Faten Ahmed Hamama (Egyptian Arabic: فاتن حمامه  pronounced [ˈfæːten ħæˈmæːmæ] ; 27 May 1931 – 17 January 2015) was an Egyptian film and television actress and film producer.[1] She was the first wife of Ezz El-Dine Zulficar. She made her screen debut in 1939, when she was only seven years old. Her earliest roles were minor, but her activity and gradual success helped to establish her as a distinguished Egyptian actress. Later revered as an icon in Egyptian cinema. In 1996, nine of the films she starred in were included in the Top hundred films in the history of Egyptian cinema by the cinema critics of Cairo International Film Festival.[2]

Faten Hamama
فاتن حمامه
Faten Hamama in 1963
Faten Ahmed Hamama

(1931-05-27)27 May 1931
Died17 January 2015(2015-01-17) (aged 83)
Other names"The First Lady of Egyptian and Arabic Cinema"
Years active1940–2001
Notable workFull list
(m. 1947; div. 1954)
(m. 1955; div. 1974)
Mohamed Abdel Wahab Mahmoud
(m. 1975)
RelativesOmar Sharif Jr. (grandson)
Honours Order of the Republic - Grand Cordon
Order of Sciences and Arts

After a seven-year hiatus from acting, Hamama returned in 2000 in what was a much anticipated television series, Wageh El Amar (وجه القمر, Face of the Moon). Hamama substantially helped in improving the cinema industry in Egypt and emphasizing the importance of women in cinema and Egyptian society. In 2000, she was selected as Star of the Century by the Egyptian Writers and Critics organization.[3]

Early life and career edit

Faten Hamama was born in 1931[4] to an Egyptian lower middle class family in Mansoura, Egypt (according to her birth certificate), but she claimed to have been born in the Abdin quarter of Cairo.[5] She has an older brother, Mounir, a younger sister, Layla and a younger brother, Mazhar.[6] Her aspiration for acting arose at an early age. When she was six years old, her father took her to the theater to see an Assia Dagher film; when the audience clapped for Assia, she told her father she felt they were clapping for her.[5]

Hamama in her film debut, Happy Day (1940)

When she won a children's beauty pageant in Egypt, her father sent her picture to the director Mohamed Karim who was looking for a young female child to play the role of a small girl with the famous Egyptian actor and musician Mohamed Abdel Wahab in the film Youm Sai'd (يوم سعيد, A Happy Day, 1939). After an audition, Abdel Wahab decided she was the one he was looking for. After her role in the film, people called her "Egypt's own Shirley Temple".[7][8] The director liked her acting and was impressed with her so much that he signed a contract with her father. Four years later, she was chosen by Kareem for another role with Abdel Wahab in the film Rossassa Fel Qalb (رصاصه فى القلب, Bullet in the Heart, 1944) and in another film two years later, Dunya (دنيا, Universe, 1946). After her success, Hamama moved with her parents to Cairo and started her study at the High Institute of Acting in 1946.[9]

Career edit

Youssef Wahbi, an Egyptian actor and director, recognised the young actress's talent so he offered her a lead role in the 1946 film Malak al-Rahma (ملاك الرحمه , Angel of Mercy). The film attracted widespread media attention, and Hamama, who was only 15 at the time, became famous for her melodramatic role. In 1949, Hamama had roles in three films with Wahbi: Korsi el-e'traf (كرسى الاعتراف, Chair of Confession), Al-Yateematain (اليتيمتين, The Two Orphans) and Sitt al-Bayt (ست البيت, Lady of the House). All were successful films.[10]

Hamama and Salah Zulfikar in the premiere of Bain Al-Atlal at Cinema Diana in Cairo, February 1959

The 1950s were the beginning of the golden age of the Egyptian cinema industry, and Hamama played a significant part.[10] In 1950, she starred alongside Mahmoud Zulfikar in the fantasy film; Akhlaq lil baye (أخلاق للبيع, Virtue for Sale, 1950). In 1951, she starred in the film Lak Yawm Ya Zalem (لك يوم يا ظالم, Your Day will Come) which was nominated at the Cannes Film Festival for the Prix International award. She also played lead roles in Yousef Shaheen's Baba Amin (بابا أمين, Amin, my Father, 1950) and Sira` Fi al-Wadi (صراع فى الوادى , Struggle in the Valley, 1954)l, which was a strong nominee at the 1954 Cannes Film Festival for the Prix International award. Hamama is also known for having played the lead role in the first Egyptian mystery film Al-Manzel Raqam 13 (المنزل رقم 13, House Number 13). In 1959, she starred in the Ezz El-Dine Zulficar's romantic classic, Bain Al Atlal (بين الأطلال, Among the Ruins) with her favorite 1950s co-star Emad Hamdy and Egypt's new rising leading man Salah Zulfikar.

In 1963, she received an award for her role in the political film La Waqt Lel Hob (لا وقت للحب, No Time for Love).[11] Hamama was also able to make it to Hollywood; in 1963 she had a role in the crime film, Cairo.[12] In 1947, Hamama married producer/film director Ezz El-Dine Zulficar while filming the Abu Zayd al-Hilali (أبو زيد الهلالى ) film. They started a production company which produced the film Maw`ed Ma` al-Hayat (موعد مع الحياه , Date with Life) in which she starred. This film earned her the title of the "lady of the Arabic screen". She divorced Zulficar in 1954. One year later, she married Egyptian film star Omar Sharif. Meanwhile, Hamama continued to act in films directed by her first husband Zulficar.[6]

Faten Hamama in 1962

In 1954, while filming a Youssef Chahine film, Struggle in the Valley, Hamama refused to have the Egyptian actor Shukry Sarhan as a co-star, and Chahine offered Omar Sharif the role. Sharif had just graduated from college then and was working for his father; she accepted him as her co-star. Hamama's marriage to Sharif in 1955 started a new era of her career, in which the couple made many films together.[10] Omar Sharif and Faten Hamama were the romantic leads of Ayyamna al-Holwa (أيامنا الحلوه , Our Sweet Days), Ard al-Salam (أرض السلام, Land of Peace), La Anam (لا أنام, Sleepless) and Sayyidat al-Qasr (سيدة القصر, The Lady of the Palace). Their last film together before their divorce was Ezz El-Dine Zulficar's Nahr al-Hob (نهر الحب, The River of Love) in 1960.[13]

Controversy in the late 1960s edit

Hamama left Egypt from 1966 to 1971, claiming that she was being harassed by Egyptian Intelligence. She had been a supporter of the 1952 Revolution, but later became an opponent of the Free Officers and their oppressive regime.[5] She said they were "asking her to cooperate" but she apologized and refused. In consequence, she was forbidden to travel or participate in film festivals. She was only able to leave Egypt after many serious disputes, where she lived in Paris, London and Lebanon.[14]

Hamama in Al Haram (1965)

While she was away, then President Gamal Abdel Nasser asked famous writers, journalists and friends to try to convince her to return to Egypt. He called her a "national treasure"[15] and even awarded her an honorary decoration in 1965. However, she did not return until 1971, after Nasser's death. Following her return she played roles conveying messages of democracy. Her first film after her return to Egypt was alongside the Egyptian leading movie star Salah Zulfikar in the 1971 TV short film named Witch (ساحرة, Sahira), and in the same year, she starred in the 1971 film Thin Thread (الخيط الرفيع, Al Khait Al Rafie). She often criticized the laws in Egypt in her films. In the 1972 film Imbratoriyat Meem (إمبراطورية ميم, The Empire of M), Hamama presented a pro-democratic point of view and received an award from the Soviet Union of Women in the Moscow International Film Festival. Her most significant film was Oridu Hallan (أريد حلاً, I Want a Solution), produced by Salah Zulfikar through his production company; Salah Zulfikar Films Company. In this film, she criticised laws governing marriage and divorce in Egypt.[16] After the film, the Egyptian government abrogated a law that forbade wives from divorcing their husbands, therefore allowing khul'.[17][18]

Later career edit

As Hamama aged, her acting roles declined and she made fewer films compared to earlier in her career, but nevertheless her films were successful.[19] She made her first television appearances in her late career. She starred in the TV mini-series Damir Ablah Hekmat (ضمير أبله حكمت, Mrs. Hekmat's Conscience).[20]

After 1993, her career stalled. It was not until 2000 that she returned in the successful TV mini-series Wajh ِِal-Qamar which was broadcast on 23 TV channels in the Middle East. In this mini-series, Hamama portrayed and criticized many problems in Egyptian and Middle Eastern society.[21] Despite some criticisms, the mini-series received much praise and acclaim. Hamama was awarded the Egyptian Best TV Actor of the Year and the mini-series won the Best TV Series Award in the Egyptian Radio and Television Festival.[22] She entered history as the highest-paid actress in an Egyptian television miniseries until 2006, when another actress was paid more.[23]

Hamama, with Rushdy Abaza, in I Want a Solution (1974)

Before the 1950s, Hamama had leading roles in 30 films, in which she often played the role of a weak, empathetic, poor girl. After the 1950s, Hamama was in search of her real identity and was trying to establish herself as a distinct figure. During this period, her choice of material and roles was somewhat limited. However, film producers soon capitalised on her popularity with audiences in local and Middle Eastern markets. She began to play realistic, strong women, such as in Sira' Fi Al-Wadi (صراع فى الوادى , Struggle in the Valley, 1954) where she portrayed a rich man's daughter who, contrary to stereotype, was a realistic woman who helped and supported the poor. In the 1952 Mahmoud Zulfikar's production Miss Fatmah (الأستاذه فاطمه ), Hamama starred as a law student who believed women were as important as men in society.[24]

In Imbratoriyat Meem (امبراطورية ميم, The Empire M), she played the role of a widow who takes care of her large family and suffers hardship.[20] Her most influential film was Oridu Hallan (أريد حلا, I Want a Solution) which criticized the laws of marriage and divorce in Egypt.[16][18] A law in Egypt that forbade Khul' (خلع) – a divorce initiated by the wife – was annulled immediately afterwards.[17]

Acting style edit

Most critics agree that Hamama's most challenging role was in the 1959 film Doaa al-Karawan (دعاء الكروان, The Nightingale's Prayer), which is considered to be one of the best Egyptian films. It is based on the novel of the same name by the prominent Egyptian writer Taha Hussein. In this film, Hamama played the role of Amnah, a young woman who seeks revenge from her uncle for the honour killing of her sister.[25]

Hamama in 1950

After this film, Hamama carefully picked her roles. In 1960, she starred in the film Nahr Hob (نهر الحب, The River of Love) by Ezz El-Dine Zulficar [26] which was based on Leo Tolstoy's well known novel Anna Karenina and in 1961, she played the lead role in the film La Tutf'e al-Shams (لا تطفئ الشمس, Don't Turn Off the Sun) based on the novel by Ihsan Abdel Quddous.

Death and funeral edit

Faten Hamama died on 17 January 2015, aged 83. Her son Tarek Sharif did not state the cause of her death.[27]

Tributes soon poured in from across the film industry following her death, as well as from government figures. Egyptian president Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, who was on a visit abroad, mourned her death and sent an envoy to her funeral, while a statement from his office described her as a person of "high creative value." "She will remain a symbol of the genuine Egyptian art and commitment to its ethics," the statement added.[28][29] The Ministry of Culture ordered a two-day period of mourning and a halt in all artistic activity.[30] Secretary-General of the Arab League, Nabil el-Arabi, called her a "symbol of refined Egyptian and Arab art".[29] The country's dailies gave her prominence in their front pages, with newspaper Al-Akhbar displaying "Farewell to the Lady of the Arabic Screen" as a headline.[28]

The funeral was attended by thousands of mourners who blocked traffic around the mosque where the ceremony was being held. The event was broadcast live on a private channel.[30] Attendees included Minister of Culture Gaber Asfour, former presidential candidate Amr Moussa, as well as several actors and actresses, but not Omar Sharif (who was suffering from Alzheimer's disease, dying at the same age less than six months later).[29] King Mohammed VI of Morocco assigned his country's ambassador in Cairo to attend the funeral.[31]

Personal life edit

While filming Abu Zayd el-Hilali (أبو زيد الهلالى) in 1947, she and director Ezz El-Dine Zulficar fell in love and wed. The marriage lasted for seven years. They divorced in 1954. Hamama has said that her love for Zulficar was little more than a student's admiration and love for a teacher.[5] The two remained friends, and Zulficar also remarried and Hamama continued to star in his films after the divorce. They had one child, a daughter, Nadia Zulficar.

Hamama with her first husband Ezz El-Dine Zulficar in a scene from the 1948 film Khulood

In 1954, Hamama chose Omar Sharif to co-star with her in a film. In this film, she uncharacteristically agreed to a romantic scene involving a kiss. During the filming, they fell in love. Sharif converted to Islam and married her. The couple co-starred in many films. However, after nearly two decades together, the couple divorced in 1974; they had one son, Tarek Sharif.[5] The couple also have two grandsons from Tarek, Omar Sharif Jr. and Karem Sharif. Omar Sharif Jr. followed in his grandfather's footsteps and now acts in the U.S. in small roles and is an LGBTQ activist.

Hamama with her second husband Omar Sharif in a scene from the 1957 film Land of Peace

Hamama later married Mohamed Abdel Wahab Mahmoud, an Egyptian doctor.[32] They resided in Cairo until her death on 17 January 2015 following a short illness.[33]

Hamama was fluent in French, as she did an interview in French in Lebanon in 1963.[34] She was a practicing Muslim.[35]

Awards, nominations and honours edit

I Want a Solution Press conference for the third Tehran International Film Festival. From right to left: Salah Zulfikar (Producer of I Want a Solution), Manuchehr Anwar, Faten Hamama, Said Mazrouk, Egyptian translator (1974).

Throughout Hamama's career, she received numerous accolades for best actress, and was nominated for the Cannes Film Festival’s Prix International for her role in 1950's Your Day Will Come.[36] She received her first award in 1951 for her role in I'm the Past, which was presented to her by different venues, including the Egyptian Catholic Center for Cinema. The country's Ministry of Guidance also awarded her the title of Best Actress in both 1955 and 1961. These were followed by many different awards for best actress from various national and international events.[37] International ones included special awards at the first Tehran International Film Festival in 1972 for her role in The Thin Thread, and again at the 1977 Tehran Film Festival for her role in Mouths and Rabbits.[38] In 1973, she received the Special Award at the Moscow International Film Festival for her role in Empire M. Hamama's other international accolades included the Best Actress awards at the Jakarta Film Festival in 1963 for her role in The Open Door,[37][39] and at the Carthage Film Festival in 1988 for her role in Bitter Days, Nice Days.[38]

Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser awarding Faten Hamama the order of the Republic, 1965.

Hamama was also a recipient of the Lebanese Order of Merit in 1984 for her role in The Night of Fatma's Arrest.[37] She was later presented lifetime achievement awards, including one at the Montpellier Mediterranean Film Festival in 1993, and another at the Dubai International Film Festival in 2009.[38] In 2001, the Egyptian Writers and Critics Organization chose her as "Star of the Century" at the Alexandria International Film Festival, honouring her lengthy career in Egyptian cinema.[40]

Hamama was also honoured on several other occasions. Some of those include:

Selected filmography edit

Film edit

Year International title Arabic title Role
1939 Happy Day Yom Sa'id, يوم سعيد Anisa
1944 Bullet in the Heart Rosasa fi el Alb, رصاصه فى القلب Nagwa
1946 Angel of Mercy Malak el-Rahma, ملاك الرحمه Thoraya
1947 Abu Zayd al-Hilali Abu Zed el-Helali, أبو زيد الهلالى Caliph's daughter
1948 The Small Millionaire El-Millionerah el-Soghayyarah, المليونيره الصغيره Pilot's girlfriend
Immortality Khulood, خلود Laila / Amal
The Two Orphans El-Yatimaten, اليتيمتين Ne'mat
Towards Glory Nahw el-Magd, نحو المجد Soher
1949 Chair of Confession Korsi el-E'teraf, كرسى الاعتراف Phileberta
Lady of the House Sett el-Bet, ست البيت Elham
Every House Has a Man Koll Bet Loh Ragel, كلّ بيت له راجل Faten
1950 Virtue for Sale Akhlaq Lel Be' , أخلاق للبيع Amina
1951 Son of the Nile Ebn el-Nile, ابن النيل Zebeda
Your Day Will Come Lak Yom Ya Zalem, لك يوم يا ظالم Ne'mat
I'm The Past Ana el-Madi, أنا الماضى Elham's daughter
1952 House Number 13 El-Manzel Raqam 13, المنزل رقم 13 Nadia
Immortal Song Lahn el-Kholud, لحن الخلود Wafa'
Miss Fatimah El-Ostazah Fatmah, الأستاذه فاطمه Fatmah
1953 A'isha 'Esha, عيشه 'Esha
Date with Life Maw'ed Ma' al-Hayat, موعد مع الحياة Amal
1954 Pity My Tears Irham Dmoo'i, ارحم دموعى Amal
Traces in the Sand Athar Fi el-Remal, أثار فى الرمال Ragia
The Unjust Angel El-Malak el-Zalem, الملاك الظالم Nadia
Always with You Dayman Ma'ak, دايما معاك Tefida
Date with Happiness Maw'ed Ma'a el-Sa'adah, موعد مع السعاده Ehsan / Amal
Struggle in the Valley Sera' Fi el-Wadi,صراع فى الوادى Amal
1955 Our Beautiful Days Ayyamna el-Helwa, أيامنا الحلوه Hoda
Love and Tears Hobb W Demu' , حب و دموع Fatimah
1956 Love Date Maw'ed Gharam, موعد غرام Nawal
Struggle in the Pier Sira' Fi al-Mina, صراع فى الميناء Hameedah
1957 Road of Hope Tariq el-Amal, طريق الأمل Faten
Land of Peace Ard el-Salam, أرض السلام Salma
Sleepless La Anam, لا أنام Nadia Lotfi
1958 The Barred Road El-Tari' el-Masdud, الطريق المسدود Fayza
The Virgin Wife El-Zogah el-Azra', الزوجه العذراء Mona
Lady of the Castle Sayyidat al-Qasr, سيدة القصر Sawsan
1959 Among the Ruins Ben el-Atlal, بين الأطلال Mona
The Nightingale's Prayer Do'a el-Karawan, دعاء الكروان Amnah
1960 River of Love Nahr el-Hobb, نهر الحب Nawal
1961 I Will Not Confess Lan A'tref, لن أعترف Amal
Don't Set the Sun Off La Totfe' el-Shams, لا تطفئ الشمس Layla
1962 The Miracle[44] El-Mo'geza, المعجزه Layla
1963 Cairo (USA) Cairo Amina
No Time For Love[45] La Waqt Lil Hob, لا وقت للحب Fawziyah
The Open Door[37] El-Bab el-Maftooh, الباب المفتوح Laila
The Last Night El-Lela el-Akhira , الليله الأخيره Nadia / Fawziyya
1965 The Sin El-Haram, الحرام Azizah
Story of a Lifetime[46] Hikayet al-'Omr Kolloh, حكاية العمر كلّه Nadia
The Confession[47] El-E'treaf, الاعتراف Nawal
1966 Something in My Life[47] Shai' Fi Hayati, شىء فى حياتى A'ida
1970 The Great Love[47] El-Hobb el-Kabir, الحب الكبير Hanan
1971 Witch Sahera, ساحره So'ad
1971 The Thin Thread[47] El-Khet el-Rofayya' , الخيط الرفيع Mona
1972 M Empire Imbratoriyat Meem, امبراطورية ميم Mona
1974 My Love[47] Habibati, حبيبتى Samia
I Need a Solution Oridu Hallan, أريدُ حلاً Fawziyah
1977 Mouths and Rabbits[47] Afwah wa Araneb, أفواه و أرانب Ne'mat
1979 No Condolences for Ladies[47] Wa La 'Aza' Lel Sayyidat, و لا عزاء للسيدات Rawya
1985 The Night of Fatima's Arrest[47] Lelet el-Abd 'ala Fatmah, ليلة القبض على فاطمه Fatimah
1988 Sweet Days.. Bitter Days[47] Yom Morr Yom Helw, يوم مر.. يوم حلو Esha
1993 Land of Dreams[47] Ard el-Ahlam, أرض الأحلام Narges

Television edit

Year Title Arabic Role
1991 Miss Hekmat's Conscience (mini-series)[48] Damir Ablah Hekmat, ضمير أبله حكمت Hekmat
2000 Face of the Moon (mini-series) Wagh el-Amar, وجه القمر Ebtesam el-Bostani

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Filmography". IMDb. Retrieved 23 November 2006.[unreliable source?]
  2. ^ Abd al Min'em, Ghada. "Hamama, a revolution!" (in Arabic). Palestinian Cinema Group. Archived from the original on 14 October 2006. Retrieved 20 November 2006.
  3. ^ Farid, Samir. "Top 100". Al-Ahram. Archived from the original on 22 March 2007. Retrieved 31 March 2007.
  4. ^ Sharif, Omar (1977), The Eternal Matgjtttftyle: Mhhhy Own Sug5tory, Doubleday: New York, 1st edition, p. 69.
  5. ^ a b c d e Fouad, Khalid. "Hamama interview" (in Arabic). Al-Jazirah news. Archived from the original on 5 November 2006. Retrieved 12 November 2006.
  6. ^ a b "Hamama's biodata". IMDb. Retrieved 12 November 2006.[unreliable source?]
  7. ^ "Yom Said". IMDb. Retrieved 21 November 2006.[unreliable source?]
  8. ^ Karim, Mohammed. "Hamama, Egypt's own Shirley Temple". Official website. Retrieved 21 November 2006.
  9. ^ "Faten Hamama's biography". Egypt State Information Service. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 20 November 2006.
  10. ^ a b c Darwish (1998) pp. 30–31
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  15. ^ "Gamal wants "national treasure" back". Biography by Al-Husseini. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 13 November 2006.
  16. ^ a b Fountain, Clarke. "Orid Hallan". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 26 September 2003. Retrieved 24 November 2006.
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  18. ^ a b "Orid Hallan". fatenhamama.com. Retrieved 23 November 2006.
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  21. ^ "Wajh al-Qamar details". Cairo Live. Archived from the original on 27 August 2006. Retrieved 24 November 2006.
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  27. ^ "Egypt film icon Faten Hamama dies, aged 83". BBC. 18 January 2015. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  28. ^ a b Al Sherbini, Ramadan (18 January 2015). "Faten Hamama: Tributes pour in for acting legend". Gulf News. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  29. ^ a b c Al Sherbini, Ramadan (18 January 2015). "Faten Hamama's funeral attracts hundreds of mourners". Gulf News. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  30. ^ a b "Hundreds Gather at Funeral of Egyptian Actress Faten Hamama". ABC News. 18 January 2015. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  31. ^ Ahmed, Basant (18 January 2015). "Morocco's King assigns ambassador to attend Faten Hamama's Funeral". El-Balad. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
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  33. ^ Notice of death of Faten Hamama, alarabiya.net; accessed 18 January 2014.(in English)
  34. ^ "Faten Hamama - Interview (1963)". YouTube. Archived from the original on 12 December 2021.
  35. ^ "A love story that defied social and religious barriers"
  36. ^ Saeed, Saeed (18 January 2015). "Arab film icon Faten Hamama dies aged 83". The National. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
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  38. ^ a b c "DIFF honour for Hamama". Khaleej Times. 1 December 2009. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
  39. ^ (in Arabic) "حزنا على وفاة فاتن حمامة.. مصر في حداد ليومين [Grieving over Faten Hamama's death.. two days of mourning in Egypt]". Al Arabiya. 17 January 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
  40. ^ Khatchatourian, Maane (17 January 2015). "Egyptian Actress Faten Hamama Dies at 83". Variety. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
  41. ^ a b c (in Arabic) Al-Kashoty, Ali (17 January 2015). "فاتن حمامة سيدة الشاشة العربية نجمة القرن بلا منازع [Faten Hamama the Lady of the Arabic Screen and Star of the Century with no competitor]". Youm7. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
  42. ^ a b (in Arabic) Al-Ads, Wael (18 January 2015). "سيدة الشاشة العربية فاتن حمامة ستبقى متربعة على القمة رغم غيابها [Lady of the Arabic Screen, Faten Hamama, remains on top of her field despite her absence]". Cham Times. Archived from the original on 19 January 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
  43. ^ "Faten Hamama's 85th birthday". Google. 27 May 2016.
  44. ^ (in Arabic) Alawy, Ahmed (8 April 2014). "شاديه و فاتن حمامه فى لقطه نادره فى كواليس فيلم "المعجزه " [A rare snapshot of Shadia and Faten Hamama behind the scenes of The Miracle]". Cairo Dar. Archived from the original on 20 January 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
  45. ^ (in Egyptian Arabic) Al-Ghamrawy, Ahmed (18 January 2015). "بعد مشوار دام 75 عاماً.. رحيل فاتن حمامه [Following a 75-year long career.. the death of Faten Hamama]". Asharq Al-Awsat. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
  46. ^ (in Arabic) Al-Refai, Mahmoud (18 January 2015). "٢٣ أغنية فى حب فاتن حمامه [23 love songs for Faten Hamama]". El Watan. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h i j (in Egyptian Arabic) "انهيار الفنانات بعد دفن سيدة القصر [Actresses devastated following the burial of the Lady of the Palace]". Al-Watan Al-Youm. 19 January 2015. Archived from the original on 20 January 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
  48. ^ (in Egyptian Arabic) Ali, Mahmoud (19 January 2015). "سميرة عبد العزيز: فاتن حمامة أطلقت عليا "البلسم" فى مسلسل ضمير أبله حكمت". Al-Shorouk. Retrieved 20 January 2015.

Sources edit

Published sources edit

  • Ayoub-Geday, Paul (2002). Egypt Almanac 2002–2003: The Encyclopedia of Modern Egypt. American University in Cairo Press. ISBN 977-5893-02-X.
  • Darwish, Mustafa (1998). Dream Makers on the Nile: A Portrait of Egyptian Cinema. Columbia University Press. ISBN 977-424-429-X.
  • Farid, Samir (1995). Faten Hamama. Egyptian Cultural Development Fund. ISBN 977-235-329-6.
  • Karnouk, Liliane (June 2005) [2003]. Modern Egyptian Art:1910–2003. American University in Cairo Press. ISBN 977-424-859-7.

Online sources edit

External links edit