Elisabeth Margaret Welch (February 27, 1904 – July 15, 2003) was an American singer, actress, and entertainer, whose career spanned seven decades. Her best-known songs were "Stormy Weather", "Love for Sale" and "Far Away in Shanty Town". She was American-born, but was based in Britain for most of her career.
|Born||February 27, 1904|
New York City, US
|Died||July 15, 2003 (aged 99)|
|Occupation||Actress, singer, entertainer|
According to her birth certificate, Welch was born at 223 West 61st Street in New York City. Her father was chief gardener of an estate in Englewood, New Jersey. Her father was of indigenous American and African American ancestry; her mother was of Scottish and Irish descent. Welch was brought up in a Baptist-Christian family, and began her singing in a church choir.
She first intended to go from high school into social work, but instead chose to become a professional singer. She started her career in New York in 1922, but in 1929 she went on to Europe – first to Paris and then to London.
After her first appearance in America in Liza in 1922, Welch was the initial singer of the Charleston in the show Runnin' Wild (1923). During the 1920s she appeared in African-American Broadway theatre shows, including The Chocolate Dandies (1924) and Blackbirds of 1928. She made relatively few recordings. Before moving to Europe she made only one record – "Doin' The New Lowdown", b/w 'Digga Digga Do", as vocalist for the Irving Mills-assembled Hotsy Totsy Gang (Brunswick 4014, 27 July 1928).
"Blackbirds of 1928" was taken to the Moulin Rouge in Paris in 1929 and it was here that Welch began her career as a cabaret singer including performances at the popular nightclub Chez Florence.
Welch was asked to return to New York, where she replaced a singer in The New Yorkers (1930–1931) and sang Cole Porter's controversial song "Love for Sale". The composer met her afterwards in Paris, and then invited her to perform his song "Solomon" in Nymph Errant in London in 1933. That year, before this show was available, Welch was given permission to perform in London in Dark Doings, in which she sang "Stormy Weather", newly written by Harold Arlen and Ted Koehler. She subsequently took the song as her signature tune.
Welch's show-stopping performance in Nymph Errant was seen by Ivor Novello, and in 1935, he gave her a part in his show Glamorous Night, in which she stood out again singing his blues song "Far Away in Shanty Town". In 1931, she had included in her cabaret act the new song "As Time Goes By", almost a dozen years before it achieved screen fame in Casablanca.
In the mid 1930s, Welch entered two media: she appeared in films – usually as a singer, and as leading lady to Paul Robeson in Song of Freedom and the musical Big Fella – and she was also one of the first artists to perform on British television, appearing on the BBC's new TV service from Alexandra Palace.
After the war she was in many West End theatre shows, including revues. She continued on both television and radio. She also had a series of one-woman shows until 1990. She was in the Royal Variety Performance in 1979 and 1985. In 1979, she was cast as a Goddess by Derek Jarman and sang "Stormy Weather" in his film version of Shakespeare's The Tempest.
In 1980, she returned to New York to appear in Black Broadway and she appeared there again in 1986 when her one-woman show earned her an Obie Award. She was nominated for a Tony Award for her performance in Jerome Kern Goes to Hollywood.
Her final performance was in 1996 for Black Divas, a Channel 4 television documentary, in which she sang "Stormy Weather", at the age of 92.
In 1928, she was married to Luke Smith, a musician, but they separated after a few months. He died in 1936. They had no children.
- Liza, 1922, on Broadway
- Runnin' Wild, 1923, on Broadway
- The Chocolate Dandies, 1924, on Broadway
- Blackbírds of 1928, 1928, on Broadway
- Blackbirds of 1929, 1929, at the Moulin Rouge, Paris
- Cabaret, 1930, at Chez Florence and Le Boeuf sur le Toit, Paris
- The New Yorkers, 1931, on Broadway
- Dark Doings, 1933, at Leicester Square Theatre, London
- Nymph Errant, 1933, at Adelphi Theatre, London
- Glamorous Night, 1935, at Drury Lane Theatre, London
- Let's Raise the Curtain, 1936, at Victoria Palace, London
- Its in the Bag, 1937, at Saville Theatre, London
- All the Best, 1938, at the Opera House Theatre, Blackpool
- No Time for Comedy, 1941, at Comedy Theatre, London
- Sky High, 1942, at Phoenix Theatre, London
- Happy and Glorious, 1944, at London Palladium, London
- Tuppence Coloured, 1947, revue, Globe Theatre, London
- Oranges and Lemons, 1949, revue, Globe Theatre, London
- Penny Plain, 1951, revue, St Martin's Theatre, London
- The Crooked Mile, 1959, Cambridge Theatre, London
- Cindy Ella, 1962, Garrick Theatre, London
- Pippin, 1973, Her Majesty’s Theatre, London
- Black Broadway, 1980, Town Hall, New York
- Death at Broadcasting House (1934) as Herself
- Soft Lights and Sweet Music (1936) as Herself
- Song of Freedom (1936) as Ruth Zinga
- Calling All Stars (1937) as Herself
- Big Fella (1937) as 'Manda'
- Around the Town (1938) as Herself
- Over the Moon (1939) as Cabaret Singer
- This Was Paris (1942) as Cabaret Singer
- Alibi (1942) as Cabaret Singer
- Fiddlers Three (1944) as Thora
- Dead of Night (1945) as Beulah
- Our Man in Havana (1959) as Woman in Street
- Cleopatra (1960) as Children's Nurse in abandoned film
- Girl Stroke Boy (1971) as Mrs. Delaney
- Revenge of the Pink Panther (1978) as Mrs. Wu
- Arabian Adventure (1979) as Beggarwoman
- The Tempest (1979) as A Goddess (last appearance)
- Peter Gammond, The Oxford Companion to Popular Music Oxford University Press, 1991. ISBN 0192800043
- Guinness Who's Who of Stage Musicals, ed. C. Larkin. Guinness – ISBN 0851127568)
- Stephen Bourne, Elisabeth Welch – Soft Lights and Sweet Music (foreword by Ned Sherrin) (2005, Scarecrow Press) ISBN 0810854139
- "Elisabeth Welch Biography – Father Walked Out on Family, Moved to London, Still Brought Down the House, Selected works". Archived from the original on June 10, 2018. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
- "Elisabeth Welch". The Telegraph. July 16, 2003. Archived from the original on June 10, 2018. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
- "Elisabeth Welch". Oxford Reference. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on June 10, 2018. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
- Bourne, Stephen (July 16, 2003). "Elisabeth Welch Black diva whose roles ranged from Cole Porter's 'Nymph Errant' to Derek Jarman's 'The Tempest'". The Independent Obituary. Archived from the original on April 5, 2008. Retrieved March 6, 2009.
- "Kenneth Partridge, interior designer". The Daily Telegraph (obituary). December 21, 2015. Retrieved July 23, 2020.
- "Welch, Elisabeth (1904–2003)". English Heritage. Retrieved January 7, 2012.
- Desert island Discs Castaway Archive.