bar.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ This is the official rate of taels in mainland China since the country implemented the metric system. In Taiwan and Hong Kong, a tael is equivalent to 37.429 g.


  1. ^ "What is a gold bar?". Archived from the original on 19 June 2010.
  2. ^ "Buy Gold Bars Online - Gold | LPM". Archived from the original on 15 October 2017. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
  3. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". PAMP. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  4. ^ "KINEBARS®" (PDF). Gold Bars Worldwide. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
  5. ^ Boyati, Lested (1 June 2014). "Top Recommended Gold Trading Brokers". FXdailyReport.Com. Archived from the original on 12 November 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  6. ^ "Full List of Official Good Delivery Rules". Archived from the original on 30 March 2012. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
  7. ^ "Baird & Co | Gold Bars". Baird & Co. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  8. ^ "Investment Bars : Rectangular Gold Bar". Emirates Gold. Archived from the original on 19 May 2017. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  9. ^ "Gold bars". Heraeus. Archived from the original on 19 October 2016. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  10. ^ "Metalor Gold Bars". BullionByPost. Archived from the original on 23 June 2016. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  11. ^ "Cast Bars". PAMP. Archived from the original on 6 June 2017. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  12. ^ "Minted Ingots". PAMP. Archived from the original on 6 June 2017. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  13. ^ "Perth Mint Spot Prices". Perth Mint. Archived from the original on 16 April 2017. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  14. ^ "Gold Bars | Silver Bars | Royal Mint Bullion | Royal Mint Refinery". The Royal Mint. Archived from the original on 17 June 2017. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  15. ^ "Investment Bars Gold". Umicore. Archived from the original on 13 May 2017. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  16. ^ "Good Delivery Gold bar". Valcambi. Archived from the original on 10 June 2017. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  17. ^ "1 g Minted Gold bar". Valcambi. Archived from the original on 8 May 2017. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  18. ^ "Historical Exchange Rates". OANDA Services. Archived from the original on 2 February 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2010.
  19. ^ "Three Diamonds Cast Gold-Medal Gold Bar". The Japan Journal. November 2005. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 10 March 2010.
  20. ^ "Mitsubishi makes record-size gold bar". Japan Times. 17 June 2005. Archived from the original on 31 May 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2010.
  21. ^ "Gold Spot Price". GoldHub. World Gold Council. Retrieved 7 May 2019.

External linksEdit