Fathers of Confederation

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The Fathers of Confederation are the 36 people who attended at least one of the Charlottetown Conference of 1864 (23 attendees), the Quebec Conference of 1864 (33 attendees), and the London Conference of 1866 (16 attendees), preceding Canadian Confederation. Only ten people attended all three conferences.

Of the 36 Fathers, 11 were Freemasons, notably Macdonald, but including Bernard, Campbell, Carter, Chandler, Galt, Gray, Haviland, Henry, Pope, and Tilley.[1]

Table of participationEdit

The following table lists the participants in the Charlottetown, Quebec, and London Conferences and their attendance at each stage.[2][3]

Participant[3] Portrait Province (Current) Charlottetown Quebec City London
Sir Adams George Archibald Nova Scotia      
George Brown Ontario      
Sir Alexander Campbell Ontario      
Sir Frederick Carter Newfoundland and Labrador      
Sir George-Étienne Cartier Quebec      
Edward Barron Chandler New Brunswick      
Jean-Charles Chapais Quebec      
James Cockburn Ontario      
George Coles Prince Edward Island      
Robert B. Dickey Nova Scotia      
Charles Fisher New Brunswick      
Sir Alexander Tilloch Galt Quebec      
John Hamilton Gray Prince Edward Island      
John Hamilton Gray New Brunswick      
Thomas Heath Haviland Prince Edward Island      
William Alexander Henry Nova Scotia      
Sir William Pearce Howland Ontario      
John Mercer Johnson New Brunswick      
Sir Hector-Louis Langevin Quebec      
Andrew Archibald Macdonald Prince Edward Island      
Sir John A. Macdonald Ontario      
Jonathan McCully Nova Scotia      
William McDougall Ontario      
Thomas D'Arcy McGee Quebec      
Peter Mitchell New Brunswick      
Sir Oliver Mowat Ontario      
Edward Palmer Prince Edward Island      
William Henry Pope Prince Edward Island      
John William Ritchie Nova Scotia      
Sir Ambrose Shea Newfoundland and Labrador      
William H. Steeves New Brunswick      
Sir Étienne-Paschal Taché Quebec      
Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley New Brunswick      
Sir Charles Tupper Nova Scotia      
Edward Whelan Prince Edward Island      
Robert Duncan Wilmot New Brunswick      

Group photographsEdit

Other possible claimants to titleEdit

Four other individuals have been labelled as Fathers of Confederation. Hewitt Bernard, who was the recording secretary at the Charlottetown Conference, is considered by some to be a Father of Confederation.[4] The leaders most responsible for bringing three specific provinces into Confederation after 1867 are also referred to as Fathers of Confederation.[2]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Michael Jenkyns (July 2017). "Canada's Sesquicentennial - Freemasonry and Confederation". Grand Lodge A.F. & A.M. of Canada in the Province of Ontario. Archived from the original on 5 December 2018. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  2. ^ a b "Fathers of Confederation". CanadianHistory. 2008. Archived from the original on 2010-08-21. Retrieved 2010-06-21.
  3. ^ a b Bélanger, Claude (2001). "Studies on the Canadian Constitution and Canadian Federalism". Department of History, Marianopolis College. Archived from the original on 2010-06-11. Retrieved 2010-06-21.
  4. ^ Harrison, Robert A (2003). The conventional man. Canadian Legal History by University of Toronto Press. p. 627. ISBN 0-8020-8842-2. Archived from the original on 2018-03-28. Retrieved 2011-09-02.
  5. ^ The Heritage Centre. "Louis Riel The Provisional Government". Archived from the original on 10 August 2007. Retrieved 23 September 2007.
  6. ^ Frances, Stanford (2002). Canada's Confederation. S&S Learning Materials. p. 44. ISBN 1-55035-708-5. Archived from the original on 2018-03-28. Retrieved 2011-09-02.
  7. ^ Argyle, Ray (2012). Joey Smallwood, Schemer and Dreamer. Dundurn Press. ISBN 9781459703698.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit