Foreign Assistance Act
The Foreign Assistance Act (Pub.L. 87–195, 75 Stat. 424-2, enacted September 4, 1961, 22 U.S.C. § 2151 et seq.) is a United States Act of Congress. The Act reorganized the structure of existing U.S. foreign assistance programs, distinguishing between military from non-military aid, and created a new agency, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) to administer non-military, economic assistance programs. President John F. Kennedy signed the Act on November 3, 1961, and issued Executive Order 10973, detailing the reorganization.
|Other short titles|
|Long title||An Act to promote the foreign policy, security, and general welfare of the United States by assisting peoples of the world in their efforts toward economic and social development and internal and external security, and for other purposes.|
|Nicknames||Foreign Assistance Act of 1961|
|Enacted by||the 87th United States Congress|
|Effective||September 4, 1961|
|Statutes at Large||75 Stat. 424-2|
|Titles amended||22 U.S.C.: Foreign Relations and Intercourse|
|U.S.C. sections created||22 U.S.C. ch. 32 § 2151|
|Foreign Assistance Act of 1974|
USAID unified already existing U.S. aid efforts, combining the economic and technical assistance operations of the International Cooperation Administration, the loan activities of the Development Loan Fund, the local currency functions of the Export-Import Bank, and the agricultural surplus distribution activities of the Food for Peace program of the Department of Agriculture.
The Act provides that no assistance is to be provided to a government which "engages in a consistent pattern of gross violations of internationally recognized human rights, including torture or cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment, prolonged detention without charges, causing the disappearance of persons by the abduction and clandestine detention of those persons, or other flagrant denial of the right to life, liberty, and the security of person, unless such assistance will directly benefit the needy people in such country."
The Act also provides that no assistance is to be provided to any Communist country. However, the President may waive this prohibition if he determines that such assistance is vital to the national security of the United States, that the country is not controlled by the international Communist conspiracy, and that the assistance will promote the country's independence from international Communism. The President may also remove a country from the application of this provision for a certain time which the President determines. In order to remove a country from the application of this provision, the President must determine and report to Congress that such action is important to the national security of the United States.
The Act was amended in 2004 specific to the treatment of orphans and other vulnerable children. This amendment allows the president to provide aid to the peoples of other countries to look after children in cases of HIV/AIDS and to set up schools and other programs for the advancement of child treatment.
Amendments to 1961 ActEdit
Chronological timeline of amendments and revisions to the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.
|Date of Enactment||Public Law Number||U.S. Statute Citation||U.S. Legislative Bill||U.S. Presidential Administration|
|August 1, 1962||Pub.L. 87–565||76 Stat. 255||S. 2996||John F. Kennedy|
|December 16, 1963||Pub.L. 88–205||77 Stat. 379||H.R. 7885||Lyndon B. Johnson|
|October 7, 1964||Pub.L. 88–633||78 Stat. 1009||H.R. 11380||Lyndon B. Johnson|
|September 6, 1965||Pub.L. 89–171||79 Stat. 653||H.R. 7750||Lyndon B. Johnson|
|March 18, 1966||Pub.L. 89–371||80 Stat. 74||H.R. 12169||Lyndon B. Johnson|
|September 19, 1966||Pub.L. 89–583||80 Stat. 795-3||H.R. 15750||Lyndon B. Johnson|
|November 14, 1967||Pub.L. 90–137||81 Stat. 445||S. 1872||Lyndon B. Johnson|
|October 8, 1968||Pub.L. 90–554||82 Stat. 960||H.R. 15263||Lyndon B. Johnson|
|January 5, 1971||Pub.L. 91–652||84 Stat. 1942||H.R. 19911||Richard M. Nixon|
|December 30, 1974||Pub.L. 93–559||88 Stat. 1795||S. 3394||Gerald R. Ford|
|June 30, 1976||Pub.L. 94–329||90 Stat. 729||H.R. 13680||Gerald R. Ford|
|September 8, 2017||Pub.L. 115–56||131 Stat. 1129||H.R. 601||Donald Trump|
- Executive Order 10973, 3 November 1961, Administration of Foreign Assistance and Related Functions
- "22 U.S. Code § 8422 - Authorization of assistance". Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
- H.R. 1298 at Congress.gov
- "United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act of 2003 ~ P.L. 108-25" (PDF). 117 Stat. 711 ~ House Bill 1298. U.S. Government Printing Office. May 27, 2003.
- The Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended
- Information from USAID
- Foreign Operations Appropriations: General Provisions
- FAA-related documents and publications available through USAID's Development Experience Clearinghouse
- Peters,Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "John F. Kennedy: "Statement by the President Upon Signing the Foreign Assistance Act.," September 4, 1961". The American Presidency Project. University of California - Santa Barbara. Retrieved September 22, 2013.
- "Bill signing - S. 2996 Public Law 87-565, Foreign Assistance Act, 10:29AM". John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum.