Open main menu

Family Research Council (FRC) is an American fundamentalist Protestant[2][3][4] activist group, with an affiliated lobbying organization. Its stated mission is "to advance faith, family and freedom in public policy and the culture from a Christian worldview".[5] FRC promotes what it considers to be family values by advocating and lobbying for policies in government.[2]

Family Research Council
Family Research Council logo.png
Logo of Family Research Council
MottoAdvancing Faith, Family and Freedom
Founded1983
FounderJames Dobson
Type501(c)(3) non-profit organization
52-1792772 (EIN)
Location
Area served
United States
Key people
Tony Perkins, President
Thomas R. Anderson, Chairman
Revenue
$12,065,844 (2016 FY)[1]
Employees
85
Websitewww.frc.org
2016 FY Tax Return

FRC was formed in the United States in 1981 by James Dobson and incorporated in 1983.[6] In the late 1980s, FRC officially became a division of Dobson's main organization, Focus on the Family; however, after an administrative separation, FRC became an independent entity in 1992. Tony Perkins is its current president. It opposes and lobbies against LGBT rights (such as anti-discrimination laws, same-sex marriage, same-sex civil unions, and LGBT adoption), access to pornography, embryonic stem-cell research, abortion, divorce. FRC is affiliated with a 501(c)(4) lobbying PAC known as FRC Action.[7]

In 2010, the Southern Poverty Law Center classified FRC as an anti-gay hate group due to what it says is the group's "false claims about the LGBT community based on discredited research and junk science" in an effort to block LGBT civil rights.[8][9] In 2012, a gunman showed up to FRC's headquarters with the intent to kill FRC staff, citing the SPLC's hate group designation. The SPLC issued a statement condemning the attack later that day.[10] FRC blamed the SPLC for the attack.[11]

Contents

HistoryEdit

The Council was incorporated as a nonprofit organization in 1983. James Dobson, Armand Nicholi Jr., and George Rekers were some of its founding board members.[6] In 1988, following financial difficulties, FRC was incorporated into Focus on the Family, and Gary Bauer joined the organization as president.[12] FRC remained under the Focus on the Family umbrella until 1992,[12] when it separated out of concern for Focus' tax-exempt status.[13] Tony Perkins joined FRC as its president in 2003.[14] On June 18, 2013, Josh Duggar was named executive director of FRC Action, the non-profit and tax-exempt legislative action arm of Family Research Council.[15] Duggar resigned his position on May 21, 2015, after his history of sexual misconduct as a minor became public.[16][17]

2012 domestic terrorist attackEdit

On August 15, 2012, Floyd Lee Corkins II, wielding a 9mm pistol along with two magazines and 50 rounds of ammunition, entered the lobby of the FRC's Washington, D.C. headquarters.[18] Corkins shot an unarmed security guard, 46-year-old Leonardo Johnson, in the left arm.[19][20][21][22] Although injured, Johnson assisted others who wrestled the gunman to the ground until police arrived and placed the gunman under arrest.[23][24] Johnson was taken to a hospital to treat his wound.[25]

The gunman was interviewed by the FBI.[25] Law enforcement officials said that the suspect, 28-year-old Floyd Corkins II, a resident of nearby Herndon, Virginia, had served as a volunteer at a LGBT community center.[23][26] The FBI and the Metropolitan Police Department investigated jointly "to determine motive/intent and whether a hate crime/terrorism nexus exists." During his FBI interview, Corkins was asked how he chose his target. His response was "Southern Poverty Law lists anti-gay groups. I found them online".[27][28] Corkins appeared in court the following day and was charged with assault with intent to kill while armed and interstate transportation of a firearm and ammunition.[29] An affidavit filed in the case stated that Corkins had told the guard "words to the effect of 'I don't like your politics.'"[30][31]

On August 22, 2012, Corkins was indicted on three charges: two charges in the District of Columbia, possession of a handgun during a violent crime and assault with intent to kill, and interstate transportation of a firearm and ammunition, a federal charge.[32]

In January 2013, Corkins pleaded guilty to all charges.[33] Corkins was sentenced to 25 years in prison on September 19, 2013.[34]

On the day of the shooting, the SPLC, along with a joint statement of 25 LGBT groups, condemned Corkins' action.[25][26] The National Organization for Marriage, an active campaigner against same-sex marriage,[31] issued a statement saying "Today's attack is the clearest sign we've seen that labeling pro-marriage groups as 'hateful' must end".[35]

FRC president Tony Perkins issued a public statement calling the shooting "an act of domestic terrorism" and criticizing the Southern Poverty Law Center for being "reckless in labeling organizations as hate groups because they disagree with them on public policy."[36] SPLC spokesman Mark Potok called Perkins' accusation "outrageous", and in a statement said: "The FRC and its allies on the religious right are saying, in effect, that offering legitimate and fact-based criticism in a democratic society is tantamount to suggesting that the objects of criticism should be the targets of criminal violence."[37][38] The SPLC responded by saying the group was listed as a hate group because "it has knowingly spread false and denigrating propaganda" about lesbians, gays, bisexuals and transgender people.[38]

Politics, policies and positionsEdit

Family Research Council opposes efforts to make the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine mandatory for school attendance. HPV is a virus that can be transmitted by sexual contact, that can cause cervical cancer. FRC defends its position on the basis of the rights of parents and because of its support for abstinence prior to marriage.[39]

It supports a federal conscience clause, allowing medical workers to refuse to provide certain treatments to their patients, such as abortion, blood transfusion or birth control. It also advocates for abstinence-only sex education, intelligent design and prayer in public schools, and the regulation of pornography and other "obscene, indecent, or profane programming" on broadcast and cable television. It opposed, but failed to prevent, the introduction of a .xxx domain name, and it lobbied for an increase in indecency fines from the Federal Communications Commission.[40][41]

FRC also holds that hotel pornography may be prosecutable under federal and state obscenity laws.[40][42] It opposed the expansion of civil rights laws to include sexual orientation and gender identity as illegal bases for discrimination.[43]

Family Research Council is also fiscally conservative[44] and wants to increase the child tax credit.[45] FRC supports the requirement of a one-year waiting period before a married couple with children can legally get a divorce so that they can receive marital counseling, unless the marriage involves domestic violence. FRC also supports permanently eliminating the marriage penalty and estate taxes.[46]

The Council opposes legalized abortion, stem-cell research which involves the destruction of human embryos and funding thereof (instead advocating research using adult stem cells) and legal recognition of same-sex domestic partnerships in the form of marriage or civil unions. It formerly[citation needed] opposed all forms of gambling.[47] The Council has questioned whether humans are mainly or completely responsible for climate change, and has opposed other evangelicals who have affirmed their belief in global warming.[48][49][50][51]

Statements on homosexualityEdit

The Family Research Council holds the belief that "homosexual conduct is harmful to the persons who engage in it and to society at large, and can never be affirmed", and asserts that it is "by definition unnatural, and as such is associated with negative physical and psychological health effects."[52][53] The Council also asserts that "there is no convincing evidence that a homosexual identity is ever something genetic or inborn".[52] These positions are in opposition to the consensus of mainstream psychological and medical experts that homosexuality is a normal, healthy variation of human behavior, and that sexual orientation is generally not chosen.[54][55][56][57]

FRC's statements and positions have been further criticized as being based upon pseudoscience or junk science;[58][59][60][61] according to Wired, the group has misrepresented data and mis-designed sociological studies in order to negatively depict LGBT people.[62]

FRC also states that "[s]ympathy must be extended to those who struggle with unwanted same-sex attractions, and every effort should be made to assist such persons to overcome those attractions, as many already have".[53] Evidence on the effectiveness of sexual orientation change efforts is limited;[55][63] according to a 2009 publication from the American Psychological Association, "[there] are no studies of adequate scientific rigor to conclude whether or not recent [sexual orientation change efforts] do or do not work to change a person’s sexual orientation."[55]

In 2012, Rob Schwartzwalder, then a Senior Vice President at FRC, wrote: "To love people who identify as gays or lesbians means to extend grace to them: to welcome them as friends, to care for them when ill, and to respect them as persons whose creation was ordained by the God of the universe and for whom the Son of God died. Such love will oppose attempts to legalize homosexual marriage, as to do so would vindicate a corruption of that which God intended... To love homosexuals means that believing churches cannot accept those practicing or advocating homosexuality as members, ministers, or leaders any more than persons living in any other kind of sexual sin."[64]

Jointly with Focus on the Family, the Council submitted an amicus brief in Lawrence v. Texas,[65] the U.S. Supreme Court case in which anti-sodomy laws were ruled unconstitutional on privacy grounds.[66] The summary of the amicus curiae brief declares that "[states] may discourage the 'evils' ... of sexual acts outside of marriage by means up to and including criminal prohibition" and that it is constitutionally permissible for Texas to "choose to protect marital intimacy by prohibiting same-sex 'deviate'a acts".[65]

Similar positions have been advocated by representatives of the organization since Lawrence was decided in 2003. In February 2010, Family Research Council's Senior Researcher for Policy Studies, Peter Sprigg, stated on NBC's Hardball that same-sex behavior should be outlawed and that "criminal sanctions against homosexual behavior" should be enforced.[67] In May that same year, Sprigg publicly suggested that repealing the Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy would encourage molestation of heterosexual service members.[68]

In November 2010, Perkins was asked about Sprigg's comments regarding the criminalization of same-sex behavior: he responded that criminalizing homosexuality is not a goal of Family Research Council.[69][70] Perkins repeated FRC's association of homosexuals with pedophilia, stating: "If you look at the American College of Pediatricians, they say the research is overwhelming that homosexuality poses a danger to children."[69][70] Perkins' statements have been contradicted by mainstream social science research,[71] and the likelihood of child molestation by homosexuals and bisexuals has been found to be no higher than child molestation by heterosexuals;[62][72][73][60] as Newsweek put it, "[f]or decades, the [FRC] has smeared homosexuals in its publications, insinuating that gay people are more likely to sexually abuse children" and an analysis by John Aravosis concluded that FRC "cherry-picks and distorts evidence as part of a deliberate campaign to smear the LGBT community."[74] Some scientists whose work is cited by the American College of Pediatricians — which was created following the American Academy of Pediatrics' endorsement of adoption by same-sex couples and to which FRC points for evidence supporting its positions — have said the organization has distorted or misrepresented their work[75] and the organization has been criticized by Psychology Today for making "false statements...that have the potential to harm LGBT youth".[73] As a response to FRC's promotion of such widely rejected[62] claims about LGBT people, the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) designated FRC as a hate group in the Winter 2010 issue of its Intelligence Report.[76] Mother Jones reported that "The Southern Poverty Law Center's classification of FRC as a hate group stems from FRC's more than decade-long insistence that gay people are more likely to molest children ... Research from non-ideological outfits is actually firm in concluding the opposite."[60]

In 2017, at the Council-sponsored Values Voter Summit, a tote bag was distributed to all attendees that included a copy of a flyer entitled "The Health Hazards of Homosexuality" written by MassResistance; the Southern Poverty Law Center has designated MassResistance as a hate group.[77]

An amicus brief submitted in relation to United States v. Windsor (which struck down part of the Defense of Marriage Act) argued that DOMA did not discriminate on the basis of sexual orientation,[78] and their amicus brief in Obergefell v. Hodges argued against same-sex marriage.[79] An article written by Travis Weber, the Director of the Council's Center for Religious Liberty, was highly critical of both Supreme Court decisions.[80]

Same-sex marriage casesEdit

Family Research Council on January 28, 2013 issued an amicus brief in support of Proposition 8 case and the Defense of Marriage Act cases before the Supreme Court,[78] arguing for the court to uphold DOMA banning federal recognition of same-sex unions and Proposition 8 banning gay marriage in California.[81] On June 26, 2013, the Supreme Court ruled in United States v. Windsor that the Defense of Marriage Act unconstitutionally discriminated against gay and lesbian couples, and in Hollingsworth v. Perry that Proposition 8's proponents had no standing to defend the law, leaving in place a lower-court ruling overturning the ban.[citation needed]

Publishing and lobbying activitiesEdit

Family Research Council is a member of ProtectMarriage.com, a coalition formed to sponsor California Proposition 8 to restrict marriage to opposite-sex couples only, which passed in 2008 (but was struck down as unconstitutional by a federal court in California).[82]

Justice SundayEdit

Justice Sunday was the name for three religious conferences organized by FRC and Focus on the Family in 2005 and 2006. According to FRC, the purpose of the events was to "request an end to filibusters of judicial nominees that were based, at least in part, on the nominees' religious views or imputed inability to decide cases on the basis of the law regardless of their beliefs."[83]

Values Voter SummitEdit

Every fall, FRC Action (the political action group affiliated with FRC) holds an annual summit composed for conservative Christian activists and evangelical voters in Washington, D.C. The summit has been a place for social conservatives across the nation to hear Republican presidential hopefuls' platforms. Since 2007 a straw poll has been taken as a means of providing an early prediction of which candidate will win the endorsement of Christian conservatives.[84]

Ugandan ResolutionEdit

In 2010, FRC paid $25,000 to congressional lobbyists for what they described as "Res.1064 Ugandan Resolution Pro-homosexual promotion" in a lobbying disclosure report.[85] The US House of Representatives resolution condemned the Uganda Anti-Homosexuality Bill,[86] a bill which, among other things, would have imposed either the death penalty or life imprisonment for sexual relations between persons of the same sex.[87][88][89][90]

Following exposure of the lobbying contribution in June 2010, FRC issued a statement denying that they were trying to kill the bill, but rather that they wanted to change the language of the bill "to remove sweeping and inaccurate assertions that homosexual conduct is internationally recognized as a fundamental human right." They further stated, "FRC does not support the Uganda bill, and does not support the death penalty for homosexuality—nor any other penalty which would have the effect of inhibiting compassionate pastoral, psychological, and medical care and treatment for those who experience same-sex attractions or who engage in homosexual conduct".[91] The Ugandan Resolution was revived by Uganda's President Museveni in 2012.[92]

FRC used one of Museveni's speeches in an e-mail to its supporters praising Uganda’s commitment to Christian faith and "national repentance" around the time that he reintroduced the Anti-Homosexuality Bill. The speech did not refer to homosexuality specifically, but did mention "sexual immorality" among the sins for which Ugandans must repent.[93][94]

Controversies and criticismEdit

2010 listing as a hate group by SPLCEdit

The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) designated FRC as a hate group in the Winter 2010 issue of its magazine, Intelligence Report. Aside from statements made earlier in the year by Sprigg and Perkins (see Statements on homosexuality), the SPLC described FRC as a "font of anti-gay propaganda throughout its history".[95][96]

As evidence, the SPLC cited a 1999 publication by FRC, Homosexual Activists Work to Normalize Sex With Boys, which stated: "one of the primary goals of the homosexual rights movement is to abolish all age of consent laws and to eventually recognize pedophiles as the 'prophets' of a new sexual order."[96][97] The report said FRC senior research fellows Tim Dailey and Peter Sprigg (2001) had "pushed false accusations linking gay men to pedophilia".[96][76]

FRC President Tony Perkins called the "hate" designation a political attack on FRC by a "liberal organization".[98] On December 15, 2010, FRC ran an open letter advertisement in two Washington, D.C., newspapers disputing the SPLC's action; in a press release, FRC called the allegation "intolerance pure and simple" and said it was dedicated to upholding "Judeo-Christian moral views, including marriage as the union of a man and a woman".[99] A section of the letter supporting FRC and certain other organizations designated as hate groups by the SPLC had signers which included twenty members of the House of Representatives (including then soon-to-be Speaker John Boehner), three U.S. Senators, four state Governors, and one state Attorney General.[100][101] In response, Mark Potok (SPLC spokesman) emphasized the factual evidence upon which the SPLC had taken the step of making the designation.[102]

A shooting incident in the lobby of FRC headquarters in 2012 (see above) prompted further comments on the SPLC's 'hate group' listing. Dana Milbank, columnist for the Washington Post, referred to the incident as "a madman's act" for which the SPLC should not be blamed, but called its classification of FRC as a hate group "reckless" and said that "it's absurd to put the group, as the law center does, in the same category as Aryan Nations, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, Stormfront and the Westboro Baptist Church."[103][104] David Sessions, writing for The Daily Beast, noted that FRC's hostile, false depiction of LGBT people invited strong pushback; "the FRC cannot wage an all-out rhetorical war against the 'gay agenda' and then accuse its critics of being too harsh."[105]

Tufts University political science professor Jeffrey Berry described himself as "not comfortable" with the designation: "There's probably some things that have been said by one or two individuals that qualify as hate speech. But overall, it's not seen as a hate group."[106] Journalist Adam Serwer of Mother Jones argued that the description, while subjective, was justified by the "FRC's record of purveying stereotypes, prejudice, and junk science as a justification for public policy that would deny gays and lesbians equal rights and criminalize their conduct."[60]

George Alan RekersEdit

George Rekers was a founding board member in 1983. In May 2010 Rekers employed a male prostitute as a travel companion for a two-week vacation in Europe.[107][108][109]

Rekers denied any inappropriate conduct and suggestions that he was gay. The male escort told CNN he had given Rekers "sexual massages" while traveling together in Europe.[110][111] Rekers subsequently resigned from the board of NARTH.[112][better source needed]

Josh DuggarEdit

On June 18, 2013, it was announced that Josh Duggar of the television show 19 Kids and Counting would serve as the executive director of FRC Action, the non-profit and tax-exempt legislative action arm of Family Research Council.[15]

Duggar resigned on May 21, 2015, when a scandal involving his past molestation of five underage girls--including some of his sisters--became public knowledge. In reference to Duggar's resignation, FRC president Tony Perkins said: "Josh believes that the situation will make it difficult for him to be effective in his current work."[113][114][115]

List of PresidentsEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

^a The terms "deviate" and "deviant" sex were used historically in laws such as the one struck down by Lawrence v. Texas.[66]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Mike Tigas, Sisi Wei, Ken Schwencke, Alec Glassford. "Nonprofit Explorer - ProPublica". ProPublica. Archived from the original on January 18, 2018. Retrieved January 18, 2018.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ a b Winkler, Celia (2002). Single Mothers and the State: The Politics of Care in Sweden and the United States. United States: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 202. ISBN 978-0847691319.
  3. ^ Buss, Doris; Herman, Didi (2003). Globalizing Family Values: The Christian Right in International Politics. United States: University of Minnesota Press. pp. XXVIII — Introduction et. al. ASIN B005UL401Y. ISBN 9780816642076.
  4. ^ Rozell, Mark (2011). Fundamentalism, Politics, and the Law: 2011 Edition. United States: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 19 et. al. ISBN 978-0230110632.
  5. ^ "Family Research Council". Archived from the original on March 15, 2017. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
  6. ^ a b "About FRC: History/Mission". Family Research Council. May 8, 2010. Archived from the original on February 4, 2007.
  7. ^ Paul S. Herrnson; Ronald G. Shaiko; Clyde Wilcox (2005). The interest group connection: electioneering, lobbying, and policymaking in Washington. CQ Press. p. 410. ISBN 978-1-56802-922-1. Retrieved November 28, 2010.
  8. ^ Eichler, Alex. "13 New Organizations Added to Anti-Gay 'Hate Groups' List". The Wire via The Atlantic. Archived from the original on March 15, 2017. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
  9. ^ Lin, Joy. "Family Research Council Demands Apology Over 'Hate Group' Label". FoxNews. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
  10. ^ "SPLC Statement on Shooting at Family Research Council". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved January 7, 2019.
  11. ^ "FRC Head Blames Southern Poverty Law Center for Enabling Shooting at D.C. Office". DCist. Retrieved January 7, 2019.
  12. ^ a b Paul A. Djupe; Laura R. Olson (2003). Encyclopedia of American religion and politics. Infobase Publishing. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-8160-4582-2. Retrieved November 28, 2010.
  13. ^ Glenn H. Utter; James L. True (2004). Conservative Christians and political participation: a reference handbook. ABC-CLIO. p. 355. ISBN 978-1-85109-513-1. Retrieved November 28, 2010.
  14. ^ "Tony Perkins biodata". Family Research Council. Archived from the original on December 1, 2010. Retrieved November 28, 2010.
  15. ^ a b "Josh Duggar snags Family Research Council job in Washington, D.C." United Press International. Archived from the original on June 19, 2013. Retrieved June 19, 2013.
  16. ^ Ohlheiser, Abby (May 22, 2015). "Josh Duggar apologizes amid molestation allegations: 'I acted inexcusably'". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 22, 2015. Retrieved January 18, 2018.
  17. ^ Thompson, Doug (May 22, 2015). "Josh Duggar admits to wrongdoing, resigns". Arkansas Online. Archived from the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved January 18, 2018.
  18. ^ Ann E. Marimow (February 6, 2013). "Family Research Council shooter pleads guilty to three felonies". Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 7, 2016.
  19. ^ Jennifer Donelan (August 15, 2012). "Family Research Council shooting leaves security guard wounded". WJLA. Retrieved August 27, 2012.
  20. ^ "Hero Who Stopped Domestic Terrorist at FRC: God Prevented Me from Killing Him". cnsnews.com. September 19, 2013. Archived from the original on January 13, 2017. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
  21. ^ "Family Research Council Hero Leo Johnson: 'God Put Me In a Position to Be There'". www.christianpost.com. Archived from the original on January 13, 2018. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
  22. ^ Cratty, Carol. "Suspect charged in Washington Family Research Council shooting". CNN.com. Archived from the original on May 2, 2017. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
  23. ^ a b Johnson, Jessica. "Official: Suspect Floyd Corkins II criticized group before Wash. shooting". Today's THV. Archived from the original on August 19, 2012. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  24. ^ Emery, Theo (August 15, 2012). "Policy Group in Washington Is Shooting Site". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 16, 2012. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  25. ^ a b c DiMargo, Carissa. "Security Guard Shot at Family Research Council in Downtown DC". NBC News Washington. Archived from the original on August 19, 2012. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  26. ^ a b "Cops: LGBT volunteer shoots conservative group's guard". CBS News. August 15, 2012. Archived from the original on August 18, 2012. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  27. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 30, 2013. Retrieved April 29, 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  28. ^ Confessed Terrorist Floyd Corkins Admits to Using SPLC Target List. YouTube. April 24, 2013. Archived from the original on February 24, 2016. Retrieved February 1, 2016.
  29. ^ Hermann, Peter; Alexander, Keith L. (August 16, 2012). "Floyd Lee Corkins charged in Family Research Council shooting". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 16, 2012. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  30. ^ Schmidt, Michael S. (August 16, 2012). "Family Research Council Shooting Possibly Driven by Politics". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 17, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
  31. ^ a b Virginia man charged in shooting at Family Research Council Archived August 16, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, CNN.
  32. ^ "Herndon man indicted in Family Research Council shooting". The Washington Post. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on October 12, 2013. Retrieved August 27, 2017.
  33. ^ "Floyd Corkins pleads guilty to Family Research Council shooting". WJLA. February 6, 2013. Archived from the original on February 9, 2013. Retrieved February 6, 2013. Corkins pleaded guilty to one federal count of crossing state lines with guns and ammunition. He also pleaded guilty to one count of intent to kill while armed and one count of committing an act of terrorism with the intent to kill.
  34. ^ "Virginia Man Sentenced to 25 Years in Prison in Shooting of Security Guard at Family Research Council". Federal Bureau of Investigation. September 19, 2013. Archived from the original on October 12, 2013. Retrieved October 11, 2013.
  35. ^ Lopez, Kathryn Jean (August 15, 2012). "Oh My Goodness". The Corner. Archived from the original on May 22, 2015. Retrieved May 6, 2015.
  36. ^ Lisee, Chris (August 16, 2012). "Family Research Council accuses Southern Poverty Law Center of sparking shooter's hatred". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 18, 2012. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  37. ^ Watkins, Tom (August 16, 2012). "After D.C. shooting, fingers point over blame". CNN. Archived from the original on August 17, 2012. Retrieved August 18, 2012.
  38. ^ a b "SPLC: Family Research Council License-to-Kill Claim 'Outrageous'" Archived August 19, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, August 16, 2012; retrieved May 6, 2015.
  39. ^ "Clarification of 2005 Family Research Council Media Remarks on HPV Vaccine". Family Research Council. Archived from the original on July 1, 2007. Retrieved November 28, 2010.
  40. ^ a b Brynaert, Ron (August 22, 2006). "Coalition of conservative groups believe hotel porn may be prosecutable". Raw Story. Archived from the original on October 15, 2007. Retrieved November 28, 2010.
  41. ^ Crary, David (August 23, 2006). "Ad crusade targets hotel porn movies - Conservatives want feds to pull the plug". The Journal Gazette. Associated Press.
  42. ^ Crary, David (August 23, 2006). "Ad crusade targets hotel porn movies — Conservatives want feds to pull the plug". The Journal Gazette. Associated Press.
  43. ^ "Homosexuality Is Not a Civil Right" (PDF). Family Research Council. Retrieved May 12, 2018.
  44. ^ "FAQs". Family Research Council. Archived from the original on October 28, 2010. Retrieved October 29, 2010.
  45. ^ Roger W. Stump (2000). Boundaries of faith: geographical perspectives on religious fundamentalism. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-8476-9320-7. Retrieved November 28, 2010.
  46. ^ "Family Research Council". frc.org. Archived from the original on June 16, 2016. Retrieved May 12, 2018.
  47. ^ Leonard, Andrew (November 15, 2007). "Life, liberty and the right to play online poker". Salon. Retrieved November 29, 2010.
  48. ^ "One-Size Politics Doesn't Fit All". Christianity Today. April 27, 2007. Archived from the original on May 10, 2007. Retrieved May 10, 2007.
  49. ^ "Climate Change: An Evangelical Call to Action". 2012. Archived from the original on February 15, 2006. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  50. ^ "Global warming gap among evangelicals widens". CNN. March 14, 2007. Archived from the original on April 6, 2012. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  51. ^ Szobody, Ben (July 18, 2012). "Young conservatives seek fixes for climate change". Greenville Online. Archived from the original on February 6, 2016. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  52. ^ a b "Human Sexuality". Family Research Council. 2012. Archived from the original on November 25, 2012. Retrieved December 27, 2012.
  53. ^ a b "Homosexuality". Archived from the original on December 28, 2017. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
  54. ^ "Submission to the Church of England's Listening Exercise on Human Sexuality" (PDF). Royal College of Psychiatrists. October 31, 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 27, 2010. Retrieved July 8, 2010.
  55. ^ a b c Glassgold, Judith M.; Beckstead, Lee; Drescher, Jack; Greene, Beverly; Miller, Robin Lin; Worthington, Roger L.; Anderson, Clinton W. (September 28, 2009). "Report of the American Psychological Association Task Force on Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation" (PDF). American Psychological Association. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 15, 2010. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
  56. ^ "Perry v. Schwarzenegger – Brief of the American Psychological Association, the California Psychological Association, the American Psychiatric Association, and the American Association for Marriage and Family as Amici Curiae in Support of Plaintiff-Appellees" (PDF). United States Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit. October 27, 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 7, 2014. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
  57. ^ ""Therapies" to change sexual orientation lack medical justification and threaten health". Pan American Health Organization. May 17, 2012. Archived from the original on May 26, 2012. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
  58. ^ Why is Scott Pruitt meeting with an anti-gay group? Archived January 15, 2018, at the Wayback Machine. Akin, Emily. The New Republic, October 7, 2017.
  59. ^ Violence against Family Research Council is wrong Archived February 17, 2018, at the Wayback Machine. Jonathan Capehart, The Washington Post, August 16, 2012.
  60. ^ a b c d Serwer, Adam, What the Right Gets Wrong About the FRC Shooting Archived June 14, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, Mother Jones, August 17, 2012.
  61. ^ Bess, Gabby. Uncovering the Christian Think Tanks Behind the Bogus Studies on Gay Parenting Archived January 15, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, Vice, February 16, 2017.
  62. ^ a b c Ellis, Emma Gray (November 30, 2016). "Trump's Transition Team is All Tied Up With Anti-Gay Pseudoscience". Wired. Archived from the original on December 1, 2016. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
  63. ^ "Appropriate Affirmative Responses to Sexual Orientation Distress and Change Efforts" (PDF). American Psychological Association. August 5, 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 11, 2012. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
  64. ^ "On Love, Homosexuality, and Sin: An Evangelical Proposal". www.frc.org. Archived from the original on January 14, 2018. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
  65. ^ a b "Legal Brief: Lawrence & Garner v. Texas". Family Research Council. February 18, 2003. Archived from the original on October 24, 2008. Retrieved December 27, 2012.
    Full text available from:
    "Lawrence and Garner v. Texas, No. 02-102, Brief Amicus Curiae of the Family Research Council and Focus on the Family in Support of Respondent, February 18, 2003". The Fred Parks Law Library, South Texas College of Law, Houston. February 18, 2003. Archived from the original on September 11, 2017. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
  66. ^ a b "Supreme Court Strikes Down Texas Law Banning Sodomy". The New York Times. Associated Press. June 26, 2003. Archived from the original on June 20, 2017. Retrieved December 27, 2012.
  67. ^ "CHRIS MATTHEWS: Do you think we should outlaw gay behavior?
    PETER SPRIGG: Well, I think certainly-
    MATTHEWS: I’m just asking you, should we outlaw gay behavior?
    SPRIGG: I think that the Supreme Court decision in Lawrence v. Texas, which overturned the sodomy laws in this country, was wrongly decided. I think there would be a place for criminal sanctions against homosexual behavior.
    MATTHEWS: So we should outlaw gay behavior.
    SPRIGG: Yes."
    February 2, 2010. Hardball, MSNBC.statement at 8:37 Archived November 25, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, transcript Archived February 17, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  68. ^ "Family Research Council Labeled 'Hate Group' by SPLC Over Anti-Gay Rhetoric". Talking Points Memo. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
  69. ^ a b "Perkins, Potok spar over hate group". Hardball with Chris Matthews. MSNBC. Archived from the original on July 14, 2011. Retrieved December 8, 2010.
  70. ^ a b "Tony Perkins Defends Family Research Council, Sort Of". Southern Poverty Law Center. Archived from the original on December 1, 2010. Retrieved November 30, 2010.
  71. ^ Evelyn Schlatter and Robert Steinback, 10 Anti-Gay Myths Debunked Archived December 4, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, Southern Poverty Law Center; retrieved December 3, 2010.
  72. ^ "Sexual orientation, homosexuality, and bisexuality". American Psychological Association. Archived from the original on August 8, 2013. Retrieved November 30, 2010.
  73. ^ a b Turban, Jack. The American College of Pediatricians Is an Anti-LGBT Group, Psychology Today, May 8, 2017.
  74. ^ Porter, Tom (July 26, 2017). "Transgender Military Ban: The Rise of Anti-LGBT Hate Groups in Trump's White House". Newsweek. Archived from the original on July 27, 2017. Retrieved January 14, 2017.
  75. ^ Pinto, Nick (May 26, 2010). "University of Minnesota professor's research hijacked". Minneapolis City Pages. Archived from the original on November 17, 2010. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  76. ^ a b Lengell, Sean (November 24, 2010). "Family Research Council labeled a 'hate group'". The Washington Times. Archived from the original on August 22, 2012. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
  77. ^ Brammer, John Paul (October 14, 2017). "'Hazards of Homosexuality' Flier Distributed at Values Voter Summit". NBC News. Archived from the original on January 14, 2018. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
  78. ^ a b "Brief Amicus Curiae of the Family Research Council in Support of Respondent Bipartisan Legal Advisory Group Addressing the Merits and Supporting Reversal" (PDF). Family Research Council. January 24, 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 12, 2016. Retrieved January 14, 2018 – via SCOTUSblog.
  79. ^ "Brief Amicus Curiae of the Family Research Council in Support of Respondents and Affirmance" (PDF). Family Research Council. March 31, 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 18, 2017. Retrieved January 14, 2018 – via SCOTUSblog.
  80. ^ Weber, Travis S. (2015). "Critical Analysis of Obergefell v. Hodges". Family Research Council. Archived from the original on January 14, 2018. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
  81. ^ McVeigh, Karen (February 28, 2013). "Obama to support gay couples' supreme court challenge to California's Prop 8". The Guardian. Archived from the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved May 25, 2015.
  82. ^ Hubbell, John M. (April 28, 2005). "Coalition seeks male-female marriage definition/New ballot push for constitutional amendment". San Francisco Chronicle. p. B3.
  83. ^ Justice Sunday II: A Special Note From Executive Vice President of FRC, Chuck Donovan Archived August 9, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, frc.org; retrieved May 6, 2015.
  84. ^ Vu, Michelle (October 20, 2007). "Presidential Hopefuls Highlight 'Values' to Christian Conservatives". The Christian Post. Archived from the original on January 2, 2013. Retrieved May 28, 2018.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  85. ^ Tripodi, Paul. "Lobbying Report". Lobbying Disclosure. US House of Representatives. Archived from the original on April 8, 2013. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  86. ^ US House of Representatives (February 3, 2010). "H.Res.1064". OpenCongress. Archived from the original on April 12, 2010. Retrieved August 16, 2012. Expressing the sense of the House of Representatives that the "Anti-Homosexuality Bill, 2009" under consideration by the Parliament of Uganda, that would impose long term imprisonment and the death penalty for certain acts, threatens the protection of fundamental human rights, and for other purposes.
  87. ^ "Bill No. 18" (PDF). nationalpress.typepad.com. 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 19, 2012. Retrieved October 12, 2012.
  88. ^ Weigel, David (June 4, 2010). "Family Research Council explains: It lobbied for changes to Uganda resolution". Right Now. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  89. ^ McEwan, Alvin (June 7, 2010). "Family Research Council evades regarding Ugandan anti-gay bill lobbying efforts". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on April 29, 2012. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  90. ^ Melloy, Kilian (June 4, 2010). "FRC Opposes U.S. Resolution Against Ugandan 'Kill Gays' Law". Edge. Boston, MA. Archived from the original on June 5, 2010. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  91. ^ Montopoli, Brian (June 4, 2010). "Family Research Council Lobbied Congress on Resolution Denouncing Ugandan Anti-Gay Bill". Political Hotsheet. CBS News. Archived from the original on August 22, 2012. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  92. ^ Caplan-Bricker, Nora (December 5, 2012). "Uganda Revives Its Favorite Distraction: Anti-Gay Legislation". The New Republic. Archived from the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved May 25, 2015.
  93. ^ "For the sins of Uganda, I repent – Museveni". newvision.co.ug. Archived from the original on November 23, 2015. Retrieved May 12, 2018.
  94. ^ Burack, Cynthia (December 5, 2012). "Christian Right Leader Lauds Uganda Dictator as 'Kill the Gays' Bill Is Revived". AlterNet. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved May 6, 2015.
  95. ^ Dutton, Nick (August 18, 2012). "Shooting sparks controversy over 'hate' designation for conservative group". wtvr.com. Archived from the original on January 20, 2013. Retrieved August 18, 2012.
  96. ^ a b c Evelyn Schlatter. "18 Anti-Gay Groups and Their Propaganda". SPLC. Archived from the original on November 29, 2010. Retrieved November 28, 2010.
  97. ^ Ariosto, David (August 17, 2012). "SPLC draws conservative ire". CNN. Archived from the original on August 18, 2012. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
  98. ^ Thompson, Krissah (November 24, 2010). "'Hate group' designation angers same-sex marriage opponents". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 3, 2010. Retrieved November 25, 2010.
  99. ^ "FRC, Members of Congress, Governors, and Conservative Leaders Release Open Letter Calling for Civil Debate, End to Character Assassination". PR Newswire. December 15, 2010. Archived from the original on July 9, 2013. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
  100. ^ Boyle, Matthew (December 15, 2010). "Family ResearchCouncil, top GOP lawmakers fight back against SPLC 'hate group' label". The Daily Caller. Archived from the original on October 28, 2011. Retrieved December 24, 2010.
  101. ^ "Start Debating, Stop Hating" (PDF). Family Research Council. December 15, 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 26, 2010. Retrieved December 24, 2010.
  102. ^ "SPLC Responds to Attack by FRC, Conservative Republicans" Archived August 22, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, December 5, 2010.
  103. ^ Milbank, Dana (August 16, 2012). "Dana Milbank: Hateful speech on hate groups". Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 2, 2018. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
  104. ^ Washington Post columnists continue blaming hate group classification for FRC shooting Archived August 21, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, advocate.com; accessed May 12, 2018.
  105. ^ Is the Family Research Council Really a Hate Group?. The Daily Beast, 16 August 2012
  106. ^ Pearson, Michael (August 17, 2012). "Shooting sparks controversy over 'hate' designation for conservative group". CNN. Archived from the original on August 22, 2012. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
  107. ^ Thorp, Brandon K.; Bullock, Penn (May 13, 2010). "How George Alan Rekers and his Rent-boy got Busted by New Times". MiamiNewTimes. Archived from the original on December 29, 2014. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
  108. ^ Penn Bullock; Brandon K. Thorp (May 4, 2010). "Christian right leader George Rekers takes vacation with "rent boy"". Miami New Times. Archived from the original on July 29, 2013. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
  109. ^ Bryne, John (May 4, 2010). "Exposed: Christian leader caught with male escort says he needed help with his luggage". The Raw Story. Archived from the original on July 10, 2010. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
  110. ^ Anderson Cooper (May 7, 2010). "Sex Scandal Accusations and Denials". AC-360. 1:10 and 3:38 minutes in. CNN. Archived from the original on August 26, 2016. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
  111. ^ "Anti-gay activist George Rekers resigns over holiday with male prostitute". The Pink Paper. May 13, 2010. Archived from the original on July 31, 2017. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
  112. ^ "NARTH Responds to the Recent Media Coverage of Dr. George Rekers". Archived from the original on May 10, 2010.
  113. ^ "Josh Duggar Admits Molestation Resigns from Family Research Council". TMZ. May 21, 2015. Archived from the original on May 22, 2015. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
  114. ^ "Bombshell Duggar Police Report: Jim Bob Duggar Didn't Report Son Josh's Alleged Sex Offenses For More Than a Year". In Touch Weekly. May 21, 2015. Archived from the original on November 13, 2018. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
  115. ^ "Josh Duggar apologizes amid molestation allegations, quits Family Research Council". The Washington Post. May 22, 2015. Archived from the original on May 22, 2015. Retrieved May 21, 2015.
  116. ^ "Family Research Council". www.frc.org. Archived from the original on March 15, 2018. Retrieved March 17, 2018.
  117. ^ "Kenneth L. Connor - Connor & Connor, LLC - Augusta Georgia". Connor & Connor, LLC. Archived from the original on March 18, 2018. Retrieved March 17, 2018.

External linksEdit