An idiom is a common word or phrase with a figurative, non-literal meaning that is understood culturally and differs from what its composite words' denotations would suggest; i.e. the words together have a meaning that is different from the dictionary definitions of the individual words (although some idioms do retain their literal meanings – see the example "kick the bucket" below). By another definition, an idiom is a speech form or an expression of a given language that is peculiar to itself grammatically or cannot be understood from the individual meanings of its elements. For example, an English speaker would understand the phrase "kick the bucket" to mean "to die" – and also to actually kick a bucket. Furthermore, they would understand when each meaning is being used in context.
To evoke the desired effect in the listener, idioms require a precise replication of the phrase: not even articles can be used interchangeably (e.g. "kick a bucket" only retains the literal meaning of the phrase but not the idiomatic meaning).
Idioms should not be confused with other figures of speech such as metaphors, which evoke an image by use of implicit comparisons (e.g., "the man of steel"); similes, which evoke an image by use of explicit comparisons (e.g., "faster than a speeding bullet"); or hyperbole, which exaggerates an image beyond truthfulness (e.g., "more powerful than a locomotive"). Idioms are also not to be confused with proverbs, which are simple sayings that express a truth based on common sense or practical experience.
Notable idioms in EnglishEdit
|a bitter pill to swallow||A situation or information that is unpleasant but must be accepted|||
|a dime a dozen||(US) Anything that is common, inexpensive, and easy to get or available anywhere.|||
|a hot potato||A controversial issue or situation that is awkward or unpleasant to deal with|||
|a sandwich short of a picnic||Lacking intelligence|
|ace in the hole||A hidden or secret strength; an unrevealed advantage|||
|Achilles' heel||A small but fatal weakness in spite of overall strength.|||
|all ears||Listening intently; fully focused or awaiting an explanation.|||
|all thumbs||Clumsy, awkward.|||
|an arm and a leg||Very expensive or costly; a large amount of money|||
|apple of discord||Anything causing trouble, discord, or jealousy.|||
|around the clock||When something is done all day and all night without stopping.|||
|As queer as a [strange object] (UK)||Something particularly strange or unusual|||
|at the drop of a hat||Without any hesitation; instantly|
|back to the drawing board||Revising something (such as a plan) from the beginning, typically after it has failed.||[a]|||
|back to the grindstone||To return to a hard and/or tedious task.|||
|ball is in his/her/your court||It is up to him/her/you to make the next decision or step.|
|balls to the wall||Full throttle; at maximum speed.|
|barking up the wrong tree||Looking in the wrong place.||[b]|||
|basket case||One made powerless or ineffective, as by nerves, panic, or stress.||[c]|
|beating a dead horse||To uselessly dwell on a subject far beyond its point of resolution.|
|beat around the bush||To treat a topic but omit its main points, often intentionally or to delay or avoid talking about something difficult or unpleasant.|||
|bed of roses||A situation or activity that is comfortable or easy.|||
|the bee's knees||Something or someone outstandingly good, excellent, or wonderful.||[d]|||
|bird brain||A person who is not too smart; a person who acts stupid.|||
|bite off more than one can chew||To take on more responsibility than one can manage.|
|bite the bullet||To endure a painful or unpleasant situation that is unavoidable.|
|bite the dust||A euphemism for dying or death.|
|bought the farm||A euphemism for dying or death, especially in an aviation context.|
|break a leg||A wish of good luck to theatre performers before going on stage, due to the belief amongst those in theatre that being wished "good luck" is a curse.|||
|burn the midnight oil||To work late into the night.||[e]|||
|bust one's chops||To exert oneself.||[f]|||
|by the length and breadth of something or somewhere||you are emphasizing that it happens everywhere in that place.|
|by the seat of one's pants||To achieve through instinct or to do something without advance preparation.|||
|by the skin of one's teeth||Narrowly; barely. Usually used in regard to a narrow escape from a disaster.||[g]|||
|call a spade a spade||To speak the truth, even to the point of being blunt and rude.|
|call it a day||To declare the end of a task.||[h]|||
|champ at the bit or chomp at the bit||To show impatience or frustration when delayed.|||
|cheap as chips||Inexpensive; a good bargain.|
|chew the cud||To meditate or ponder before answering; to be deep in thought; to ruminate.|
|chew the fat||To chat idly or generally waste time talking.|
|chink in one's armor||An area of vulnerability.||[i]|||
|clam up||To become silent; to stop talking.|
|clutch one's pearls||To be disproportionately shocked or affronted by something one perceives to be vulgar, in bad taste, or morally wrong.|
|cold feet||Not going through with an action, particularly one which requires long term commitment, due to fear, uncertainty and doubt.|
|cold shoulder||To display aloofness and disdain.|||
|couch potato||A lazy person.|||
|cool your jets||Calm down.|||
|crocodile tears||Fake tears or drama tears; fake crying.|
|cut off your nose to spite your face||To pursue revenge in a way that would damage oneself more than the object of one's anger.|
|cut a rug||To dance.|
|cut the cheese (US)||To pass gas.|
|cut the mustard||To perform well; to meet expectations.|||
|dig one's heels in||On genuine objection to some process or action or motion, actually to stop or oppose it strongly.|
|don't count chickens before they hatch||Don't make plans for something that may not happen; alternatively, don't make an assumption about something that does not have a definitively predetermined outcome.|
|don't have a cow||Don't overreact.|||
|drop a dime (US)||To make a telephone call; to be an informant.|
|elephant in the room||An obvious, pressing issue left unaddressed due to its sensitive nature.|
|eleventh hour||At the last minute; the latest possible time before it is too late.|||
|fish out of water||refers to a person who is in unfamiliar, and often uncomfortable surroundings.|
|fit as a fiddle||In good physical health.|||
|for a song||Almost free; very cheap.|
|fly in the ointment||A minor drawback or imperfection, especially one that was not at first apparent, that detracts from something positive, spoils something valuable, or is a source of annoyance.|||
|fly on the wall||To join an otherwise private interaction, unnoticed to watch and/or listen to something.|||
|from A to Z||Covering a complete range; comprehensively.||[j]|
|from scratch / make from scratch||To make from original ingredients; to start from the beginning with no prior preparation.|
|get bent out of shape||To take offense; to get worked up, aggravated, or annoyed.|
|get one's ducks in a row||to become well prepared for a desired outcome.|||
|get one's knickers in a twist||(UK) To become overwrought or unnecessarily upset over a trivial matter.|
|get your goat||To irritate someone.|
|gone south||having an unforeseen or chaotic result|
|grasp the nettle||To tackle a problem in a bold manner, despite the difficulty or complexity of doing so; to solve a problem despite short-term adverse consequences.|||
|have a blast||To have a good time; to enjoy oneself.|||
|have all your Christmases come at once||To have extreme good fortune.|
|have eyes bigger than one's stomach||To have asked for or taken more of something (especially food) than one is actually capable of handling (or eating).|||
|have eyes in the back of one's head||To be able to perceive things and events that are outside of one's field of vision.|
|head over heels||Be smitten, infatuated.|
|heard it through the grapevine||To have learned something through gossip, hearsay, or a rumor.|
|hit the ceiling/roof||To become enraged, possibly in an overreaction|
|hit the nail on the head||1. To describe exactly what is causing a situation or problem; 2. To do or say exactly the right thing or to find the exact answer; 3. To do something in the most effective and efficient way; 4. To be accurate or correct about something.|
|hit the road||To leave; start a journey|||
|hit the sack/sheets/hay||To go to bed; to go to sleep.|||
|hit the spot||To be particularly pleasing or appropriate; to be just right.|
|hold all the cards||To control a situation; to be the one making the decisions.|
|hold your horses||Wait. Slow down.|
|hook, line and sinker||To be completely fooled by a deception.|||
|it is what it is||This challenging circumstance is simply a fact, to be accepted or dealt with.||[k]|||
|jump ship||To leave a job, organization, or activity suddenly.|||
|jump the gun||To start something before it is prudent or permitted; to act too hastily.|||
|kick the bucket||A euphemism for dying or death.|||
|kick the habit||To stop engaging in a habitual practice.|
|kill two birds with one stone||To accomplish two different tasks at the same time and/or with a single action.|
|let the cat out of the bag||To reveal a secret.|
|like pulling hens' teeth||Having difficulty in getting a person or item to act in a desired fashion; reference to an impossible task.|||
|look a gift horse in the mouth||To find fault with something that has been received as a gift or favor.|
|loose cannon||A person who is uncontrollable and unpredictable but likely to cause damage to the group of which they are a member.|||
|method to (one's) madness||Despite one's seemingly random approach, there is actually orderly structure or logic to it.|
|My two cents||(Canada and US) One's opinion on the subject.|||
|nip (something) in the bud||To stop something at an early stage, before it can develop into something of more significance (especially an obstacle or frustration).|
|no horse in this race or no dog in this fight||No vested interest in the outcome of a particular conflict, contest or debate.|
|off one's trolley or
off one's rocker
|Crazy, demented, out of one's mind, in a confused or befuddled state of mind, senile.||[l]|||
|off the hook||To escape a situation of responsibility or obligation, or, less frequently, danger.|||
|once in a blue moon||Occurring very rarely.|
|like turkeys voting for Christmas||Accepting a situation that will have a negative outcome.|
|lit up like a Christmas tree||Clothes that are too bright or colourful for the occasion.|
|own goal||To do something accidentally negative against yourself or your own team.|
|part and parcel||The attribute of being an integral or essential component of another object.|
|pop one's clogs||(UK) A euphemism for dying or death.|
|the pot calling the kettle black||Used when someone making an accusation is equally as guilty as those being accused.|||
|piece of cake||A job, task or other activity that is pleasant – or, by extension, easy or simple.|
|not one’s cup of tea||Not the type of thing the person likes.|
|preaching to the choir||To present a side of a discussion or argument to someone who already agrees with it; essentially, wasting your time.|||
|pull oneself together||to recover control of one's emotions.|
|pull somebody's leg||To tease or joke by telling a lie.|
|push the envelope||To approach, extend, or go beyond the limits of what is possible; to pioneer.||[m]|||
|pushing up daisies||A euphemism for dying or death.|
|put a spoke in one's wheel||To disrupt, foil, or cause problems to one's plan, activity, or project.|
|put the cat among the pigeons||To create a disturbance and cause trouble.|||
|raining cats and dogs||Raining very hard or strongly.|||
|right as rain||Needed, appropriate, essential, or hoped-for; also has come to mean perfect, well, or absolutely right.||[n]|||
|rock the boat||To do or say something that will upset people or cause problems.|
|shoot the breeze||To chat idly or casually, without any serious topic of conversation.|||
|shooting fish in a barrel||Frivolously performing a simple task.|
|screw the pooch||To screw up; to fail in dramatic and ignominious fashion.|
|sleep with the fishes||To be murdered and thrown into a body of water||[o]|
|spill the beans||To reveal someone's secret.|
|spin one's wheels||To expel much effort for little or no gain.|
|stay in one's lane||To avoid interfering with, passing judgement on, or giving unsolicited advice about issues beyond one's purview or expertise; to mind one's own business.|||
|step up to the plate||To deliver beyond expectations.|
|stick out like a sore thumb||Something that is clearly out of place.|
|straw that broke the camel's back||The last in a line of unacceptable occurrences; the final tipping point in a sensitive situation.|
|take a shine||To develop a liking or fondness for someone or something.|||
|take the biscuit||(UK) To be particularly bad, objectionable, or egregious.|
|take (or grab) the bull by the horns||To deal bravely and decisively with a difficult, dangerous, or unpleasant situation; to deal with a matter in a direct manner, especially to confront a difficulty rather than avoid it.|||
|take the cake||(US) To be especially good or outstanding. Alternatively (US) To be particularly bad, objectionable, or egregious.|
|take the piss||(UK) To tease, ridicule, or mock someone.|
|take with a grain of salt||To not take what someone says too seriously; to treat someone's words with a degree of skepticism.|
|throw stones in glass houses||One who is vulnerable to criticism regarding a certain issue should not criticize others about the same issue.|
|throw the baby out with the bathwater||To discard, especially inadvertently, something valuable while in the process of removing or rejecting something unwanted.|
|throw under the bus||To betray or sacrifice someone for selfish reasons.|
|through thick and thin||In both good and bad times.|
|thumb one's nose||To express scorn or disregard.|
|tie one on||To get drunk.|
|to steal someone's thunder||To preempt someone and rob them of gravitas or attention. To take credit for something someone else did.|
|trip the light fantastic||To dance.||[p]|||
|two a penny||Cheap or common.|
|under my thumb||Under my control.|||
|under the weather||Feeling sick or poorly.|||
|the whole nine yards||Everything; all the way.|
|wild goose chase||A frustrating or lengthy undertaking that accomplishes little.|
|wolf something down||devour (food) greedily.|
|you can say that again||That is very true; an expression of wholehearted agreement.|
- This expression refers to the fact that plans or blueprints are often drawn on a drawing board. It probably originated during World War II, most likely in the caption of a cartoon by Peter Arno published in The New Yorker.
- Originally a hunting term.
- Originally a British slang term for a quadruple amputee during World War I.
- The origin is unclear; it may simply have emerged in imitation of the numerous other animal-related nonsense phrases popular in the 1920s such as "the cat's pyjamas" or "the monkey's eyebrows", or it may be a deliberate inversion of the earlier attested singular "bee's knee" used to refer to something small or insignificant.
- Alludes to burning oil to produce light in the time before electric lighting; originated with the English writer Francis Quarles who wrote: "Wee spend our mid-day sweat, or mid-night oyle; :Wee tyre the night in thought; the day in toyle."
- At the turn of the century, wearing very long sideburns – called "mutton chops" – was common. A bust in the chops was to get hit in the face.
- The phrase first appears in English in the Geneva Bible (1560), in Job 19:20, which provides a literal translation of the original Hebrew, "I haue escaped with the skinne of my tethe." The original Hebrew בְּעוֹר שִׁנָּי (b'3or shinai) is a phono-semantic match of the Hebrew word בְּקוֹשִׁי (b'qoshi) which means "barely, hardly, with difficulty." It may never be known if this phrase became an idiom before the biblical book of Job was written, or if the word b'qoshi was mis-heard by a scribe.
- Its 19th-century predecessor is seen in the line "It would have been best for Merlin... to quit and call it half a day", from the novel A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court (1889) by American writer Mark Twain.
- The word "chink" here is generally used in the sense of a crack or gap.
- As of the English alphabet, which ranges from the first letter, A, to the last letter, Z.
- Earliest usage unknown. In 1945, Bertrand Russell wrote of a logician's irritation that "the world is what it is"; by 1949 the full phrase appeared in the Nebraska State Journal.
- Since both "off one's trolley" and "off one's rocker" became popular in the late 1890s about the same time streetcars were installed in major American cities, and since "rocker", like "trolley", means the wheel or runner that makes contact with an overhead electric cable, it is likely that the "rocker" of the expression carries the same meaning as "trolley". "Off your trolley" may refer to the fact that when the wires are "off the trolley", the vehicle no longer receives an electric current and is, therefore, rendered inoperative.
- This expression originated as aviation slang and referred to graphs of aerodynamic performance on which "the envelope" is the boundary line representing the limit of an aircraft's capabilities (especially its altitude and speed). It was popularized by Tom Wolfe's 1979 book The Right Stuff.
- The life of an agrarian community depends on the success of the local crops, which in turn depends on rain. In pre-industrial times, rain was widely appreciated as essential for survival.
- The original text in Mario Puzo's 1969 novel The Godfather reads: "'The fish means that Luca Brasi is sleeping on the bottom of the ocean,' he said. 'It's an old Sicilian message.'"
- The expression is generally attributed to John Milton's 1645 poem L'Allegro, which includes the lines: "Com, and trip it as ye go,
On the light fantastick toe."
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