Lesley Lawson (née Hornby; born 19 September 1949) is an English model, actress, and singer widely known by the nickname Twiggy. She was a British cultural icon and a prominent teenage model in swinging sixties London.
19 September 1949
Neasden, Middlesex, England
|Other names||Twiggy Lawson|
|Occupation||Model, actress, singer|
(m. 1977; his death 1983)
|Children||Carly Armstrong-Lawson (née Witney, born 1978)|
|Height||5 ft 7 in (170 cm)|
Twiggy was initially known for her thin build (thus her nickname) and her androgynous look consisting of big eyes, long eyelashes, and short hair. In 1966, she was named "The Face of 1966" by the Daily Express and voted British Woman of the Year. By 1967, she had modelled in France, Japan, and the US, and had landed on the covers of Vogue and The Tatler. Her fame had spread worldwide.
After modelling, Twiggy enjoyed a successful career as a screen, stage, and television actress. Her role in The Boy Friend (1971) brought her two Golden Globe Awards. She has hosted her own series Twiggy's People, in which she interviewed celebrities; she also appeared as a judge on the reality show America's Next Top Model. Her 1998 autobiography Twiggy in Black and White entered the best-seller lists. Since 2005, she has modelled for Marks and Spencer, most recently to promote their recent rebranding, appearing in television advertisements and print media, alongside Myleene Klass, Erin O'Connor, Lily Cole, and others. In 2012, she worked alongside Marks & Spencer's designers to launch an exclusive clothing collection for the M&S Woman range.
She was born Lesley Hornby on 19 September 1949, and was brought up in Neasden (then in Middlesex, now a suburb of north-west London). She was the third daughter of Nellie Lydia (née Reeman), a factory worker for a printing firm, and William Norman Hornby, a master carpenter and joiner from Lancashire. Her maternal grandfather was Jewish. Their first daughter, Shirley, had been born fifteen years earlier; their second, Vivien, had been born seven years earlier.
Twiggy's great great grandmother, Grace Meadows, then living under her maiden name Grace Gillies, died in a stampede of excitable shoppers at a bargain sale at Messrs McIllroys store in Mare Street in Hackney in 1897. This event made the news at the time.
Twiggy married American actor Michael Witney in 1977. Their daughter, Carly, was born in 1978. They were married until his death in 1983 from a heart attack. Twiggy met Leigh Lawson in 1984. In 1988, they worked on the film Madame Sousatzka, and married that year in Sag Harbor, Long Island. Lawson adopted Twiggy's daughter, who took his surname. The couple reside in London, and also own a home in Southwold, Suffolk.
On Twiggy's official website, she states she is a supporter of breast cancer research, animal welfare and anti-fur campaigns. She was one of the celebrities, including Tom Hiddleston, Jo Brand, E. L. James and Rachel Riley, to design and sign her own card for the UK-based charity Thomas Coram Foundation for Children. The campaign was launched by crafting company Stampin' Up! UK and the cards were auctioned off on eBay during May 2014.
Modelling career (1965–70)Edit
Twiggy is best remembered as one of the first international supermodels and a fashion icon of the 1960s. Her greatest influence is Jean Shrimpton, whom Twiggy considers to be the world's first supermodel. She has also said that she based her "look" on Pattie Boyd. Twiggy herself has been described as the successor to Shrimpton. In January 1966, young Lesley Hornby had her hair coloured and cut short in London at Leonard of Mayfair, owned by celebrity hairdresser Leonard. The hair stylist was looking for models on whom to try out his new crop haircut and he styled her hair in preparation for a few test head shots. A professional photographer Barry Lategan took several photos for Leonard, which the hairdresser hung in his salon. Deirdre McSharry, a fashion journalist from the Daily Express, saw the images and asked to meet the young girl. McSharry arranged to have more photos taken. A few weeks later the publication featured an article and images of Hornby, declaring her "The Face of '66". In it, the copy read: "The Cockney kid with a face to launch a thousand shapes... and she's only 16".
Hornby's career quickly took off. She was short for a model at 5'6" (167 cm), weighed eight stone (51 kg; 112 lbs) and had a 31-23-32 figure, "with a new kind of streamlined, androgynous sex appeal" Her hairdresser boyfriend, Nigel Davies, became her manager, changed his name to Justin de Villeneuve, and persuaded her to change her name to Twiggy (from "Twigs", her childhood nickname). De Villeneuve credits himself for Twiggy's discovery and her modelling success, and his version of events is often quoted in other biographies. In her 1998 book Twiggy In Black and White, she says that she met Justin through his brother, when she worked as a Saturday girl at a hairdressers in London. This is where she began to see the models in the magazines, but never thought she could do something like that. Jean Shrimpton was her idol so she grew her hair long to look like her, before having to have it cut off for her headshots by Barry Lategan. Ten years her senior, De Villeneuve managed her lucrative career for seven years, overseeing her finances and enterprises during her heyday as a model.
Twiggy was soon seen in all the leading fashion magazines, commanding fees of £80 an hour, bringing out her own line of clothes called "Twiggy Dresses" in 1967, and taking the fashion world by storm. "I hated what I looked like," she said once, "so I thought everyone had gone stark raving mad." Twiggy's look centred on three qualities: her stick-thin figure, a boyishly short haircut and strikingly dark eyelashes. Describing how she obtained her prominent eyelashes, now known as Twiggy's, she said, "Back then I was layering three pairs of false eyelashes over my own and would paint extra 'twigs' on my skin underneath."
One month after the Daily Express article, Twiggy posed for her first shoot for Vogue. A year later, she had appeared in 13 separate fashion shoots in international Vogue editions.
Twiggy arrived in New York in March 1967 at Kennedy Airport, an event covered by the press. The New Yorker, Life and Newsweek reported on the Twiggy "phenomenon" in 1967, with the New Yorker devoting nearly 100 pages to the subject." That year she became an international sensation, modelling in France, Japan and America, and landing the cover of Paris Vogue in May, the cover of US Vogue three times, in April, July and November, and the cover of British Vogue in October. In 1967, an editorial on page 63 of the edition of 15 March of Vogue described her as an "extravaganza that makes the look of the sixties" Twiggy was, according to feminist critic Linda Delibero, "the most visible commodity Britain produced that year, and [America] generously complied with the hype, scarfing up skinny little Twiggy pens, Twiggy lunch boxes, Twiggy lashes, an assortment of Twiggy-endorsed cosmetics".
The Metropolitan Museum of Art's 2009 catalogue of Style: Model as Muse Embodying Fashion stated:
Twiggy's adolescent physique was the perfect frame for the androgynous styles that began to emerge in the 1960s. The trend was manifested in a number of templates: sweet A-line dresses with collars and neckties, suits and dresses that took their details from military uniforms, or, in the case of Yves Saint Laurent, an explicit transposition of the male tuxedo to women. Simultaneously, under the rubric of "unisex", designs that were minimalistic, including Nehru suits and space-agey jumpsuits, were proposed by designers such as Pierre Cardin and Andre Courreges, and, most famously in the U.S.A., by Rudi Gernreich.
Twiggy and the magazines featuring her image polarised critics from the start. Her boyishly thin image was criticised as, and is still blamed for, promoting an "unhealthy" body ideal for women. "Twiggy came along at a time when teen-age spending power was never greater," said Su Dalgleish, fashion correspondent for the Daily Mail. "With that underdeveloped, boyish figure, she is an idol to the 14- and 15-year-old kids. She makes virtue of all the terrible things of gawky, miserable adolescence." At the height of her fame, Mark Cohen, president of Leeds Women's shop, had an even harsher view: "Her legs remind me of two painted worms." Yet Twiggy had her supporters. Diana Vreeland of Vogue stated, "She's no flash in the pan. She is the mini-girl in the mini-era. She's delicious looking." In recent years, Twiggy has spoken out against the trend of waif-thin models, explaining that her own thin weight as a teenager was natural: "I was very skinny, but that was just my natural build. I always ate sensibly – being thin was in my genes."
Stage, film, television and singing careerEdit
After four years of modelling, Twiggy retired in 1970, stating "You can't be a clothes hanger for your entire life!" She broke off with Justin de Villeneuve, who had been overseeing her business affairs since 1966, and released him from his duties as her manager, claiming in later years that "her career had more to do with that famous picture of her with those funny painted eyelashes, which appeared in the Daily Express under the headline 'The Face of '66' " than with his promotional efforts.
She has stated several times that she is only really remembered for her modelling career although it was "only a short part of my life". She began to develop a film interest through her weekly visits to Ken Russell's house; they would watch old films together, which included people like Greta Garbo, Clark Gable and other Hollywood actors and actresses. This began to give Twiggy a new outlook on the way she dressed and the way she wore her hair, which she wore in a beret and wore longer skirts and flowers as the hippie look was beginning to take over London. Ken and Twiggy would work on a film together called The Boy Friend after watching a performance of the original musical, staged by Ken's mother's amateur dramatics group.
Twiggy then embarked on an award-winning acting and singing career, starring in a variety of roles on stage and screen, and recording albums. In 1971, she made her film debut as an extra in Ken Russell's The Devils. The same year, she performed her first leading role in features as Polly Browne in Ken Russell's adaptation of Sandy Wilson's pastiche of 1920s hit musicals, The Boy Friend. This marked her initial collaboration with Tommy Tune, and won her two Golden Globe Awards in 1972 (New Star of the Year – Actress and Best Actress in a Musical or Comedy). Also in 1971, Twiggy released the single "Zoo de Zoo Zong", written by Roger Cook and Roger Greenaway, and credited to Twiggy and Friends. In 1974, she made her West End stage debut in Cinderella; made a second feature, the thriller W (co-starring with her future husband Michael Witney); and hosted her own British television series, Twiggs (later renamed Twiggy).
In 1973, she appeared with David Bowie on the cover of his seventh album, Pin Ups. which entered the UK chart on 3 November 1973 and stayed there for 21 weeks, peaking at No. 1. In October 1975, she sang at the live performance of Roger Glover's The Butterfly Ball and the Grasshopper's Feast album at the Royal Albert Hall in London. The concert was filmed and produced by Tony Klinger and released to cinemas in 1976.
In November 1976 she made an appearance on The Muppet Show, in which she sang "In My Life", a Beatles song. In 1976, Twiggy signed to Mercury Records and released the albums Twiggy and Please Get My Name Right, discs that contained both pop and country tunes. Twiggy sold very well, peaking on the UK charts at No. 33, and gave Twiggy a silver disc for good sales. The album contains Twiggy's top-twenty hit single, "Here I Go Again". "Please Get My Name Right" made it to No. 35 in 1977. A single "A Woman in Love" failed to chart for Twiggy in 1977, but was a hit for the Three Degrees in 1978.
In 1978, the television distribution arm of American International Pictures, in an effort to gain additional syndication value in the US to the LWT rock music series Supersonic, repackaged the musical performances with Twiggy replacing Mike Mansfield's introductions. The new series was titled Twiggy's Jukebox, and ran in most of the major television markets in the US during the 1978–79 TV season. Coincidentally, Twiggy herself had performed "Here I Go Again" and "Vanilla Olay" on Supersonic in September 1976, and these performances were included in the refurbished programme. After the initial season, Twiggy left the series, and American International Television continued Jukebox with Britt Ekland as host, using standard music videos rather than clips from Supersonic. She appeared in "There Goes the Bride" with Tom Smothers in 1979.
In 1980, Twiggy made a cameo appearance in The Blues Brothers. She starred as Eliza Doolittle in 1981 opposite Robert Powell in the Yorkshire TV production of Pygmalion. In 1983 she made her Broadway debut in the musical, My One and Only, starring and co-staged by Tommy Tune, for which she earned a Tony nomination. She played opposite Robin Williams in the 1986 comedy Club Paradise. In 1987, she played a vaudeville performer in the British television special The Little Match Girl, and in 1988 she appeared in a supporting role in Madame Sousatzka opposite second husband Leigh Lawson. In 1989, she was cast as Hannah Chaplin, mother to Charles, in the British television movie Young Charlie Chaplin, aired in the United States on PBS' WonderWorks.
In 1991, she co-starred in her first American network dramatic television series, the short-lived CBS sitcom Princesses. Of eight episodes completed, only five aired. (Princesses co-star, Fran Drescher, later spent some time with Twiggy and her family in England while developing Drescher's hit series The Nanny, even modelling character Maxwell Sheffield on Twiggy's husband Leigh Lawson.)
In 1997, Twiggy acted in the Chichester Festival Theatre revival of Noël Coward's Blithe Spirit. A year later, she played Gertrude Lawrence in the biographical stage revue Noel and Gertie at Bay Street Theatre in Sag Harbor, Long Island. In 1999, she returned to the New York stage in an off-Broadway production If Love Were All, a revised version of Noel and Gertie, written and directed by Leigh Lawson; what set this edition apart were its tap numbers in period style. She starred as Gertrude Lawrence opposite Harry Groener's Noël Coward.
In 2001, Twiggy co-hosted the British magazine programme This Morning. In 2003, she released another album, Midnight Blue. Seventeen of the CD's 20 tracks had previously unreleased material from 1982–1990, including a duet with Leo Sayer, "Save the Last Dance for Me", and a cover of the Stones' "Ruby Tuesday". Two of the tracks ("Feel Emotion" and "Diamond") had been issued as single in the mid-1980s. In 2005, she joined the cast of the television show America's Next Top Model for Cycles 5–9 as one of four judges, and a year later, she appeared on the cover of the "Icons" issue of Swindle magazine. She also returned to modelling, fronting a major television, press and billboard campaign for Marks & Spencer, the British department-store chain. Her involvement in the advertising campaign has been credited for reviving Marks and Spencer's fortunes. In 2006, she portrayed herself as a nineteen-year-old in the radio play Elevenses with Twiggy for BBC Radio 4's Afternoon Play series. She did not return to America's Next Top Model in its tenth season due to scheduling conflicts. Her replacement was model Paulina Porizkova.
Also in 2007, Sepia Records released a previously shelved album that Twiggy recorded in 1979, produced by Donna Summer and Juergen Koppers. Heaven in My Eyes ["Discotheque"] contains the eight original tracks due to be released, plus four remixes by "The OUTpsiDER". The album was also made available on iTunes. She is signed to London agency Models 1. In 2008, she supported the "Fashion Targets Breast Cancer" campaign in support of Breakthrough Breast Cancer, alongside fellow celebrities –comedian Alan Carr, singer Natalie Imbruglia, actress Anna Friel and DJ & presenter Edith Bowman.
In the summer of 2009, beauty company Olay debuted its "Definity Eye Cream" campaign depicting Twiggy. Accusations of airbrushing created a stir with the media and public. A website campaign set up by Jo Swinson, the Scottish Liberal Democrat MP, attracted 700 individual complaints. Procter & Gamble admitted to minor retouching and replaced the image. The Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) announced that the ad gave a "misleading" impression, but that no further action was required because the image had already been withdrawn. Its announcement said:
However, we considered that the post-production re-touching of this ad, specifically in the eye area, could give consumers a misleading impression of the effect the product could achieve. We considered that the combination of references to 'younger looking eyes', including the claim 'reduces the look of wrinkles and dark circles for brighter, younger looking eyes', and post-production re-touching of Twiggy's image around the eye area, was likely to mislead.
Twiggy remains in the forefront of fashion for women of her age. She was one of the few famous celebrities to survive being cut from the Marks & Spencer fashion team in 2009–2010, when Dannii Minogue joined her for the spring/summer women's wear campaign. She also started an HSN fashion line called the "Twiggy London" collection, and has begun a fashion blog to discuss the line. Women in their 60s and 70s are remaining stylish today, and this trend has been termed the "Twiggy effect".
On 21 November 2011 Twiggy released the album Romantically Yours, through EMI. A collection of pop and easy listening standards spanning several generations, the album features versions of such compositions as "Bewitched, Bothered and Bewildered", "Blue Moon", "My Funny Valentine", "Someone to Watch over Me" and "They Can't Take That Away from Me". The album also includes a guest vocal appearance by Twiggy's daughter Carly Lawson on Neil Young's "Only Love Can Break Your Heart", a guitar solo by Bryan Adams, and a version of Richard Marx's "Right Here Waiting" featuring duet vocals with the American songwriter himself.
- 1971 The Boyfriend (Original Soundtrack) (MGM Records)
- 1972 Twiggy and the Girlfriends (Ember)
- 1976 Twiggy (Mercury) (UK #33)
- 1977 Please Get My Name Right (Mercury) (UK #35)
- 1983 My One and Only (with Tommy Tune) (Atlantic)
- 2003 Midnight Blue (Eureka) (unreleased material from the 1980s)
- 2007 Heaven In My Eyes - Discotheque (Eureka) (unreleased material from the 1970s)
- 2009 Gotta Sing Gotta Dance (Stage Door)
- 2011 Romantically Yours (EMI)
- 1966 "Some Do Some Don't (Some Will Some Won't)" (with Anne) (Columbia)
- 1967 "Beautiful Dreams" (Ember)
- 1967 "When I Think of You" (Ember)
- 1971 "Zoo Do Zoo Dong" (with Friends) (Bell)
- 1972 "A Room in Bloomsbury" (with Christopher Gable) (Columbia)
- 1976 "Here I Go Again" (Mercury) (UK #17)
- 1976 "Vanilla Olay" (Mercury)
- 1977 "Rings" ((UK #35) from her album Please Get My Name Right)
- 1977 "Please Get My Name Right" (Mercury)
- 1977 "I Hope We Get to Love in Time" (Mercury)
- 1977 "A Woman in Love" (Mercury)
- 1977 "Tomorrow is Another Day" (Mercury)
- 1978 "Falling Angel" (Mercury)
- 1985 "Feel Emotion" (Arista) (UK #81)
- 1986 "Diamond" (Arista)
- 1989 "Winter Wonderland" (Object)
Books and exhibitsEdit
- Twiggy, Twiggy: An Autobiography (1975), ISBN 978-0-246-10895-1
- Twiggy, Twiggy's Guide to Looking Good (1986), ISBN 978-0-00-636672-0
- Twiggy, Twiggy in Black and White (1998), ISBN 978-0-671-51645-1
- Emma Midgley, "London Swings Again With Ossie Clark Show At The V&A" (22 July 2003), Culture24
- Twiggy, Twiggy: Please Get My Name Right (2004), Word Power Books, ISBN 9784939102578
- Iain R Webb, Bill Gibb: Fashion and Fantasy (2008), foreword by Twiggy, ISBN 978-1-85177-548-4
- Twiggy, A Guide to Looking and Feeling Fabulous Over Forty (2008), ISBN 978-0-7181-5404-2
- The Model as Muse: Embodying Fashion, Metropolitan Museum of Art, May–August 2009
- Twiggy: A Life in Photographs, Terence Pepper, Robin Muir, and Melvin Sokolsky (2009), ISBN 978-1-85514-414-9
- Twiggy: A Life in Photographs, National Portrait Gallery (2009–2010)
- Best Models of All Time: #7 Twiggy Harper's Bazaar.
- Roberts, Yvonne (2 November 2005). "Twiggy's wrinkles". The Guardian. London.
- "Twiggy – The Official Site". Twiggylawson.co.uk. 19 September 1949. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
- "Twiggy – Biography on Bio". Thebiographychannel.co.uk. Archived from the original on 26 June 2010. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
- Jane Gordon (14 September 2008). "Exclusive Twiggy interview: 'Being a grown-up woman doesn't mean you can't look beautiful, individual and different'". London: Dailymail.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
- "Twiggy for M&S Woman".
- "Twiggy". Nations Memory Bank. Archived from the original on 24 September 2009. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
- "Twiggy: My family connections". thejc.com.
- "Lesley Hornby aka Twiggy Biography". Inout Star. 30 June 2007. Archived from the original on 4 January 2010. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
- "Twiggy Featured Article: TheGenealogist". thegenealogist.co.uk.
- Cartner-Morley, Jess (2009-09-18). "Twiggy at 60: 'It's amazing I didn't go stark raving bonkers'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-02-08.
- "Gainesville Sun - Google News Archive Search". news.google.com. Retrieved 2016-02-08.
- Barber, Richard (3 October 2008). "Now it's time for MY swinging sixties! How getting older has given the very first supermodel Twiggy a new lease of life". Daily Mail. London.
- "Famous Suffolk People – your guide to Suffolk's celebrities!". Suffolktouristguide.com. Retrieved 2012-04-27.
- Rebecca Pocklington (6 May 2014). "Benedict Cumberbatch, Tom Hiddleston, Jo Brand and more celebrities design and sign cards for UK's first children's charity". Mirror Online. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
- "The face of '66". BBC News. 29 July 2005. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
- AAP. "60s icon Twiggy offers fashion advice". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
- "Dickinson 1st Supermodel? Not! Says Twiggy". Channels.isp.netscape.com. Archived from the original on 4 January 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
- Wigg, David (17 October 2014). "Twiggy goes to war on obesity". Daily Mail.
- Spitz, Bob (2005). The Beatles: The Biography. Little, Brown and Company. pp. 499, 909. ISBN 978-0-316-01331-4.
- Gould, Jack (28 April 1967). "TV: Camera on Twiggy; Cinema Verite Technique Helps Exploit Visit of Model Most in Vogue". The New York Times.
- "The Arrival of Twiggy". Life. 3 February 1967.
- "Pin Thin, Leggy Twiggy Is Tops". Milwaukee Journal. 24 November 1966.
- sentimentalsusan (10 November 2008). "Twiggy & Leonard of London ~ HairDo Magazine 1967". Modsixties.5forum.net. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
- "Twiggy – The Official Site". Twiggylawson.co.uk. 23 February 1966. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
- Jess Cartner-Morley (19 September 2009). "Twiggy at 60: 'It's amazing I didn't go bonkers'". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
- "Twiggy". FIDM Museum Blog. 2 November 2009. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
- Maev Kennedy (8 July 2009). "Face of 2009: Gallery celebrates Twiggy's career". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
- The Daily Express, 23 February 1966. Quoted in: Brayford, Claire (12 April 2012). "Twiggy: I know what women want". Daily Express. Retrieved 2013-05-07.
- Cheever, Susan (May 1983). "Twiggy". New York Times. Archived from the original on 9 November 2006. Retrieved 2007-04-17.
- Brayford, Claire (12 April 2012). "Twiggy: I know what women want". Daily Express. Retrieved 2013-05-07.
- Saner, Emine (1 August 2006). "Summer of hate". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
- Clint Hough. "Bringing on back the good times". Sixties City. Archived from the original on 4 January 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
- Bergin, Olivia (4 August 2009). "Twiggy: A supermodel's life in photographs". London: Telegraph. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
- "Cult – I Love Twiggy in False Eyelashes". BBC. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
- "Twiggy's beauty secrets: eyes and lips". London: Dailymail.co.uk. 20 September 2008. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
- "Twiggy Press Conference". YouTube. 23 April 2008. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
- "Vogue Covers 1920–2009 (Paris, France)". Hauteworld.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
- DeLibero, Linda Benn (1994). "This Year's Girl: A Personal/Critical History of Twiggy". In Benstock, Shari; Ferriss, Suzanne. On Fashion. pp. 42–43. ISBN 0813520339. Retrieved 2013-05-07.
- "Style: Model as Muse at the Metropolitan Museum of Art". Thecityreview.com. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
- Derenne and Beresin (30 January 2006). "Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders". Acad Psychiatry. Ap.psychiatryonline.org. 30 (3): 257. doi:10.1176/appi.ap.30.3.257. Retrieved 2010-05-01.[permanent dead link]
- Susan Cheever. "Stick Thin". Archived from the original on 11 August 2007.
- sentimentalsusan. "NEW Twiggy 1967 Newsweek Cover & Article". Modsixties.5forum.net. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
- "'America's Next Top Model' judge Twiggy: Too thin models "terrifying"". Reality TV World. 19 November 2006. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
- "This Is Your Life". bigredbook.info. Retrieved 2016-09-18.
- Slater, Anna (13 September 2009). "Twiggy at 60; The super-skinny model who found fame in the Sixties has finally come of age. Anna Slater lists the triumphs, the tragedies and the trivia". Independent on Sunday. p. 48.
- "The Muppet Show Season 1 Episode 21 Part 1". YouTube. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
- Epstein, Lawrence J. (2008). The Haunted Smile: The Story of Jewish Comedians in America. p. 268. ISBN 0786724927. Retrieved 2013-05-06.
- Cooper, Brenda (October 1994). "Diva: Dazzling Fran Drescher Runs the Show on Her CBS Hit, The Nanny". Orange Coast: 45–46. ISSN 0279-0483. Retrieved 2013-05-06.
- "Twiggy: This year's model. Again – This Britain, UK". London: The Independent. 12 October 2005. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
- Reardanz, Karen (27 November 2007). "Twiggy Quits 'America's Next Top Model'". SFGate. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
- Zap2It.com (26 November 2007). "Twiggy Replaced on 'America's Next Top Model'". Zap2it. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
- "Airbrushed Twiggy photo 'misleading'". BBC News. 16 December 2009. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
- Irvine, Chris (12 May 2009). "Myleene Klass has Marks & Spencer contract cut by £250,000". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
- Alexander, Hilary (8 February 2012). "Dannii Minogue to join Twiggy as a new face of Marks & Spencer". Telegraph.co.uk. Archived from the original on 13 January 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
- Marsh, Lisa (24 March 2010). "Twiggy on Her New HSN Fashion Line and Embracing Aging". stylelist.com. Archived from the original on 30 July 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
- Cohen, Tamara (17 March 2010). "Growing old stylishly: Twiggy effect proves age is no barrier for fashion fans". Daily Mail. Retrieved 2013-05-06.
- "What to watch on Sunday, August 1st, 2010". digiguide. Retrieved 2013-05-06.
- "TWIGGY". officialcharts.com.
- Conekin, Becky E. "Fashioning Mod Twiggy and the moped in ‘swinging’ London." History and Technology 28.2 (2012): 209-215.
- Gross, Michael. Model: The ugly business of beautiful women (Harper Collins, 2011).
- Sandbrook, Dominic. White Heat: A history of Britain in the swinging sixties (Abacus, 2015) pp 283-308.
- Twiggy – Official website
- 1967 Newsweek cover and Twiggy article
- Images of Twiggy, National Portrait Gallery
- "My Best Shot: Twiggy" by Barry Lategan
- Twiggy on IMDb
- Twiggy at the Internet Broadway Database
- Twiggy at Internet Off-Broadway Database
- Twiggy at the Fashion Model Directory
- Twiggy interview in Swindle magazine
- "Twiggy: You Ask the Questions", The Independent
- "Twiggy: Fashion Icon" – slideshow by Life magazine
- Twiggy interview on BBC Radio 4 Desert Island Discs, 13 January 1989
- Twiggy's appearance on This Is Your Life
Richard and Judy
|Host of This Morning
with Coleen Nolan
John Leslie and Fern Britton