This article's lead section may be too long for the length of the article. (November 2020)
|Writing system||Latin script|
|Type||Alphabetic and Logographic|
|Language of origin||Old English language|
Old Norse language
|Time period||~800 to present|
|Other letters commonly used with||th, dh|
It is often transliterated as d.
In Old English, ð (called ðæt by the Anglo-Saxons) was used interchangeably with þ to represent the Old English dental fricative phoneme /θ/ or its allophone /ð/, which exist in modern English phonology as the voiced and voiceless dental fricatives now spelled "th".
A study of Mercian royal diplomas found that ð (along with đ) began to emerge in the early 8th century, with ð becoming strongly preferred by the 780s. Another source indicates that the letter is "derived from Irish writing".
Lower Case VersionEdit
The lowercase version has retained the curved shape of a medieval scribe's d, which d itself in general has not. ð was used throughout the Anglo-Saxon era but gradually fell out of use in Middle English, practically disappearing altogether by 1300; þ survived longer, ultimately being replaced by the digraph th.
In Icelandic, ð represents a voiced dental fricative [ð], which is the same as the th in English that, but it never appears as the first letter of a word, where þ is used in its stead. The name of the letter is pronounced in isolation (and before words beginning with a voiceless consonant) as [ɛθ̠] and therefore with a voiceless rather than voiced fricative.
In Faroese, ð is not assigned to any particular phoneme, and appears mostly for etymological reasons; however, it does show where most of the Faroese glides are; when ð appears before r, it is, in a few words, pronounced [ɡ]. In the Icelandic and Faroese alphabets, ð follows d.
Ð used in Khmer romanization, e.g. preðh riðciðnaacak kampucið (Kingdom of Cambodia).
U+1D9E ᶞ MODIFIER LETTER SMALL ETH is used in phonetic transcription.
Computer Input of CharactersEdit
The Faroese and Icelandic keyboard layouts have a dedicated button for eth.
On macOS, eth can be typed by activating the ABC Extended keyboard layout and typing ⌥ Option+D.
On Chrome OS, holding Alt Gr and pressing the D key will result in ð being written. Holding shift or putting Caps Lock on will result in Ð.
|GTK+||Ctrl+⇧ Shift+U D0 ↵ Enter||Ctrl+⇧ Shift+U F0 ↵ Enter|
|Vim||Ctrl+K ⇧ Shift+D -||Ctrl+K D -|
- The letter ð is sometimes used in mathematics and engineering textbooks, as a symbol for a spin-weighted partial derivative.
This operator gives rise to spin-weighted spherical harmonics.
- Marsden, Richard (2004). The Cambridge Old English Reader. Cambridge University Press. p. xxix.
- Shaw, Philip (2013). "Adapting the Roman alphabet for writing Old English: evidence from coin epigraphy and single-sheet charters". Early Medieval Europe. 21 (2): 115–139. doi:10.1111/emed.12012.
- Freeborn, Dennis (1992). From Old English to Standard English. London: Macmillan. p. 24. ISBN 9780776604695.
- David Wilton (September 30, 2007). "Old English Alphabet". Word origins. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
- Testament Newydd (1567) [The 1567 New Testament].
- Constable, Peter (2004-04-19). "L2/04-132 Proposal to add additional phonetic characters to the UCS" (PDF).
- Everson, Michael; et al. (2002-03-20). "L2/02-141: Uralic Phonetic Alphabet characters for the UCS" (PDF).
- "Vim documentation: digraph".
- "README.md". Dogecoin Integration/Staging Tree (Source code). February 5, 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
- Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
- Pétursson, Magnus (1971), "Étude de la réalisation des consonnes islandaises þ, ð, s, dans la prononciation d'un sujet islandais à partir de la radiocinématographie" [Study of the realisation of Icelandic consonants þ, ð, s, in the pronunciation of an Icelandic subject from radiocinematography], Phonetica, 33 (4): 203–216, doi:10.1159/000259344
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