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Fakhri Pasha or Fahreddin Pasha (1868 – 22 November 1948), known as Ömer Fahrettin Türkkan after the Surname Law of 1934, was the commander of the Ottoman Army and governor of Medina from 1916 to 1919. He was nicknamed "The Lion of the Desert" and "The Tiger of the Desert"[3] by the British and Arabs for his patriotism in Medina[4][2] and is known for defending Medina in the Siege of Medina during World War I.[5]

Ömer Fahrettin Türkkan[1]
1304 (1888)-SV. 1[1]
Ömer Fahrettin Türkkan.jpg
Nickname(s)The Defender of Medina (Tr.: Medine Müdafii)
The Lion of the Desert[2]
The Tiger of the Desert[3]
Born1868 (November or December)
Rusçuk, Ottoman Empire
Died22 November 1948 (aged 79–80)
Istanbul, Turkey
Buried
Allegiance Ottoman Empire (1888–1919)
 Turkey (1921–1936)
Service/branch Ottoman Army
 Turkish Land Forces
Years of service1888–1919, 1921–1936
RankLieutenant general
Commands held31st Division, XII Corps, Fourth Army (deputy), Hejaz Expeditionary Force
Battles/warsItalo-Turkish War
Balkan Wars
World War I
Other workTurkish ambassador to Kabul

Early lifeEdit

 
Fakhri Pasha in his early days.

He was born in Rusçuk (present day Ruse) to mother Fatma Adile Hanım and father Mehmed Nahid Bey. He had a younger sister Sabiha Hanım, who was married to ‘Alī Ḥaydar Pāshā. Due to the Russo-Turkish War his family moved to Constantinople[6][7] in 1878. He joined the War Academy and in 1888 graduated from it. His first posting was on the eastern border with Armenia in the Fourth Army. In 1908 he came to Constantinople and joined the First Regular Army. In 1911–12 he was sent to Libya and when the Balkan War broke out, he was the commander of the 31st Division stationed at Gallipoli. His unit recaptured Adrianople (present day Edirne) from Bulgaria and he entered into the city along with Enver Pasha.

FamilyEdit

He married in 1900 Ayşe Sıdıka Hanımefendi (1884-1959), the daughter of Ferik Ahmet Paşa. They had five children:

  • Suphiye Türkkan 1904-1978 (daughter)
  • Mehmed Selim Türkkan 1908-1991(son)
  • Mehmed Orhan Türkkan 1910-1994 (son)
  • Ayşe Nermin Türkkan 1919-1997 (daughter)
  • Ayhan Türkkan 1928-1959 (son)

World War IEdit

 
Fakhri Pasha during the First World War

In 1914, before the Ottoman Army was mobilized, Staff Colonel Fahreddin Bey was appointed the commander of the XII Corps stationed in Mosul. He was promoted to the rank of Mirliva on 12 November 1914 and appointed to the Deputy Commander of the Fourth Army stationed in Aleppo.[8]

Defender of MedinaEdit

During World War I, after Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca, started preparing for a revolt against the Ottoman Empire,[5] Fahreddin, upon the orders of Djemal Pasha on 23 May 1916 moved toward Medina in Hejaz to defend it; he was appointed the commander of the Hejaz Expeditionary Force on 17 July 1916.[8]

Medina was besieged by the Arab forces who revolted against the Ottoman Sultan and sided with the British against Fahreddin Pasha, but he stood his ground and defended the city. He also protected the single-track narrow gauge Hejaz Railway from sabotage by the Hejazi army[9] Turkish garrisons of the isolated small train stations withstood the continuous night attacks and secured the tracks against increasing number of attacks (around 130 major attacks in 1917 and hundreds in 1918, including more than 300 bombs on April 30, 1918).

With the withdrawal of the Ottoman Empire from the war with the Armistice of Mudros between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies of World War I on 30 October 1918, it was expected that Fahreddin would also surrender. But he refused to do so and rejected the armistice.

During the siege of Medina, Fahreddin sent the sacred artefacts and manuscripts of Medina to Istanbul in order to protect them from seizure. Most of the manuscripts were returned to Medina by the Ottoman Empire and are now in libraries in the city,[5] while the rest remain in the Topkapı Palace in Istanbul.[10]

According to eye-witness memoirs of Turkish author Feridun Kandemir, who was a Red Crescent volunteer of that time in Medina, one Friday in the spring of 1918, after prayers in Masjid al-Nabawi (also known as the Prophet's Mosque), Fahreddin addressed the troops:[11]

"Soldiers! I appeal to you in the name of the Prophet, my witness. I command you to defend him and his city to the last cartridge and the last breath, irrespective of the strength of the enemy. May Allah help us, and may the prayers of Muhammad be with us.

"Officers of the heroic Turkish army! O little Muhammads, come forward and promise me, before our Lord and the Prophet, to honor your faith with the supreme sacrifice of your lives."'

Fahreddin Pasha had said that he had a vision in a dream that the prophet Muhammad had ordered him not to submit. In August 1918, he received a call to surrender from Sharif Husain of Mecca. Fahreddin Pasha replied him in these words:[11]

"Fakhr-ud-Din, General, Defender of the Most Sacred City of Medina. Servant of the Prophet.

"In the name of Allah, the Omnipotent. To him who broke the power of Islam, caused bloodshed among Muslims, jeopardized the caliphate of the Commander of the Faithful, and exposed it to the domination of the British.

"On Thursday night the fourteenth of Dhu'l-Hijja, I was walking, tired and worn out, thinking of the protection and defense of Medina, when I found myself among unknown men working in a small square. Then I saw standing before me a man with a sublime countenance. He was the Prophet, may Allah's blessing be upon him! His left arm rested on his hip under his robe, and he said to me in a protective manner, 'Follow me.' I followed him two or three paces and woke up. I immediately proceeded to his sacred mosque and prostrated myself in prayer and thanks [near his tomb].

"I am now under the protection of the Prophet, my Supreme Commander. I am busying myself with strengthening the defenses, building roads and squares in Medina. Trouble me not with useless offers."

He refused to hand over his sword even upon the receipt of a direct order from the Ottoman minister of war. The Ottoman government was upset at his behavior and the Sultan Mehmed VI dismissed him from his post. He refused to do so and kept the flag of the Ottoman Sultan flying in Medina until 72 days after the end of the war. After the Armistice of Moudros the closest Ottoman unit was 1,300 kilometres (810 mi) from Medina.[12]

Fahreddin was arrested by his own men and brought to Abdullah on 9 January 1919 at Bir Darwish.[13][14] Abdullah entered Medina shortly after the surrender, followed by Ali who entered the city on 2 February 1919.[14]

2017 diplomatic rowEdit

In December 2017 Abdullah bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Foreign Minister of the United Arab Emirates, sparked a diplomatic rift with Turkey by sharing a post on his personal social media account aimed at exposing Fahreddin and his forces for stealing manuscripts from Medina among other crimes against the local population during the siege.[15] In response, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan called the Foreign Minister ignorant and said, "Some impertinent man sinks low and goes as far as accusing our ancestors of theft... What spoiled this man? He was spoiled by oil, by the money he has. When my ancestors were defending Medina, you impudent (man), where were yours? First, you have to give account for this."[16] A few days later, the Turkish government changed the name of the Ankara street where the UAE Embassy is located to Fahreddin Pasha.[17]

Life after warEdit

After Fahreddin Pasha's arrest, he was brought to the military barracks at Cairo, Egypt. Later he was transferred to Malta, where he lived as a prisoner of war until 1921.[18] After his release, he joined the Turkish forces under the command of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and fought against the Greek and French armies occupying Anatolia. After the Turkish War of Independence, he was Turkey's ambassador to Kabul, Afghanistan from 1922 to 1926.[19] In 1936, he was promoted to the rank of Ferik (lieutenant general) and retired from the army. Fahreddin Pasha died on November 22, 1948, after suffering a heart attack during a train trip in the vicinity of Eskişehir.[18] According to his wishes, he was buried in the Aşiyan Cemetery in İstanbul.[18]

See alsoEdit

SourcesEdit

  1. ^ a b Harp Akademileri Komutanlığı, Harp Akademilerinin 120 Yılı, İstanbul, 1968, p. 19. (in Turkish)
  2. ^ a b Defence Of Medina Archived 9 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine, İsmail Bilgin, ISBN 975-263-496-6, Timas Publishing Group.
  3. ^ a b S. Tanvir Wasti
    The defence of Medina, 1916–19, Middle Eastern Studies
    Vol. 27, No. 4 (Oct., 1991), Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. pp. 642-653
  4. ^ "President, opposition continue reaction to UAE FM's retweet targeting Turks, Ottomans". DailySabah. 21 December 2017. Retrieved 24 December 2017.
  5. ^ a b c "Fahreddin Pasha: Ottoman officer who defended the holy lands with all he had". Daily Sabah. 22 December 2017. Retrieved 24 December 2017.
  6. ^ The Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol.7, Edited by Hugh Chisholm, (1911), 3; Constantinople, the capital of the Turkish Empire...
  7. ^ Britannica, Istanbul:When the Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923, the capital was moved to Ankara, and Constantinople was officially renamed Istanbul in 1930.
  8. ^ a b "Fahreddin Paşa (Türkkan)" Archived 20 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Turkey in the First World War.
  9. ^ Mesut Uyar, Edward J. Erickson: A Military History of the Ottomans: From Osman to Atatürk, ABC-CLIO, 2009, ISBN 0275988767, page 253.
  10. ^ "Money spoiled you: Erdoğan slams UAE FM in Ottoman Pasha row". Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved 24 December 2017.
  11. ^ a b Medine Müdafaası, Feridun Kandemir, Nehir Yayınları, s. 530, İstanbul, 1991
  12. ^ Başbakan Erdoğan'ın sır konuşması, Sabah, 24.03.2012 (in Turkish)
  13. ^ Peters, Francis. (1994). "Mecca: A Literary History of the Muslim Holy Land". PP376-377. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-03267-X
  14. ^ a b Wilson, Mary. (1987). "King Abdullah, Britain and the Making of Jordan". P36. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-39987-4
  15. ^ "Turkey plans to change embassy street name in row with UAE: report". Reuters. 2017. Retrieved 24 December 2017.
  16. ^ "Turkish President calls UAE minister impertinent in Ottoman looting ro". Reuters. 2017. Retrieved 24 December 2017.
  17. ^ "UAE embassy street in Turkish capital to be named after Ottoman pasha amid row". Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved 24 December 2017.
  18. ^ a b c Fahreddin Paşa exhibition commemorates hidden jewel in Turkish photography Archived 22 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Today's Zaman, Ömer Faruk Șerifoğlu, 14.12.2008
  19. ^ Bilal N. Șimșir, "Cumhuriyetin İlk Çeyrek Yüzyılında Türk Diplomatik Temsilcilikleri ve Temsilcileri (1920–1950)", Atatürk Araștırma Merkezi Dergisi, Sayı 64-65-66, Cilt: XXII, Mart-Temmuz-Kasım 2006. (in Turkish)
  • Public Record Office, London. F. O./371
  • Emel Esin, Mecca The Blessed, Medinah The Radiant (London, 1963), p. 190

External linksEdit