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Free grace theology is a Christian soteriological view teaching that everyone receives eternal life the moment that they believe in Jesus Christ as their personal Savior and Lord. "Lord" refers to the belief that Jesus is the Son of God and therefore able to be their "Savior".[1] The view distinguishes between (1) the "call to believe" in Christ as Savior and to receive the gift of eternal life and (2) the "call to follow" Christ and become obedient disciples.[1]

Free Grace theology had ignited at least four major disputes: the "Free Spirit controversy" (13th century), the "Majoristic controversy" (16th century), the "Antinomian Controversy" (17th century), and the "Lordship controversy" (20th century).


Early Church proponentsEdit

The earliest proponents of justification by faith without works were identified by Augustine of Hippo in his work Enchiridion in 422 AD. According to Augustine, these persons were in good standing with the church but they practiced baptism immediately if someone believed in Christ, without first entering prolonged education in the Christian faith and morals as a catechumen. God’s future judgment consisted only of payment (reward) or punishment (temporary) for how those Christians lived their lives before God. Appealing to 1 Cor. 3.11–14, they taught heaven or hell was not in question because faith alone guaranteed eternity with God. Augustine attempted a refutation of this grace theology after his theological pivot (ench.18.67–69; f. et op.1–2). These Christians also understood inheriting the kingdom as different from entering the kingdom, as Augustine’s reply evidences. They did not view repentance and giving of alms (works) as required for justification or as inevitable proof of it, since justification was by faith alone.[2]

Reformation and early Protestant proponentsEdit

Reformation advocates of the Free Grace position include Johannes Agricola, Nicolaus von Amsdorf, and Andreas Osiander. Martin Luther's fellow professor, Nicolaus von Amsdorf (ca.1530), went to the extreme by claiming that good works were even hurtful to the Christian life since they could foster a doctrine of justification by works and not by faith alone.[3] John Cotton[4] trained at Cambridge before fleeing to America (1633) during the persecution of Puritans. He was the most educated and articulate minister in New England according to his opponents, teaching that God's grace was free without preparation by the sinner.[5] Henry Vane and William Dell shared these views which led to the Antinomian Controversy. A parishioner of John Cotton, Anne Hutchinson,[6] was expelled from Massachusetts after a trial in which she claimed to be hearing directly from God. See also Thomas Boston[citation needed], Robert Sandeman,[7] and Jesse Mercer[citation needed].

Modern proponentsEdit

Free grace theology reemerged under this name in the late 20th century as a critical response to a perceived legalist abuse of the New Testament by Lordship salvation, Catholicism, and Arminianism.[1][8] Its more modern adherents include:

Its prominent present-day expressions are Grace School of Theology,[26] the Grace Evangelical Society, the Free Grace Alliance,[27] and local churches.

Dallas Theological Seminary (DTS)Edit

Many modern proponents of Free Grace theology studied and taught at the Dallas Theological Seminary, although the seminary itself does not hold to Free Grace, including Charles Caldwell Ryrie, Zane C. Hodges, and Dave Anderson. A number of Free Grace churches are pastored by graduates of DTS.[28] A number of opponents of Free Grace also graduated from DTS including Darrel Bock and Daniel Wallace.

Grace Evangelical Society (GES)Edit

Founded in 1986 by Bob Wilkin, the Grace Evangelical Society promotes Free Grace Theology primarily through publishing and conferences. Zane C. Hodges was a core theologian of this group until his death in 2008. GES advocates free grace, but also asserts that assurance of salvation is intrinsic to the very nature of the Gospel. In 2005, GES officially altered the beliefs statement to say that eternal life and eternal security are synonymous and therefore one cannot be a Christian unless one believes in Jesus' promise of eternal security. In this view, one can become a Christian without believing that Jesus is God in the flesh and without believing that Jesus is Savior from sin—the sole condition of salvation is believing Jesus' promise of eternal security.[29] However, this change caused many members to leave GES since most Free Grace theologians reject this view, arguing that eternal life and eternal security are not the same thing[30] and that this view necessarily damns Christians from 100 A.D. until the 1500s since there is no evidence they believed in eternal security.[31]

Grace School of Theology (GSOT)Edit

Dave Anderson, former student and professor at Dallas Theological Seminary, established Grace School of Theology (originally Houston Theological Seminary[32]) in 2003. Grace School of Theology "is committed to Christian scholarly endeavor in the free grace tradition."[33] The school's vision is "To develop spiritual leaders in every nation who can teach others about the love of Christ, a love that cannot be earned and cannot be lost."[34] The school is accredited by TRACS, ATS, and the ECFA[35] with fourteen teaching sites in the United States and internationally.[36] Eight of the thirty-six faculty members trained at Dallas Theological Seminary.[37] Grace School of Theology promotes the Free Grace position through its classes and also through Grace Theology Press, which has published many resources related to Free Grace theology.[38]

Free Grace Alliance (FGA)Edit

The Free Grace Alliance formed in November 2004 with an emphasis on international missions.[39] Although the new organization was officially formed for a "different reason,"[40] the FGA split from GES in 2005 when most of the prominent leaders (including the chairman of the board) within GES rejected the change in the content of saving faith being taught by Zane C. Hodges and GES changed its doctrinal statement regarding the content of saving faith.[29] A FGA statement of non-association with GES was made in 2009.[41] The FGA holds annual conferences, and numerous local churches and Christian ministries are associated with the FGA as members or affiliates.[42]


Core beliefs tableEdit

Core beliefs common to Free Grace theology historically include:

Belief Explanation
Faith alone God declares a person righteous by faith in Christ (imputed righteousness) regardless of works accompanying faith either before or after. John 3:14–17 compares believing in Jesus to the Israelites looking upon the bronze serpent in the wilderness for healing from deadly venom (Numbers 21).[43]
Free choice Justifying faith is not an irresistible gift of God but a human response to God's love. Humanity retains a free will capable of both belief or unbelief when God lovingly woos and invites. Sanctifying faith also involves choice. People choose whether or not to obey, and the resulting consequences (sanctification and reward, defilement and punishment) are due to their choices. The principle that “we reap what we sow” applies to all humanity, because all humans have a God-given gift of making choices.[18]
Relationship differs from intimacy A permanent relationship with God as Father and the believer as a child begins by faith alone. When someone believes, there is a “new birth” and this spiritual birth cannot be undone. However, the familial relationship does not guarantee fellowship; intimacy with God requires obedience.[44]
Justification differs from sanctification Justification before God is a free unconditional gift by faith alone but sanctification requires obedience to God. Sanctification of all Christians is not guaranteed. Only final glorification of all Christians to a sinless state is guaranteed (Romans 8:30; Philippians 2:12).[45][46]
Eternal security Once a person has believed in Jesus Christ as God and Savior that person spends eternity with God regardless of subsequent behavior. God’s eternal acceptance is unconditionally given. Belonging to God’s family is a permanent and irrevocable gift (Romans 11:29).[47][48]
Assurance of salvation Confidence of spending eternity with God is possible for every Christian since God justifies through faith alone and provides eternal security.[49][16]
Rewards and discipline All Christians will undergo judgment by Christ based upon their works and degree of conformity to Christ's character (or lack thereof). This is called the judgment seat or Bema Seat of Christ, where Christians are rewarded based on obedience to God through faith.[50] This judgment does not concern heaven or hell but rewards (payment for service) or temporary punishment. God’s familial acceptance of his children is unconditionally given. However, God's payments of eternal honor, riches, and positions of authority are only given for children who obediently served God. Good parents discipline their children and will not approve behavior that is detrimental. Neither will God approve sinful behavior that leads to destructive consequences (Hebrews 12:5–11).[51]


Free grace theology is distinguished by its soteriology or doctrine of salvation. Its advocates believe that God justifies the sinner on the sole condition of faith in Christ, not righteous living. Their definition of faith involves belief, trust, and conviction that Jesus is the only way to salvation. Faith is being convinced that Jesus is the Messiah and Son of God. Good works do not play a role in being delivered from Hell. In other words, Jesus graciously provides eternal salvation as a free gift to those who believe in Him.[52][53]

Although "salvation" is commonly used to refer to justification, Free Grace advocates point out that believers can experience “salvation” in a number of ways, from a number of things either physically or spiritually. As used in the Bible, “salvation” means “deliverance” and is not a technical term meaning "go to heaven." This can be demonstrated by Acts 27:34 where the Greek word soteria (typically translated as "salvation") is translated “health” or "strength" because food will assist their deliverance from physical death. Spiritually, salvation can refer to deliverance from the eternal penalty of sin (justification), the current power of sin over the Christian (sanctification), the removal of any possibility to sin (glorification), and being restored to stewardship over the world as God intended for humankind at creation (restoration to rule).[54]


A faithful reading of the entire book of Acts fails to reveal a single passage where people are pressed to acknowledge Jesus Christ as their personal Lord in order to be saved.

— Everett Harrison[55]

This Lordship teaching fails to distinguish salvation from discipleship and makes requirements for discipleship prerequisites for salvation. Our Lord distinguished the two (Luke 14:16-33). This teaching elevates one of the many aspects of the person of Christ (Master over life) in making it a part of the Gospel. Why not require faith in His kingship? Or in the fact that He is Judge of all, or that He was the Creator? Though my view has been dubbed "easy believism," it is not easy to believe, because what we ask the unsaved person to believe in not easy. We ask that he trust a person who lived two thousand years ago, whom he can only know through the Bible, to forgive his sins. We are asking that he stake his eternal destiny on this. Remember the example of Evangelist Jesus. He did not require the Samaritan woman to set her sinful life in order, or even be willing to, so that she could be saved. He did not set out before her what would be expected by way of changes in her life if she believed. He simply said she needed to know who He is and to ask for the gift of eternal life (John 4:10)

The water of life is not acquired by the process of fighting a life-long battle and conquering at last. It is a free gift, imparting spiritual life to the spiritually dead.

— George H. Lang, Revelation[57]

Jesus is Lord of all regardless of one's submission to Him. Because He is Lord He has the power and position to save sinners. Sinners who come to Him through faith implicitly or explicitly submit to His authority to save, and may likewise submit to His authority in other areas of life. But since the issue in salvation is salvation, only the recognition of His authority to save is demanded for the forgiveness of sins and eternal life.

— Charles Bing, Lordship Salvation[58]

Being a Christian means following an invitation. Being a disciple means forsaking all. To confuse these two aspects of the Christian life is to confound the grace of God and the works of man, to ignore the difference between salvation and sanctification. The gospel of grace is Scriptural. The Gospel that adds the works of man to salvation is a counterfeit Gospel.

— Manfred Kober, Lordship Salvation: Forgotten Truth or a False Doctrine?[59]

We believe that God saves by grace alone, apart from works (whether past or future), those who put their faith in Christ alone as God and Savior from sin. Initial faith resulting in justification and regeneration is not a gift of God. That is, fallen humanity when persuaded by the illuminating and convicting ministry of the Holy Spirit and the drawing ministry of the Father still possesses the capacity to believe in Christ. Such faith precedes regeneration. At the moment of belief, Christ imputes His righteousness to believers and keeps them secure eternally. Based on the promises of God (not works), we believe a person can and should have complete assurance of his or her Eternal Life the moment he or she believes in Christ.

— Grace School of Theology, Doctrinal Statement[60]


Modern Free Grace theology is typically dispensational in its assumptions regarding the philosophy of history and in terms of its networks and affiliations.[61]


One of the unique aspects of free grace theology is its position on assurance. All free grace advocates agree that assurance of spending eternity with God is based on the promise of scripture through faith alone in Jesus Christ, and not one's works or subsequent progression in sanctification. This view strongly distinguishes the gift of eternal life (accompanying justification by faith) from discipleship (obedience). Free Grace teaches that a person does not need to promise disciplined behavior or good works in exchange for God's eternal salvation; thus, one cannot lose his or her salvation through sinning and potential failure, and that assurance is based on the Bible, not introspection into one's works. God declares persons righteous through Christ's perfection. Whatever little progress humans make towards perfection is infinitesimal compared to Christ's perfection. Thus, comparing one's progress towards perfection with another person's progress is viewed as unwise (2 Cor 10:12). Assurance is based on Christ's perfection given freely to believers (imputed righteousness) and not based on progressive steps of holiness. Dallas Theological Seminary sums up the general consensus of free grace theology in Article XI of its doctrinal statement, in reference to assurance:[62]

We believe it is the privilege, not only of some, but of all who are born again by the Spirit through faith in Christ as revealed in the Scriptures, to be assured of their salvation from the very day they take Him to be their Savior and that this assurance is not founded upon any fancied discovery of their own worthiness or fitness, but wholly upon the testimony of God in His written Word, exciting within His children filial love, gratitude, and obedience (Luke 10:20; 22:32; 2 Cor. 5:1, 6–8; 2 Tim. 1:12; Heb. 10:22; 1 John 5:13).

A novel view proposed by Zane C. Hodges and accepted by the Grace Evangelical Society is that assurance is of the essence of saving faith: "A careful consideration of the offer of salvation as Jesus Himself presented it, will show that assurance is inherent in that offer."[63] This view holds that faith is, by definition, a conviction that what Jesus promises is true. If a person has never been sure that he had eternal life which could never be lost (i.e., sure that he was once-for-all justified, sure that he is going to heaven no matter what), then it is posited that he has not yet believed in Christ in the Biblical sense (cf. John 11:25-26 and Jesus' question, "Do you believe this?").


Free grace theology approaches the doctrine of repentance in a different way than most other Christian traditions.[64]

Harry A. Ironside ("Except Ye Repent", American Tract Society, 1937) and Lewis Sperry Chafer (Systematic Theology, completed 1947), among others, returned to consider the fundamental meaning of the Greek word metanoia (repentance), which simply means "to change one's mind." In biblical passages concerning eternal salvation, the object of repentance was often seen simply as Jesus Christ, making repentance equivalent to faith in Christ. Passages identifying a more specific object of repentance were understood to focus on man's need to change his mind from a system of self-justification by works to trusting in Christ alone for salvation, or a change in mind from polytheism to a belief in Jesus Christ as the true living God. Further exposition came from various free grace authors,.[65]

Zane C. Hodges and Robert Wilkin hold that repentance is defined as turning from one's sins, but repentance is not a requirement for eternal life, only faith in Christ. Robert N. Wilkin undertook a detailed examination in his doctoral dissertation at Dallas Theological Seminary (1985), which he simplified for a more popular audience in the Journal of the Grace Evangelical Society from Autumn 1988 to Autumn 1990. Hodges takes the position in Absolutely Free! (and in more detail in Harmony With God) that the process of repentance may be a preparatory step in coming to salvation, and should be evident in the life of a believer, but a lost man can be born again apart from repentance by any definition. Hodges also says that he no longer holds to the change of mind view of repentance.[citation needed] In Harmony with God, Hodges says that there is only one answer to the question “What must I do to be saved?” “Repentance is not part of that answer. It never has been and never will be.”[citation needed]

Content of saving faithEdit

Among Free Grace adherents there is general agreement about the nature of saving faith[66] but not its content. The Free Grace view generally holds that belief in Jesus Christ for eternal life must include belief in certain aspects of his person and work, such as one or more of the following: his deity,[67] humanity, substitutionary death for sin and bodily resurrection.[68]

The Free Grace Alliance states in its affirmations that the finished work of Jesus Christ's death and resurrection is essential to believe for eternal life: "Faith is a personal response, apart from our works, whereby we are persuaded that the finished work of Jesus Christ, His death and resurrection, has delivered us from condemnation and guaranteed our eternal life."[69]

The more recent view of Zane Hodges and the Grace Evangelical Society considers it to be theological legalism to require for eternal life belief in Christ's deity, death for sin, and bodily resurrection since this would exceed the requirement of the minimal saving message to simply "believe in Jesus for everlasting life."[70] This view seeks support mainly from passages in the Gospel of John that speak of Jesus guaranteeing everlasting life to all who believe in him for it (3:16; 5:24; 6:47; 11:25-27). According to this view, the Gospel of John is considered to be the only evangelistic book of the Bible written to bring people to belief in Jesus Christ for eternal life (20:30-31).

Comparison to the five points of Reformed TheologyEdit

Free Grace contrasts with the teachings of Reformed Theology, which are often characterized by the acrostic “TULIP”.

Calvinism Free grace
Total depravity: Humans are not capable of having faith in God because they are totally depraved (total inability).[71] God gave men the ability to choose, and they are capable of choosing to believe God and believe in Christ (without a divine infusion of faith).[72]
Unconditional election: Men are not capable of coming to faith on their own (God must infuse faith). God simply chooses to bring some to Himself independently of a choice on the part of the elected person.[73] God desires that all persons should come to faith in Him, and election is according to God's foreknowledge of faith (1 Pet 1:1-2).[74]
Limited atonement: Since God only elects some and not others, Christ's death on the cross only applies to the elect. Jesus therefore did not die for the entire world.[75] Jesus died for everyone, but is only effective for those who believe in Christ.[76][77]
Irresistible grace: Man is totally depraved, God must impose His grace upon the elect in such a way that they are compelled to believe.[78] God's grace can be and is resisted by humans, but is also embraced by humans without divine coercion.[79]
Perseverance of the saints: The only way to know if you have received irresistible grace resulting in saving faith is to see whether you continuously grow in obedience and good works. Obedience and good works are inevitable. Since they view faith as God's gift then faith must be perfect and ultimately produce perfect people.[80] The Christian is eternally secure through God's grace whether or not he/she dies in "state of grace" by persevering in good works. Perseverance in faith is the believer's choice and the means by which believers can achieve maximum joy and fulfillment, both in this life as well as in eternity.[81]

The fundamental disagreement between Free Grace and Reformed theology is over humanity's ability to choose the good and believe God.[82] Adherents to free grace point to verses such as Acts 17:27 that indicate non-believers can “grope for Him and find Him, though He is not far from each one of us.” Further, Free Grace advocates point out that the Bible is full of admonitions for human readers to make good choices. As an example, they point to Galatians 5:13 “For you, brethren, have been called to liberty; only do not use liberty as an opportunity for the flesh, but through love serve one another.” “Liberty” or freedom means the ability to make choices for yourself. This verse admonishes believers to make good choices, and acknowledges they can make a choice to follow the Spirit or the flesh. The balance of the passage speaks of the consequences of giving priority to the flesh (human lusts) or the Holy Spirit. Adherents to Free Grace theology maintain that all believers have the power to overcome sin through the indwelling Holy Spirit, but have a choice whether to use that power.[83] The “TULIP” doctrines were brought into Christianity by Augustine of Hippo starting in 412 CE during his conflict with the Pelagians.[84] Free Grace theologians argue that Augustine erred in departing from his prior traditional Christian doctrines to form Augustinian Calvinism, and this in turn influenced Calvin. Free Grace theology opposes each of these doctrines as countering the teachings of the Bible as well as the teachings of early church fathers prior to Augustine.


Free grace theology is associated with at least three disputes: the "Majoristic controversy" (16th century), the "Antinomian Controversy" (17th century),[85] and the "Lordship salvation" controversy (20th century).

Lordship Salvation and the Reformed (Calvinist) tradition are opposing views, as held by John MacArthur, Darrel Bock, and Daniel Wallace.[86][87] The Reformed tradition holds that people cannot generate saving faith because they are by nature fallen and opposed to God. They believe that God's grace enables a sinner to overcome his fallen will and gives him saving faith in Jesus. A heavy emphasis is placed on proving the validity of one’s faith by outward and inward moral conduct.[88] Noted Reformed theologian Wayne Grudem wrote a book[89] for the specific purpose of refuting Free Grace theology and defending the core tenets[90] of Reformed theology. Shortly after its release, Grudem's book was countered in A Defense of Free Grace Theology edited by Fred Chay, his former colleague at Phoenix Seminary.

See alsoEdit


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  3. ^ Stoeffler, F. Ernest (1965). The Rise of Evangelical Pietism. Studies in the History of Religion. Leiden: Brill. p. 183.
  4. ^ R.T. Kendall Calvin and English Calvinism to 1649 2nd ed., Paternoster Press, UK, 1997[page needed]
  5. ^ Emerson, Everett (1990). John Cotton (Rev. ed.). University of California: Twayne. p. 49.
  6. ^ David D. Hall, The Antinomian Controversy 1636-1638 : A Documentary History, 1990[page needed]
  7. ^ Robert Sandeman Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007
  8. ^ Dean, Abiding in Christ: A Dispensational Theology of the Spiritual Life, CTS Journal, 2006
  9. ^ a b c d Bob Nyberg. "The Free Grace Fracture" (PDF). Retrieved 25 February 2015.
  10. ^ Hodges, Zane (1981). The Gospel Under Siege. Dallas, TX: Redencion Viva.
  11. ^ Hodges, Zane (1989). Absolutely Free: A Biblical Reply to Lordship Salvation. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.
  12. ^ Wilkin, Robert (2005). "Justification by Faith Alone is an Essential Part of the Gospel". JOTGES: 1–13.
  13. ^ Stanley, Charles (1998). Understanding Eternal Security: Secure in God's Unconditional Love. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.
  14. ^ Evans, Anthony (2008). Theology You Can Count On. Chicago: Moody.
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  18. ^ a b Geisler, Norman (2001). Chosen But Free (2nd ed.). Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House.
  19. ^ Moyer, Larry (1997). Free and Clear: Understanding & Communicating God's Offer of Eternal Life. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel.
  20. ^ Radmacher, Earl (2007). Salvation. Swindoll Leadership Library Series. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.
  21. ^ Bing, Charles (2010). Lordship Salvation: A Biblical Evaluation and Response (2nd ed.). Xulon.
  22. ^ Dillow, Joseph (2012). Final Destiny: The Future Reign of the Servant Kings.
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  30. ^ Bing, Charles (1996). "The Condition for Salvation in John's Gospel". JOTGES. 9 (16): 25–36. Bing, Charles (1994). "How to Share the Gospel Clearly". JOTGES. 7 (12): 51–65. Sapaugh, Gregory (2001). "A Response to Hodges: How to Lead a Person to Christ, Parts 1 and 2". JOTGES. 14 (27): 21–28. Wilson, Kenneth (2006). "Is Belief in Christ's Deity Required for Eternal Life in John's Gospel?". CTSJ. 12 (2): 58–86. "Doctrinal Statement". Grace School of Theology. Retrieved 5 December 2018. "Mission and Beliefs". Free Grace Alliance. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
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  64. ^ The Reformed tradition, for instance, sees repentance as "a heartfelt sorrow for sin, a renouncing of it, and a sincere commitment to forsake it and walk in obedience to Christ" (Wayne Grudem, Systematic Theology, p. 713). Defined as such, it is a component of conversion and also of sanctification, and it is a regularly recurring element throughout the Christian's life. This repentance cannot be present in unbelievers at all (unless perhaps God is in the process of converting them) because only those truly regenerated by God can exercise it.
  65. ^ E.g., Dick Seymour, All About Repentance (1974)[page needed]; G. Michael Cocoris, Lordship Salvation, Is it Biblical? (circa 1983)[page needed] and Repentance: The Most Misunderstood Word in the Bible (1993)[page needed]; Curtis Hutson, Repentance, What does the Bible Teach[page needed]; Richard Hill, Why a Turn or Burn Theology is Wrong[page needed]; and Ronald R. Shea, The Gospel booklet (1988)[page needed]; and numerous articles by John R. Rice and Curtis Hutson in the Sword of the Lord magazine.[verification needed]
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  68. ^ Charlie Bing. "The Content of the Gospel of Salvation". Retrieved 25 February 2017.
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  77. ^ See also Alcorn, Randy. "What Is Your View on Limited Atonement?". Eternal Perspective Ministries. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
  78. ^ Murray, John. "Irresistible Grace". Ligonier Ministries. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
  79. ^ Smith, C. Fred (2010). "Whosoever Will: A Review Essay". LBTS Faculty Publications and Presentations: 377.
  80. ^ Piper, John (15 March 2008). "Perseverance of the Saints". Desiring God. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
  81. ^ Stanley, Charles (1990). Eternal Security: Can You Be Sure?. Nashville, TN: Oliver Nelson. p. 80.
  82. ^ Dillow, Joseph (2012). Final Destiny: The Future Reign of the Servant Kings. pp. 565–610. ISBN 978-0-9856738-0-2.
  83. ^ Anderson, David (2012). Free Grace Soteriology (Rev ed.). The Woodlands, TX: Grace Theology Press. pp. 289–310.
  84. ^ Wilson, Kenneth (2018). Augustine’s Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will: A Comprehensive Methodology. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck. pp. 273–298.
  85. ^ "Sample Chapter for Winship, M.P.: Making Heretics: Militant Protestantism and Free Grace in Massachusetts, 1636-1641". Retrieved 2015-02-25.
  86. ^ Grudem, Wayne (2016). "Free Grace" Theology: 5 Ways It Diminishes the Gospel. Wheaton, IL: Crossway. pp. Endorsements in the frontmatter.
  87. ^ MacArthur, John (1993). Faith Works: The Gospel According to the Apostles. Dallas, TX: Word.
  88. ^ MacArthur, John (1993). Faith Works: The Gospel According to the Apostles. Dallas, TX: Word Pub Group. ISBN 978-0849908415.
  89. ^ Grudem, Wayne (2016). "Free Grace" Theology: 5 Ways It Diminishes the Gospel. Wheaton, IL: Crossway.
  90. ^ Palmar, Edwin (1996). The Five Points of Calvinism. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books.

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