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Eugenia uniflora, with common names pitanga,[2] Suriname cherry,[3] Brazilian cherry,[2] Cayenne cherry,[4] or Cerisier Carré[5] is a plant in the family Myrtaceae, native to tropical South America’s east coast, ranging from Suriname, French Guiana to southern Brazil, as well as parts of Paraguay, Argentina and Uruguay.[5][6][7] Known as pitanga throughout Brazil and Uruguay, or ñangapirí in surrounding countries, the plant is relatively pest resistant, easy to grow and high in antioxidants.[8] The tree is also grown in the West Indies, specifically in Haiti, where it is known as Cerisier Carré, as is in French Guiana.[5] The Suriname cherry is often used in gardens as a hedge or screen. The tree was introduced to Bermuda for ornamental purposes but is now out of control and listed as an invasive species.[9] In Suriname this cherry is known as Monkimonki Kersie, also Montjimontji Kersie. The tree has also been introduced to Florida.[10]

Surinam cherry
Eugenia uniflora fruits.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Myrtales
Family: Myrtaceae
Genus: Eugenia
Species:
E. uniflora
Binomial name
Eugenia uniflora
Synonyms[1]
Pitanga, (surinam-cherry), raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy138 kJ (33 kcal)
7.49 g
0.4 g
0.8 g
VitaminsQuantity %DV
Vitamin A equiv.
9%
75 μg
Thiamine (B1)
3%
0.03 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
3%
0.04 mg
Niacin (B3)
2%
0.3 mg
Vitamin C
32%
26.3 mg
MineralsQuantity %DV
Calcium
1%
9 mg
Iron
2%
0.2 mg
Magnesium
3%
12 mg
Phosphorus
2%
11 mg
Potassium
2%
103 mg
Sodium
0%
3 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

DescriptionEdit

Eugenia uniflora is a large shrub or small tree with a conical form, growing slowly to 8 metres (26 ft) high. When bruised, crushed or cut, the leaves and branches have a spicy resinous fragrance, which can cause respiratory discomfort in susceptible individuals. The leaves are without stipules, ovate, glossy and held in opposite pairs.[4] New leaves are bronze, copper or coppery-pinkish in color, maturing to a deep glossy green, up to 4 centimetres (1.6 in) long. During winter the leaves turn red.

Flowers have four white petals and are borne on slender long stalks, with a conspicuous central cluster of white stamens ending in yellow anthers. Flowers develop into ribbed fruits 2 to 4 centimetres (0.79 to 1.57 in) long, starting out as green, then ranging through orange, scarlet and maroon as they ripen. Because the seeds are distributed by fruit-eating birds it can become a weed in suitable tropical and sub-tropical habitats, displacing native flora.[4]

UsesEdit

FruitEdit

The edible fruit is a botanical berry. The taste ranges from sweet to sour, depending on the cultivar and level of ripeness (the darker red to black range is quite sweet, while the green to orange range is strikingly tart). Its predominant food use is as a flavoring and base for jams and jellies. The fruit is high in vitamin C and a source of vitamin A.

LeavesEdit

The leaves are spread on some house floors in Brazil, so that when crushed underfoot, they exude a smell which repels flies.

The leaves are also used for tea in certain parts of Uruguay.

Medical studiesEdit

Eugenia uniflora has several significant pharmacological properties.[11] Its essential oil is antihypertensive,[11][12] antidiabetic,[13] antitumor[14] and analgesic,[15] and it has shown antiviral and antifungal activity.[16] It has performed against microorganisms such as Trichomonas gallinae (in vitro),[17] Trypanosoma cruzi[18] and Leishmania amazonensis.[11][19]

It also shows significant anti-inflammatory properties,[11][20] and is used extensively as a folk remedy in South America against stomach diseases.[11][21]

GalleryEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved January 28, 2019.
  2. ^ a b Nascimento e Santos, Débora; Lima de Souza, Larissa; Nilson José Ferreira; Lopes de Oliveira, Alessandra (2015). "Study of supercritical extraction from Brazilian cherry seeds (Eugenia uniflora L.) with bioactive compounds". Food and Bioproducts Processing. Elsevier. 94: 365–374. doi:10.1016/j.fbp.2014.04.005.
  3. ^ Setzer, Kenneth (May 12, 2018). "Yes, the Surinam cherry is edible, but that doesn't mean you're going to like it". Miami Herald. Retrieved January 28, 2019.
  4. ^ a b c "Weeds of Australia: Eugenia uniflora". Queensland Government. Retrieved January 28, 2019.
  5. ^ a b c Duke, James A. (2009). Duke's Handbook of Medicinal Plants of Latin America. p. 309. ISBN 9781420043174.
  6. ^ Karp, David (February 7, 2007). "Berry Helped to Put Reality Show Chef on Top". The New York Times. Retrieved January 28, 2019.
  7. ^ Morton, Julia (1987). "Surinam cherry". Fruits of warm climates. Miami, FL. pp. 386–388.
  8. ^ "A curious crop". The Honolulu Advertiser. February 28, 2007. Retrieved January 28, 2019.
  9. ^ "Bermuda Conservation - Surinam Cherry". Archived from the original on 2012-02-05. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
  10. ^ "Surinam Cherry: Only Ripe Need Apply". Retrieved January 28, 2019.
  11. ^ a b c d e Lim, TK (2012). "Eugenia Uniflora". Edible Medicinal And Non Medicinal Plants: Volume 3, Fruits. 3 (Fruits ed.). Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 620–629. ISBN 978-9400725348.
  12. ^ Consolini AE, Baldini OA, Amat AG (1999). "Pharmacological basis for the empirical use of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) as antihypertensive". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 66 (1): 33–9. doi:10.1016/s0378-8741(98)00194-9. PMID 10432205.
  13. ^ Matsumura, T; Kasai, M; Hayashi, T; Arisawa, M; Momose, Y; Arai, I; Amagaya, S; Komatsu, Y (2000). "a-glucosidase Inhibitors From Paraguayan Natural Medicine, Nangapiry, The Leaves Of Eugenia Uniflora". Pharmaceutical Biology. 38 (4): 302–7. doi:10.1076/1388-0209(200009)3841-AFT302. PMID 21214481.
  14. ^ Ogunwande IA, Olawore NO, Ekundayo O, Walker TM, Schmidt JM, Setzer WN (2005). "Studies on the essential oils composition, antibacterial and cytotoxicity of Eugenia uniflora L.". International Journal of Aromatherapy. 15 (3): 147–152. doi:10.1016/j.ijat.2005.07.004.
  15. ^ Amorim AC, Lima CK, Hovell AM, Miranda AL, Rezende CM (2009). "Antinociceptive and hypothermic evaluation of the leaf essential oil and isolated terpenoids from Eugenia uniflora L. (Brazilian Pitanga)". Phytomedicine. 16 (10): 923–8. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2009.03.009. PMID 19423309.
  16. ^ Costa DP, Filho EG, Silva LM, et al. (2010). "Influence of fruit biotypes on the chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oils of Eugenia uniflora leaves" (PDF). Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society. 21 (5): 851–8. doi:10.1590/s0103-50532010000500012.
  17. ^ Ibikunle GF, Adebajo AC, Famuyiwa FG, Aladesanmi AJ, Adewunmi CO (2011). "In-vitro evaluation of anti-trichomonal activities of Eugenia uniflora leaf". Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 8 (2): 170–6. PMC 3252693. PMID 22238499.
  18. ^ Santos KK, Matias EF, Tintino SR, Souza CE, Braga MF, Guedes GM, Rolón M, Vega C, de Arias AR, Costa JG, Menezes IR, Coutinho HD (2012). "Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi and cytotoxic activities of Eugenia uniflora L.". Exp. Parasitol. 131 (1): 130–2. doi:10.1016/j.exppara.2012.02.019. PMID 22426246.
  19. ^ Rodrigues KA, Amorim LV, de Oliveira JM, Dias CN, Moraes DF, Andrade EH, Maia JG, Carneiro SM, Carvalho FA (2013). "Eugenia uniflora L. Essential Oil as a Potential Anti-Leishmania Agent: Effects on Leishmania amazonensis and Possible Mechanisms of Action". Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2013: 279726. doi:10.1155/2013/279726. PMC 3590759. PMID 23533469.
  20. ^ Schapoval, E E; Silveira, S M; Miranda, M L; Alice, C B; Henriques, A T (Dec 1994). "Evaluation of some pharmacological activities of Eugenia uniflora L". J Ethnopharmacol. 44 (3): 137–42. doi:10.1016/0378-8741(94)01178-8. PMID 7898120.
  21. ^ Tábata. T. Garmus; L.C. Paviani; F. A. Cabral (2013). "Extracts From Pitanga Leaves (Eugenia Uniflora L.) With Sequential Extraction In Fixed Bed Using Supercritical Co2, Ethanol And Water As Solvents" (PDF). Department of Food Engineering, University of Campinas.

External linksEdit