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Eyelash Extension Example by Pearl Lash: Volume Lashes

Eyelash extensions are used to enhance the length, curliness, fullness, and thickness of natural eyelashes. The extensions may be made from several materials including mink, synthetic, human or horse hair. The main method of applying the extensions is by using an adhesive glue to individually stick the extensions to the eyelash line. False eyelashes (magnetic) and eyelash extensions are not the same.


In 1879, James D. McCabe wrote The National Encyclopædia of Business and Social Forms, where, in the section "Laws of Etiquette," he stated that eyelashes could be lengthened by cutting the ends with a pair of scissors. Other beauty books, such as My Lady's Dressing Room (1892) by Baronne Staffe[1] and Beauty's Aids or How to be Beautiful (1901) by Countess C also state that the trimming of eyelashes along with the use of the pomade Trikogene benefit eyelash growth. Countess C also suggested that eyelashes can be given extra length and strength by washing them every evening with a mixture of water and walnut leaves.[2]

In 1882, Henry Labouchère of Truth reported that "Parisians have found out how to make false eyelashes" by having hair sewn into the eyelids.[3] A similar report appeared in the July 6, 1899 edition of The Dundee Courier which described the painful method for elongating the lashes. The headline of which read, "Irresistible Eyes May Be Had by Transplanting the Hair." The article explained how the procedure achieved longer lashes by having hair from the head sewn into the eyelids.[4]

In 1902, German-born hair specialist and noted inventor Charles Nessler, (aka Karl Nessler or Charles Nestle) patented "A New or Improved Method of and Means for the Manufacture of Artificial Eyebrows, Eyelashes and the like" in the United Kingdom.[5] By 1903, he began selling artificial eyelashes at his London salon on Great Castle Street.[6][7] He used the profits from his sales to fund his next invention, the permanent wave machine.[8][9] A permanent wave machine was commonly called a perm that involves the use of heat and/or chemicals to break and reform the cross-linking bonds of the hair structure. In 1911, a Canadian woman named Anna Taylor patented false eyelashes in the United States. Taylor's false eyelashes were designed using a crescent shaped, strip of fabric. the fabric had tiny pieces of hair placed on them.[10]

Another noted inventor of eyelash extensions is Maksymilian Faktorowicz, a Polish beauty guru and businessman, who founded the company Max Factor.[11][12]

In 1916, while making his film Intolerance, director D.W. Griffith wanted actress Seena Owen to have lashes "that brushed her cheeks, to make her eyes shine larger than life." The false eyelashes which were made from human hair was specifically woven piece by piece by a local wig maker. The eyelashes were adhered using spirit gum, commonly used for affixing wigs. One day Owen showed up to set with her eyes swollen nearly shut, her costar Lillian Gish, wrote in her memoir.[13]

By the 1930s, false eyelashes were becoming more acceptable for the average woman to wear. This shift in cultural opinion was largely due to the influence of film actresses, that were seen wearing them on screen. Featured in Vogue, false eyelashes had official become mainstream, and given the "Vogue" stamp of approval.

In the 1960s, false eyelashes became the centerpiece of makeup. During this era eye makeup that gave women big doll-like eyes, was very common. They achieved this look by applying false eyelashes on both the top and bottom eyelashes. Models like Twiggy, helped popularize this trend, and is often associated with it.

In 1968 at the feminist Miss America protest, protestors symbolically threw a number of feminine products into a "Freedom Trash Can." These included false eyelashes,[14] which were among items the protestors called "instruments of female torture"[15] and accouterments of what they perceived to be enforced femininity.

In 2008, Aesthetic Korea Co., Ltd. began to manufacture products as semi-permanent eyelashes became popular in Korea.[citation needed] Today, the manufacturing methods of all extension eyelashes have been propagated from this company. Since then, several similar companies have started to set up, which has had a considerable impact on neighboring countries, including China and Japan. However, due to South Korea's annual rise in labor costs, many manufacturers have moved from South Korea to China or Vietnam.

In 2014, Miami-based Katy Stoka, founder of One Two Cosmetics, invented the magnetic false lash as an alternative to those that utilize glue.[16] Today magnetic eyelashes are becoming more and more common, with many mainstream brands like Ardell, offering more affordable options.

Types and style of lashesEdit

False eyelashes and semi-permanent eyelash extensions both enhance the length and volume of eyelashes, although they differ in various ways.

Classic lashes are a 1:1 ratio of one extension applied to one natural lash. Hybrid lashes are classic lashes and volume fan lashes mixed together. Volume lashes are 2-6 thin eyelash extensions which make a fan shape to allow for a look of full fluffy lashes.[17]Mega volume lashes are 10 or more super thin eyelash extensions. Pre-made fans are ready-made volume eyelash extensions. They are arranged on the sticker strip for easy pick-up and quick application. Hybrid Lashes - The hybrid set involves both classic individual eyelash extensions and volume fans mixed together for the ultimate in fluffy, textured lashes. Also referred to as a ‘mixed set’, they offer a thicker, denser look than classic lashes, but without the uniformity and softness of a typical Russian volume set.

Temporary false lashesEdit

Temporary false lashes are applied with temporary lash glue, and are not designed to be worn when showering, sleeping or swimming. The lashes come as individuals, clusters, and most commonly, lash strips. In 2016, an American woman named Katy Stoka, founder of One Two Cosmetics, invented the magnetic false lash.[16][18] The magnetic lashes work by placing the magnetic false lash between one's eyelashes, thereby sandwiching in natural eyelashes with the magnetic eyelashes.[19] Due to the nature of magnets, there has been a lot of concern regarding this beauty trend. However magnetic eyelashes pose no threat to eye health, as the magnets used are too small to be considered hazardous. Some even argue that magnetic eyelashes are safer than the regular false eyelashes, that require glue. This is based on the fact that lash glue often contains ingredients like the allergen, latex, or even harmful chemicals like formaldehyde, phthalates or ammonia.[20]

Top False Eyelashes and Adhesive Brands, 2018Edit

According to Statista, Unit sales of the leading false eyelashes and adhesive brands in the United States in 2018[21]

In million units
Ardell Fashion Lashes 7.3
Kiss Looks So Natural 4.2
Broadway Eyes 2.7
Kiss Lash Corture 2.2
Kiss Everezlashes 1.7
Salon Perfect 1.6
Kiss True Volume 1.5
Ardell Double Up 1.5
Ardell Wispies 1
Eylure Vegas Nay 0.8

Semi-permanent lashesEdit

Semi-permanent lashes, also known as individual eyelash extensions, are eyelashes applied with an adhesive which is usually cyanoacrylate. There are different types of cyanoacrylates including ethyl, methyl, butyl, and octyl, which is designed for bonding to different surfaces. Lash adhesives are made from methyl-2-cyanoacrylate which is designed to bond a smooth surface (the eyelash extension) to a porous surface (the natural eyelash). It is designed to be used around the eyes and on the natural lashes, but not on the skin which can cause irritation.
Eyelash extensions give the appearance of having mascara on without the messy clumps and smudging of makeup. Generally, a single lash is applied to each natural lash. When applied properly, neither the eyelash extension nor the glue should touch the eyelid because it may cause irritation. This was designed to last until the lashes naturally fall out, which is usually around 3–4 weeks. After those 3-4 weeks, new lash growth will need to be bonded, making lash extensions a regular monthly service if one wishes to maintain the full look.


In the United States, eyelash extension services can range from $100 to $500, depending on:

  • The number and type of lashes being used
  • The skill level of the cosmetician or[22]
  • The venue where the extensions are applied

Because an average person might have anywhere from one hundred to two hundred lashes per eye, it can take from one to three hours to attach a full, new set. The amount of lashes one can put on varies upon the existing natural eyelashes. Because we lose natural eyelashes every day the eyelash extensions usually last between 3–4 weeks and during that time period, natural lashes start falling out or thinning. Maintaining a full set of eyelashes requires a refill every 2–3 weeks or a partial set every four weeks. If done correctly, there should be no damage to the natural lashes. It is important to find a trained professional to preserve lash growth and reduce the chance of eye complications.

Training and certificationEdit

Professionals trained in Lash Artistry go by various titles including "Lash Technicians," "Lash Artists," and "Lash Stylists." There are different companies that provide training and certification for a potential Eyelash Extensions Technicians.
In the UK, the Guild of Professional Beauty Therapists accredit courses for the safe application of semi-permanent individual eyelash extensions. The value of the course content can be judged by the number of CPD (Continued Professional Development) points that the course is awarded.

Applying eyelash extensions in the state of California requires a Cosmetology or Esthetician License. As stated in section 7316 of the California Business and Professions Code.[23]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Baronne Staffe with introduction and additions by Harriett Hubbard Ayer (1892). My Lady's Dressing Room. New York: Cassell Publishing Company.
  2. ^ The Countess C-- (1901). Beauty's Aids or How to be Beautiful. Boston: L.C. Page & Company. pp. 97–98.
  3. ^ George Frederick Shrady and Thomas Lathrop Stedman (1882). Medical Record, Volume 22. p. 252.
  4. ^ "IRRESISTIBLE EYES MAY BE HAD BY TRANSPLANTING THE HAIR". The Dundee Courier. The Quack Doctor. 6 July 1899.
  5. ^ A New or Improved Method of and Means for the Manufacture of Artificial Eyebrows, Eyelashes and the like. British patent GB000190218723A, submitted August 26, 1902, approved November 6, 1902.
  6. ^ Williams, Neville (1957). Powder and Paint: A History of the Englishwoman's Toilet, Elizabeth I--Elizabeth II.
  7. ^ "Art Eyelashes". Nashua Daily Telegraph. July 14, 1903. p. 3.
  8. ^ "Hair Waving Machine is 50 Years Old". The Milwaukee Sentinel. September 21, 1934. p. 11.
  9. ^ "Beauty Boon Has Made Many Changes in 50 Years". Rome News Tribune. p. 28.
  10. ^ ARTIFICIAL EYELASH. Anna Taylor, Ottawa. Ontario. Canada. Serial No. 607,810. US994619. Filed February 10, 1911.
  11. ^ "Maksymilian Faktorowicz - człowiek, który dał nam sztuczne rzęsy". Retrieved 24 May 2017.
  12. ^ "Makeup Masters: The History of Max Factor". Retrieved 24 May 2017.
  13. ^ "A True History of False Eyelashes". Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  14. ^ Dow, Bonnie J. (Spring 2003). "Feminism, Miss America, and Media Mythology". Rhetoric & Public Affairs. 6 (1): 127–149. doi:10.1353/rap.2003.0028.
  15. ^ Duffett, Judith (October 1968). WLM vs. Miss America. Voice of the Women's Liberation Movement. p. 4.
  16. ^ a b Maheshwari, Sapna (25 August 2017). "In Social Media Era, Selfies Are the New Tupperware Party". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 September 2018. I thought, this is a product that will go viral because lashes make everyone look better, particularly in pictures — that's why a lot of brides get them," said Katy Stoka, the creator of the magnetic lashes, known as One Two Lash. She added, "Then it came in tandem with the obsession with the selfie.
  17. ^ "Classic vs. Volume vs. Hybrid Lashes". October 12, 2017. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  18. ^ Fuller, Gillian (18 December 2017). "Ardell Brings Magnetic Lashes to the Drugstore". Allure. Retrieved 19 September 2018. First introduced by One Two Lash in 2016 (which won an Allure Best of Beauty Breakthrough Award for its innovativeness), magnetic lashes are far easier to apply and remove than their gluey counterparts, which are notoriously troublesome (especially for beginners) and difficult to maneuver.
  19. ^ Sasso, Samantha (1 July 2016). "One Two Lash - New Magnetic False Extensions". Refinery29. Retrieved 19 September 2018. Katy Stoka of One Two Cosmetics has created a new and easy way to get an effortlessly winged-out look minus the glue ... magnetic lashes. ... The lashes come in four different styles, ranging from very natural to total glam, and work by sandwiching your actual lashes using two magnetic layers of falsies.
  20. ^ "Here's Why Magnetic Eyelashes Are Completely Safe". Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  21. ^ "Leading false eyelashes and adhesive brands in U.S. 2018, by unit sales | Statistic". Statista. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  22. ^ Aesthetician
  23. ^ California, State of. "Industry Bulletin Lash Extensions - California Board of Barbering and Cosmetology". Archived from the original on 2017-10-23. Retrieved 2017-10-23.

External linksEdit