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Federation of Ethiopia and Eritrea

The Federation of Ethiopia and Eritrea or Ethiopian–Eritrean Federation[3] was a federation of the Ethiopian Empire and Eritrea. It was created by the approval of the Federal Act in Ethiopia and the Eritrean Constitution on 15 September 1952.

Ethiopian–Eritrean Federation

Flag of the Federation State of Eritrea
Motto: "Ethiopia Stretches Her Hands unto God"
Anthem: Ityopp'ya Hoy[1]
Ethiopia, Be Happy
Location of the Federation of Ethiopia and Eritrea in the Horn of Africa.
Location of the Federation of Ethiopia and Eritrea
in the Horn of Africa.
CapitalAddis Ababa
Common languagesAmharic
Emperor of Ethiopia 
• throughout
Haile Selassie I
Prime Minister of Ethiopia 
• 1952–1957
Makonnen Endelkachew
• 1957–1960
Abebe Aregai
• 1960
Imru Haile Selassie
• 1961–1962
Aklilu Habte-Wold
Chief Executive of Eritrea 
• 1952–1955
Tedla Bairu
• 1955–1959
Asfaha Woldemikael
• 1959–1962
Abiye Abebe
LegislatureImperial Federal Council
Historical eraCold War
• Federation
15 September 1952
• Annexation of Eritrea
15 November 1962
1,221,900 km2 (471,800 sq mi)
CurrencyEthiopian dollar
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Ethiopian Empire
British Military Administration (Eritrea)
Ethiopian Empire
Today part of Ethiopia

Prior to the annexation of Eritrea, the Chief Justice of Eritrea was removed and the official Eritrean languages were eliminated in favor of Ethiopia's national language Amharic.[4] During the Federation, the encroachment of the Ethiopian Crown was felt on the Chief Executive of Eritrea. This was in direct contravention of the UN Resolution 390-A(V) which had established the Federation.[5]

The federal structure, or some semblance of it, existed between 15 September 1952 and 15 November 1962.[3] On 15 November 1962, following pressure from Haile Selassie I on the Eritrean Assembly,[6] the Federation was officially dissolved and Eritrea was annexed by Ethiopia.


  1. ^
  2. ^ a b Official languages of the Federation alongside Amharic until 1956.
  3. ^ a b Siegbert Uhlig, et al. (eds.) (2005). Encyclopaedia Aethiopica, Vol. 2: D-Ha. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. pp.405–409
  4. ^ Killion, Tom (1998). Historical Dictionary of Eritrea. The Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-3437-5.
  5. ^ Haile, Semere (1987). "The Origins and Demise of the Ethiopia-Eritrea Federation". Issue. Issue: A Journal of Opinion, Vol. 15. 15: 9. doi:10.2307/1166919. JSTOR 1166919.
  6. ^ Habteselassie, Bereket (1989). Eritrea and the United Nations and Other Essays. Red Sea Press. ISBN 0-932415-12-1.

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