Galium odoratum

Galium odoratum, the sweet woodruff[3] or sweetscented bedstraw,[4] is a flowering perennial plant in the family Rubiaceae, native to much of Europe from Spain and Ireland to Russia, as well as Western Siberia, Turkey, Iran, the Caucasus,[2] China and Japan.[5] It is also sparingly naturalized in scattered locations in the United States and Canada.[6] It is widely cultivated for its flowers and its sweet-smelling foliage.[7][8][9]

Galium odoratum
Waldmeister(Mai).JPG
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Gentianales
Family: Rubiaceae
Genus: Galium
Species:
G. odoratum
Binomial name
Galium odoratum
Synonyms[2]
  • Asperula odorata L.
  • Galium matrisylva F.H.Wigg.
  • Asperula odora Salisb.
  • Chlorostemma odoratum (L.) Fourr.
  • Asperula matrisylva Gilib.
  • Asperula zangezurensis Huseynov.
  • Asterophyllum asperula Schimp. & Spenn. in F.C.L.Spenner
  • Asterophyllum sylvaticum Schimp. & Spenn. in F.C.L.Spenner
  • Asperula eugeniae K.Richt.
  • Galium odoratum var. eugeniae (K.Richt.) Ehrend. in E.Janchen

A herbaceous plant, it grows to 30–50 cm (12–20 in) long, often lying flat on the ground or supported by other plants.

It owes its sweet smell to the odoriferous agent coumarin, and is sometimes used as a flavoring agent due to its chemical content.

GrowthEdit

 
Fruits

The leaves are simple, lanceolate, glabrous, 2–5 cm (0.79–1.97 in) long, and borne in whorls of 6–9. The small (4–7 mm diameter) flowers are produced in cymes, each white with four petals joined together at the base. The fruits are 2–4 mm diameter, produced singly, and each is covered in tiny hooked bristles which help disperse them by sticking temporarily to clothing and animal fur.[10][11]

This plant prefers partial to full shade in moist, rich soils. In dry summers it needs frequent watering. Propagation is by crown division, separation of the rooted stems, or digging up of the barely submerged perimeter stolons. It is ideal as a groundcover or border accent in woody, acidic gardens where other shade plants fail to thrive. Deer and chickens avoid eating it (Northeast US).

Uses and health risksEdit

As the epithet odoratum suggests, the plant is strongly scented, the sweet scent being derived from coumarin. This scent increases on wilting and then persists on drying, and the dried plant is used in potpourri and as a moth deterrent. It was, and partially is, used to flavour May wine (called "Maibowle" or "Maitrank" in German), sweet juice punch, syrup for beer (Berliner Weisse), brandy, jelly, jam, a soft drink (Tarhun, which is Georgian), ice cream, and herbal tea. Also very popular are sweet woodruff flavoured jellies, with and without alcohol.[12] In Germany, it was also used to flavour sherbet powder, which features prominently in Günter Grass' novel The Tin Drum.
However, the usage of the plant for sweets was prohibited in Germany in 1974, due to the plant's low level toxicity, which increases upon drying, and is particularly problematic for children, due to their lower body mass. The toxicity stems from the presence of coumarin, which can create sickness, headaches, and damage the liver when ingested in greater quantities. The flavor is still popular for sweets in Germany, but is achieved artificially with other flavoring agents. Products targeted towards adults, such as alcoholic drinks, are still permitted to include coumarin, in limited quantities.[13]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Galium odoratum". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2008-05-16.
  2. ^ a b "World Checklist of Selected Plant Families: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew". apps.kew.org.
  3. ^ "Galium odoratum". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
  4. ^ "Gallium odoratum". Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  5. ^ "Galium odoratum in Flora of China @ efloras.org". www.efloras.org.
  6. ^ "Biota of North America Program".
  7. ^ "Galium odoratum". White Flower Farm.
  8. ^ "Sweet Woodruff - Monrovia - Sweet Woodruff". www.monrovia.com.
  9. ^ "Royal Horticultural Society (London UK)".
  10. ^ Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of the Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  11. ^ "Galium odoratum [Caglio odoroso]". luirig.altervista.org.
  12. ^ "Sweet Woodruff Vodka Jelly - Sweet & Wild". www.sweet-and-wild.com.
  13. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20130302040717/http://dge.de/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=834

External linksEdit