François de Créquy
François de Blanchefort de Créquy, later Marquis de Marines (1629 – 1687) was a 17th century French noble and soldier, who served in the wars of Louis XIV.
François de Blanchefort de Créquy
François de Blanchefort de Créquy, by Joseph Parrocel
|Born||2 October 1629|
|Died||3 February 1687 (aged 57)|
|Years of service||1648-1684|
|Rank||Marshal of France 1668|
|Commands held||Governor of Béthune 1667-1668|
|Battles/wars||Franco-Spanish War, 1635-1659|
Arras 1654 The Dunes 1658
War of Devolution 1667-1668
Siege of Lille
Occupation of Lorraine 1670
Franco-Dutch War 1672-1678
Konzer Brücke 1675; Trier 1675; Ortenbach 1678
War of the Reunions 1683-1684
Siege of Luxembourg 1684
|Awards||Order of the Holy Spirit|
François de Blanchefort de Créquy, 2 October 1629 to 3 February 1687, was the youngest of three sons born to Charles de Blanchefort (ca 1598-1630), and Anne Grimoard du Roure (ca 1601-1686). His eldest brother Charles (1623-1687), was a close advisor to Louis XIV, whose wife was chief Lady-in-waiting to Queen Maria Theresa. The middle brother Alphonse (1628-1711) became the 6th duke of Lesdiguières in 1703 but was less successful than his siblings.
François was born in Poix-de-Picardie but the de Créquys, also spelt 'Créqui', were distributed throughout Northern France, including branches in Bernieulles, Auffay and Heilly. The family originally came from Créquy, in Artois, part of the French-speaking Southern Spanish Netherlands until annexed by France in 1659; other 'de Crequis' served in the armies of the Dutch Republic and Sweden.
His grandfather, Charles I de Blanchefort (1578–1638), was a trusted advisor to Louis XIII and Marshal of France, who commanded French troops at the 1636 victory of Tornavento; his father died at the siege of Chambéry in 1630.
In 1657, François married Catherine de Rougé (1641-1713); they had two children, François Joseph (1662–1702), killed in action at Luzzara in 1702 and Nicolas Charles (1669-1696), who died of disease at the siege of Tournai in 1696.
In the first half of the 17th century, France was divided internally and threatened externally; while it largely stayed out of the 1618-1648 Thirty Years' War, support for the Dutch Republic in its war of independence from Spain eventually led to the 1635-1659 Franco-Spanish War. At home, the French Wars of Religion that had ended with the 1590 Edict of Nantes flared up again in a series of domestic Huguenot rebellions in the 1620s.
The accession of the five year old Louis XIV in 1643 caused a power struggle between his regents, headed by his mother, Anne of Austria and Cardinal Mazarin, opposed by regional magnates like Condé. This resulted in the 1648-1653 civil war known as the Fronde; de Créquy supported the Royalists and was a Lieutenant-General by 1658. He commanded the French right wing under Turenne at the Battle of the Dunes, a decisive victory that led to the 1659 Treaty of the Pyrenees.
In the 1667-1668 War of Devolution, France quickly over-ran Franche-Comté and much of the Spanish Netherlands; after the capture of Lille in 1667, Turenne detached a cavalry force under Bellefonds and de Créquy to cut off the Spanish retreat. They inflicted nearly 2,000 casualties, with Louis looking on; in 1668, Bellefonds, de Créquy and Humières were all created Marshals of France.
However, the Dutch preferred a weak Spain as a neighbour in the Spanish Netherlands, to a strong and ambitious France; with England and Sweden, they formed the Triple Alliance obliging Louis to return most of his gains in the 1668 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. Angered by what he viewed as ingratitude for previous French support against Spain, Louis made preparations to invade the Netherlands.
When Louis decided to occupy the strategic Duchy of Lorraine in August 1670, de Créquy commanded the invasion force. However, his career was brought to a halt in April 1672, when Louis appointed Turenne general en chef or senior commander of French forces in the Netherlands; this caused problems, since the prevailing convention was that Marshalls did not serve under other Marshalls. Bellefonds and Humières expressed their admiration for Turenne but refused to be subordinate to him and were banished to their estates; they were followed by de Créquy, who allegedly offered to return his marshall's baton and serve as a common soldier.
The Franco-Dutch War began in May 1672, when the French over-ran much of the Dutch Republic and initially seemed to have achieved an overwhelming victory. By late July, the Dutch position had stabilised and they gained the support of Brandenburg-Prussia, Emperor Leopold and Charles II of Spain. With new fronts opening in Spain and the Rhineland, French troops withdrew from the Dutch Republic by the end of 1673, retaining only Grave and Maastricht.
Along with Bellefonds and Humières, de Créquy returned to service in 1673 but his attempt to relieve Trier was defeated at Konzer Brücke in August 1675. He entered the city to organise the defence but the garrison was mutinous, forcing him to surrender the town in September when he was taken prisoner. This was widely viewed as a humiliation and cost him the support of both Louis and Louvois, the Minister of War.
Following the death of Turenne and Condé's retirement in 1675, de Créquy was given a new command but despite subsequent success, the earlier defeats affected Louis' confidence in him. Although an apparently minor defeat, Konzer Brücke clearly rankled and was specifically mentioned in the eulogy delivered at Louis' funeral in 1715.
With peace negotiations nearing completion at Nijmegen, Louis planned a short campaign to strengthen his position in the Spanish Netherlands, while remaining on the defensive elsewhere. De Créquy was instructed not to seek battle and ensure the retention of Freiburg, threatened by an Imperial army of 30,000 under Charles of Lorraine. With the advantage of superior logistics, in early July he inflicted heavy casualties on an Imperial detachment at Rheinfelden, before out manoeuvring the main force at the Battle of Ortenbach. Charles retreated to Electoral Palatinate and de Créquy completed the campaign by capturing Kehl and its bridge over the Rhine, which were instrumental in securing Strasbourg, annexed by France in 1681.
He oversaw the Bombardment of Luxembourg from 1681 to 1682; the French withdrew after securing Strasbourg, then annexed it in 1684 during the War of the Reunions. This was de Créquy's final military action; he died in Paris on 3 February 1687, ten days before his brother Charles on 13th.
De Créquy and later his wife were buried in the church attached to the convent of Jacobins Saint-Honoré, Paris, demolished in 1816. Their memorial was designed by Charles Le Brun and executed by Antoine Coysevox; when the Jacobin Club took over the church during the French Revolution, this was moved to the Church of Saint-Roch, where it can be seen today.
- Hanlon, Gregory (2016). The Ordeal of Tornavento in Italy 1636: Cemetery of Armies (2018 ed.). OUP. ISBN 978-0198738251.
- Pattou, Etienne. "Seigneurs de Créquy - Racines & Histoire" (PDF). Racines et histoire. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
- De Périni, Hardÿ (1896). Batailles françaises, Volume IV. Ernest Flammarion, Paris. p. 227.
- De Périni, Batailles françaises, Volume IV p. 303
- Lynn, John (1996). The Wars of Louis XIV, 1667-1714 (Modern Wars In Perspective). Longman. p. 113. ISBN 978-0582056299.
- McCluskey, Phil (2009). French Military Occupations of Lorraine and Savoy, 1670-1714. University of St Andrews. p. 53. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
- Swann, Julian (2017). Exile, Imprisonment, or Death: The Politics of Disgrace in Bourbon France, 1610-1789. OUP. p. 352. ISBN 978-0198788690.
- Lynn 1999, p. 117.
- Rowlands, Guy (2002). The Dynastic State and the Army under Louis XIV: Royal Service and Private Interest 1661-1701 (2010 ed.). CUP. p. 54. ISBN 978-0521144742.
- De Périni, Hardÿ (1896). Batailles françaises, Volume V. Ernest Flammarion, Paris. p. 224.
- Massillon, François, Aizpurua, Paul (2004). Oraison funèbre de Louis XIV: 1715. Editions Jérôme Millon. p. 55. ISBN 978-2841371587.
- De Périni, Hardÿ pp. 223-224
- "Francois de Crequy". Findagrave.com. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
- Dearing, Vinton (ed and Commentary), Roper, Alan (ed and Commentary) (1992). The Works of John Dryden; Volume XIV (2013 ed.). Hardpress. p. 391. ISBN 978-1314579512.
- Dearing, Vinton (ed and Commentary), Roper, Alan (ed and Commentary) (1992). The Works of John Dryden; Volume XIV (2013 ed.). Hardpress. ISBN 978-1314579512.;
- De Périni, Hardÿ (1896). Batailles françaises, Volume V. Ernest Flammarion, Paris.;
- Hanlon, Gregory (2016). The Ordeal of Tornavento in Italy 1636: Cemetery of Armies (2018 ed.). OUP. ISBN 978-0198738251.;
- Lynn, John (1996). The Wars of Louis XIV, 1667-1714 (Modern Wars In Perspective). Longman. ISBN 978-0582056299.;
- Massillon, François, Aizpurua, Paul (2004). Oraison funèbre de Louis XIV: 1715. Editions Jérôme Millon. ISBN 978-2841371587.;
- McCluskey, Phil (2009). French Military Occupations of Lorraine and Savoy, 1670-1714. University of St Andrews.;
- Pattou, Etienne. "Seigneurs de Créquy - Racines & Histoire" (PDF). Racines et histoire.;
- Rowlands, Guy (2002). The Dynastic State and the Army under Louis XIV: Royal Service and Private Interest 1661-1701. CUP. ISBN 978-0521144742.;
|| Marquis de Marines