Rocket, eruca,[1] or arugula (Eruca vesicaria; syns. Eruca sativa Mill., E. vesicaria subsp. sativa (Miller) Thell., Brassica eruca L.) is an edible annual plant in the family Brassicaceae used as a leaf vegetable for its fresh, tart, bitter, and peppery flavor. Its other common names include garden rocket[2] (in Britain, Australia, South Africa, Ireland, and New Zealand),[1] as well as colewort, roquette, ruchetta, rucola, rucoli, and rugula.

Eruca vesicaria
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Brassicales
Family: Brassicaceae
Genus: Eruca
Species:
E. vesicaria
Binomial name
Eruca vesicaria
Synonyms

Arugula

Native to the Mediterranean region, E. vesicaria is widely popular as a salad vegetable.[3][1][4]

Description

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Eruca vesicaria is an annual plant[5] growing to 20 to 100 cm (8 to 40 in) in height. The pinnate leaves are deeply lobed with four to ten, small, lateral lobes and a large terminal lobe. The flowers are 2 to 4 cm (34 to 1+12 in) in diameter, arranged in a corymb, with the typical Brassicaceae flower structure. The petals are creamy white with purple veins, and the stamens are yellow. The fruit is a siliqua (pod) 12 to 25 mm (12 to 1 in) long with an apical beak, containing several seeds. The species has a chromosome number of 2n = 22.[1][2][6]

Names

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Sativa, from one of the plant's synonyms, is from satum, meaning "to sow", indicating that the seeds of the plant were sown in gardens. Eruca sativa differs from E. vesicaria in having early deciduous sepals.[2] Some botanists consider it a subspecies of E. vesicaria as E. v. subsp. sativa.[2] Still others do not differentiate between the two.[7]

The English common name rocket derives from French roquette, itself a borrowing from Italian ruchetta, a diminutive of ruca, from the Latin word eruca.[8]

"Arugula" (/əˈrɡələ/), the common name now widespread in the United States and Canada, entered American English from a nonstandard dialect of Italian. The standard Italian word is "rucola". The Oxford English Dictionary dates the first known appearance of "arugula" in American English to a 1960 article in The New York Times by food editor and prolific cookbook writer, Craig Claiborne.[9]

Synonyms

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Inflorescence and young fruits of arugula or rucola

According to the Plant List, the following are synonyms:[10]

  • Brassica eruca L.
  • Brassica erucoides Hornem.
  • Brassica erucoides Roxb.
  • Brassica lativalvis Boiss.
  • Brassica pinnatifida Desf.
  • Brassica turgida Pers.
  • Brassica uechtritziana Janka
  • Brassica vesicaria L.
  • Crucifera eruca E. H. L. Krause
  • Eruca aurea Batt.
  • Eruca cappadocica Reut.
  • Eruca cappadocica Reut. ex Boiss.
  • Eruca deserti Pomel
  • Eruca drepanensis Caruel
  • Eruca eruca (L.) Asch. & Graebn. nom. inval.
  • Eruca foetida Moench
  • Eruca glabrescens Jord.
  • Eruca grandiflora Cav.
  • Eruca lanceolata Pomel
  • Eruca latirostris Boiss.
  • Eruca longirostris Uechtr.
  • Eruca longistyla Pomel
  • Eruca oleracea J.St.-Hil.
  • Eruca orthosepala (Lange) Lange
  • Eruca permixta Jord.
  • Eruca pinnatifida (Desf.) Pomel
  • Eruca ruchetta Spach
  • Eruca sativa Mill.
  • Eruca stenocarpa Boiss. & Reut.
  • Eruca sylvestris Bubani
  • Euzomum hispidum Link
  • Euzomum sativum Link
  • Euzomum vesicarium (L.) Link
  • Raphanus eruca (L.) Crantz
  • Raphanus vesicarius (L.) Crantz
  • Sinapis eruca (L.) Clairv.
  • Sinapis eruca (L.) Vest
  • Velleruca longistyla Pomel
  • Velleruca vesicaria (L.) Pomel

Similarly named plants

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Rocket is sometimes conflated with Diplotaxis tenuifolia, known as 'perennial wall rocket', another plant of the family Brassicaceae that is used in the same manner.

Species of Barbarea may be known as 'yellow rocket'.

Brassica oleracea may also be known by the common name 'colewort'.

Ecology

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E. vesicaria is native to southern Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. As an invasive species arugula is widespread but scattered though is prolific and noxious in the Sonora desert of Arizona and California.[11]

The species typically grows on dry, disturbed ground. It is a source of food for the larvae of some moth species,[1][2] including the garden carpet. Its roots are susceptible to nematode infestation.[12]

Cultivation

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A pungent, leafy green vegetable resembling a longer-leaved and open lettuce, E. vesicaria is rich in folate and vitamin K as well as vitamin C and potassium.[13] In addition to the leaves, the flowers, young seed pods, and mature seeds are all edible.

 
Flower of E. vesicaria

Grown as an edible and popular herb in Italy since Roman times, arugula was mentioned by various ancient Roman classical authors as an aphrodisiac,[14][15] most famously in a poem long ascribed to the famous first century Roman poet Virgil, Moretum, which contains the line: "et Venerem revocans eruca morantem" ("and the rocket, which revives drowsy Venus [sexual desire]"),[16] and in the Ars Amatoria of Ovid.[17] Some writers assert that for this reason, during the Middle Ages, growing arugula was forbidden in monasteries.[18] Nonetheless, the plant was listed in a decree by Charlemagne as among the 802 pot herbs suitable for growing in gardens.[19] Gillian Riley, author of the Oxford Companion to Italian Food, states that because of its reputation as a sexual stimulant, it was "prudently mixed with lettuce, which was the opposite" (i.e., calming or even soporific). Riley continues, "nowadays rocket is enjoyed innocently in mixed salads, to which it adds a pleasing pungency",[20] although Norman Douglas insisted, "Salad rocket is certainly a stimulant".[21]

The plant was traditionally collected in the wild or grown in home gardens along with herbs, such as parsley and basil. Arugula now is grown commercially in many places and is available in supermarkets and farmers markets worldwide. It now is naturalized as a wild plant away from its native range in temperate regions around the world, including northern Europe and North America.[22][1] In India, the mature seeds are known as "Gargeer". This is the same name used in Arabic, جِرْجِير (jirjīr), but used in Arab countries this name is used for the fresh leaves of the plant.

Mild frost conditions hinder the plant's growth and turn the green leaves to red.[23][24] If the weather is warm plants mature to full size in 40 to 50 days.[25]

Toxicity

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Arugula is generally not allergenic.

Arugula, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy105 kJ (25 kcal)
3.6 g
Sugars2.0 g
Dietary fiber1.6 g
0.6 g
2.6 g
VitaminsQuantity
%DV
Vitamin A equiv.
13%
119 μg
13%
1424 μg
3555 μg
Vitamin A2373 IU
Thiamine (B1)
4%
0.044 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
7%
0.086 mg
Niacin (B3)
2%
0.305 mg
Vitamin B6
4%
0.073 mg
Folate (B9)
24%
97 μg
Vitamin C
17%
15 mg
Vitamin E
3%
0.43 mg
Vitamin K
91%
108.6 μg
MineralsQuantity
%DV
Calcium
12%
160 mg
Copper
8%
0.076 mg
Iron
8%
1.46 mg
Magnesium
11%
47 mg
Manganese
14%
0.321 mg
Phosphorus
4%
52 mg
Potassium
12%
369 mg
Sodium
1%
27 mg
Zinc
4%
0.47 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water91.7 g

Percentages estimated using US recommendations for adults,[26] except for potassium, which is estimated based on expert recommendation from the National Academies.[27]

Uses

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Nutrition

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Raw arugula is 92% water, 4% carbohydrates, 2.5% protein, and contains a negligible amount of fat. A 100 g (3+12 oz) reference serving provides only 105 kJ (25 kcal) of food energy. It is a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of folate and vitamin K. Arugula is also a good source (10–19% of DV) of vitamin A, vitamin C, and the dietary minerals calcium, magnesium, and manganese.

Culinary

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Since Roman times in Italy, raw arugula has been added to salads. It often is added as a garnish to a pizza at the end of or just after baking. In Apulia, in southern Italy, arugula is cooked to make the pasta dish "cavatiéddi", "in which large amounts of coarsely chopped rocket are added to pasta seasoned with a homemade reduced tomato sauce and pecorino",[28] as well as in many recipes in which it is chopped and added to sauces and cooked dishes or in a sauce (made by frying it in olive oil with garlic). It also is used as a condiment for cold meats and fish.[28] Throughout Italy, it is used as a salad with tomatoes and with burrata, bocconcini, buffalo, or mozzarella cheese. In Rome, "rucola" is used in "straccetti", a dish of thin slices of beef with raw arugula and Parmesan cheese.[29]

In Turkey, similarly, the plant is eaten raw as a side dish or salad with fish or is served with a sauce of extra virgin olive oil and lemon juice.[30]

In Slovenia, arugula often is combined with boiled potatoes [31] or used in a soup.[32]

In West Asia, Pakistan, and northern India, Eruca seeds are pressed to make taramira oil, used in pickling and (after aging to remove acridity) as a salad or cooking oil.[33] The seed cake is also used as animal feed.[34]

From about the 1990s[35] arugula has become more popular in America, especially in trendier restaurants and in urban areas[36]

References

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  1. ^ a b c d e f Blamey, M. & Grey-Wilson, C. (1989). Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. ISBN 0-340-40170-2.
  2. ^ a b c d e Flora of NW Europe: Eruca vesicaria Archived 2007-10-14 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Med-Checklist: Eruca sativa.
  4. ^ Yaniv, Zohara; Schafferman, D.; Amar, Z. (1998). "Tradition, Uses and Biodiversity of Rocket (Eruca sativa, Brassicaceae) in Israel". Economic Botany. 52 (4): 394–400. doi:10.1007/BF02862069. JSTOR 4256115. S2CID 36181033.
  5. ^ Kole, Chittaranjan (21 February 2011). Wild Crop Relatives: Genomic and Breeding Resources: Oilseeds. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-3-642-14871-2. Retrieved 25 September 2023.
  6. ^ Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
  7. ^ "Flora Europaea Search Results". rbge.org.uk.
  8. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
  9. ^ Claiborne, Craig (May 24, 1960). "A Green by Any Name: Pungent Ingredient Is Cause of Confusion for City Shopper; Arugula – or Rocket – Is the Secret of Experts' Salads". The New York Times. p. 33.
  10. ^ The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species, retrieved 11 May 2016
  11. ^ "Eruca vesicaria (garden-rocket): Go Botany". gobotany.nativeplanttrust.org. Retrieved 2023-09-18.
  12. ^ "Arugula: Arugula". smartgardener.com.
  13. ^ NutritionData.com, Arugula, Raw
  14. ^ Upton, Julie, RD. "7 Foods for Better Sex". Health.com. Archived from the original on April 10, 2015. Retrieved July 5, 2010.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  15. ^ Wright, Clifford A. (2001). Mediterranean Vegetables. Harvard Common Press. p. 27. ISBN 9781558321960.
  16. ^ Virgil, 102 Moretum: 85. Joseph J. Mooney in his 1916 English translation, "The Salad", calls it "colewort" and notes, "The Latin "moretum", which is usually translated "salad", would be better called "cheese and garlic paste", i.e., pesto. See The Minor Poems of Vergil: Comprising the Culex, Dirae, Lydia, Moretum, Copa, Priapeia, and Catalepton (Birmingham: Cornish Brothers, 1916), scanned as part of Appendix Vergiliana: The Minor Poems of Virgil in English Translation on the website Virgil.org.
  17. ^ Ovid, The Love Poems (Oxford 2008) p. 119
  18. ^ Padulosi, Pignone D., Editors, Rocket: A Mediterranean Crop for the World (International Plant Genetic Resources Institute,1997), p. 41.
  19. ^ Helen Morgenthau Fox, Gardening With Herbs for Flavor and Fragrance (1933, reprinted New York: Dover, 1970), p. 45. See also Denise Le Dantec and Jean-Pierre Le Dantec, Reading the French Garden: Story and History (MIT Press, 1998), p. 14.
  20. ^ Gillian Riley, The Oxford Companion to Italian Food (Oxford University Press, 2008), p. 446.
  21. ^ Ovid, The Love Poems (Oxford 2008) p. 232
  22. ^ USDA Plants Profile: Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa
  23. ^ "The Secret of the Local Red Arugula". Archived from the original on February 2, 2014. Retrieved May 24, 2013.
  24. ^ "Minnesota Spring". Archived from the original on June 30, 2013. Retrieved May 24, 2013.
  25. ^ "Eruca vesicaria (Arugula, Eruca, Garden Rocket, Gharghir, Mediterranean Salad, Rocket, Rocket Salad, Roquette, Ruchtetta, Rucola, Rucoli, Rugula, Rugulas, Salad Rocket)". North Carolina Extension Gardener Plant Toolbox. North Carolinia State University. Retrieved 30 January 2024.
  26. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration (2024). "Daily Value on the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels". FDA. Archived from the original on 2024-03-27. Retrieved 2024-03-28.
  27. ^ National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division; Food and Nutrition Board; Committee to Review the Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium (2019). Oria, Maria; Harrison, Meghan; Stallings, Virginia A. (eds.). Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. The National Academies Collection: Reports funded by National Institutes of Health. Washington, DC: National Academies Press (US). ISBN 978-0-309-48834-1. PMID 30844154. Archived from the original on 2024-05-09. Retrieved 2024-06-21.
  28. ^ a b Reilly, The Oxford Companion to Italian Food, p. 446
  29. ^ "Beef Strips with Rocket – Straccetti con la Rucola". thefoodellers.com. Retrieved 2021-05-17.
  30. ^ "Oktay Usta'dan Roka Salatası Resimli Tarifi". Archived from the original on 2015-06-24. Retrieved 2015-04-16.
  31. ^ "Solata s krompirjem in rukolo". dnevnik.si.
  32. ^ "Krompirjeva juha z rukolo". zurnal24.
  33. ^ G.J.H. Grubben and O.A. Denton, ed. (2004). "Vegetables". Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. Vol. 2. PROTA. p. 295. ISBN 90-5782-147-8.
  34. ^ Das, Srinabas; Kumar Tyagi; Harjit Kaur (2004). "Evaluation of taramira oil-cake and reduction of its glucosinolate content by different treatments". Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 73 (6): 687–691.
  35. ^ "Arugula History and Facts". bwqualitygrowers.com. Retrieved 2024-05-07.
  36. ^ "Arugula". tastewise.io. Retrieved 2023-09-18.
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