Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich
Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich, KG, FRS (27 July 1625 – 28 May 1672) was an English landowner, infantry officer, and later naval officer and politician, who sat in the House of Commons at various points between 1645 and 1660. He served Oliver Cromwell loyally in the 1650s, but went on to play a considerable part in the Restoration of King Charles II, and was subsequently rewarded with several court offices. Sandwich served as the English ambassador to Portugal from 1661 to 1662, and the ambassador to Spain from 1666 to 1668. He later became an admiral, serving in the two Anglo-Dutch Wars during the reign of Charles II; he was killed at the Battle of Solebay. A detailed primary source for Sandwich's career in the 1660s is the diary of Samuel Pepys, who was his cousin and protégé.
Montagu was the only surviving son of Sir Sidney Montagu (died 1644) by his first wife Paulina Pepys (died 1638) of Cottenham (who was the great-aunt of Samuel Pepys) and was brought up at Hinchingbrooke House. After his mother's death his father remarried Anne Isham (died 1676), daughter of Gregory Isham and widow of John Pay of Westminster. The marriage was happy, and relations between Anne and her stepson were cordial.
He served the Cause of Parliament by raising a regiment of infantry in June 1643. In 1645, he was elected Member of Parliament for Huntingdonshire as a recruiter to the Long Parliament. He was nominated MP for Huntingdonshire in 1653 for the Barebones Parliament and was elected MP for Huntingdonshire in 1654 for the First Protectorate Parliament. He continued to serve in the army for the Commonwealth of England and, in 1656 he became a General at Sea, serving jointly with General at sea Robert Blake (admiral) in the Mediterranean, Portugal and Spain. Later, as the principal General at Sea, he blockaded Dunkirk before the Battle of the Dunes. Montagu enjoyed the trust and confidence of Cromwell, who appointed him to his Council of State. Montagu, on his side, never lost his admiration and respect for Cromwell, and was prepared to defend his record even after the Restoration. In 1656 he was re-elected MP for Huntingdonshire in the Second Protectorate Parliament; in 1658 he served in Cromwell's short lived Upper House.
He was a member of the influential group, known to their opponents as "the Kinglings" who strongly, but without success, urged Cromwell to proclaim himself King. Montagu was prepared to support a Cromwell dynasty, and in the confusion which followed Oliver's death remained loyal to his son Richard Cromwell during his brief and disastrous rule as Lord Protector.
In 1660 Montagu was elected MP for Dover and Weymouth and Melcombe Regis and chose to sit for Dover in the Convention Parliament. Despite his record of loyal service to Oliver Cromwell, he was among the first men of influence to decide that, given the chaos which had followed Cromwell's death, the return of the Stuart dynasty was inevitable. He was accordingly one of the first to make contact with the exiled King, although he was discreet enough to conceal this even from close associates like Samuel Pepys. At the Restoration he served Charles II as Admiral, commanding the fleet that brought him back from exile in May 1660. Two months later, on 12 July 1660, he was created Baron Montagu of St Neots, Viscount Hinchingbrooke, and Earl of Sandwich. King Charles also made him a Knight of the Garter and appointed him Master of the Great Wardrobe, Admiral of the narrow seas (the English Channel and southern North Sea), and Lieutenant Admiral to The Duke of York, Lord High Admiral of England. He carried St. Edward's staff at Charles' subsequent coronation. Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, who liked and admired Sandwich, wrote that the conferring of these honours caused much resentment among those Royalists who had gone into exile with their King, and regarded Sandwich as a "diehard" Cromwellian; yet adds that his charm of manner made it almost impossible to dislike him.
He was appointed Ambassador Extraordinary to Portugal in 1661, and strongly favoured the Portuguese marriage, through which England obtained Mumbai and Tangier. Sandwich, like others, saw a great future for Tangier as an international trade centre, and he commanded the fleet which took possession of the city in January 1662, purchasing a house there. Returning to England, in his capacity as Ambassador, he escorted the new Queen, Catherine of Braganza, from Lisbon.
Montagu was a signatory to “The Several Declarations of The Company of Royal Adventurers of England Trading into Africa.” This document was published in 1667 by the Royal African Company, a corporation which attempted to monopolize the slave trade in England starting in the late 1660s. There is a possibility that someone signed on Montagu’s behalf; however, if that is not the case, then the signature is evidence that he both consciously supported and funded England’s slave industry. Montagu, in being a general at sea, was likely exposed to the transatlantic slave trade, so his financial support of it would not be surprising.
The Prize Goods ScandalEdit
In the Second Anglo-Dutch War of 1665 to 1667 he fought at the Battle of Lowestoft, an English victory, but defeat at the Battle of Vågen led to him being removed from active service. His reputation suffered another serious blow when he failed to prevent his sailors from plundering a number of Dutch VOC prize ships, loaded with precious spices from the East Indies, which he had brought in. By long standing custom the sailors could take any goods they found between the decks, but they were strictly forbidden to "break the bulk" i.e. ransack the ship's hold; yet this is just what Sandwich, an easy-going man with a notoriously poor understanding of money matters, permitted. When this became widely known, the rumour spread that Sandwich had unlawfully helped himself to a fortune (in fact he seems to have taken less than he was entitled to), and the public, who were still enduring the horrors of the Great Plague of London, reacted with such unexpected fury that a minor mishap became a national affair: "the Prize Goods Scandal". Although Clarendon wrote that Sandwich was too likeable to have any personal enemies, he did have political opponents, including his own superior at the Admiralty, James, Duke of York, and James' influential secretary Sir William Coventry, who were happy to exploit the scandal. He felt obliged to obtain a royal pardon: the King, mindful of his good services at the Restoration, willingly granted it.
Ambassador to SpainEdit
During his absence from battle, Sandwich served as England's ambassador to Spain, replacing Sir Richard Fanshawe. This is further evidence that despite his unpopularity, he retained the King's confidence, although his political fortunes, like those of his friend and patron Clarendon, were in decline. Sandwich himself had told Pepys the previous year not to put too much reliance on the friendship of any "great man". After the Great Fire of London Sandwich downplayed the damage to the Spanish King, claiming that London's slums were the only thing in ashes. This slant on the events was also practiced by England's ambassadors throughout Europe.
As Ambassador his most notable achievement was the Anglo-Spanish Commercial Treaty of 1667, which laid the foundations for a prosperous trading relationship between the two countries which lasted for over a century. He also acted as mediator in the peace negotiations between Spain and Portugal which resulted in the Treaty of Lisbon. Like all Ambassadors of the era he found the cost of running an embassy ruinous (he had never had a good head for business) and on his return to England in the autumn of 1668 one of his first actions was to borrow money from his cousin Samuel Pepys. On his way back from Spain, he again visited Tangier to report on the condition of the garrison there.
In 1670 he escorted the King's sister Henrietta of England, Duchess of Orleans, from France to England to negotiate the Secret Treaty of Dover between her brother and Louis XIV. Of the existence of the Treaty's secret clauses, notably that by which Charles II pledged to convert to the Roman Catholic faith, Sandwich, like the general public, was quite unaware. In the same year he was appointed President of the Privy Council Committee on Foreign Plantations; he had always had a keen interest in international trade, despite his notorious inability to keep his own finances in order.
Last campaign and deathEdit
He was subsequently reappointed to a naval command, and by 1672 at the start of the Third Anglo-Dutch War he was Vice-Admiral of the Blue with the Royal James as his flagship. At the Battle of Solebay his ship was attacked by a group of fire ships and was destroyed with the loss of many lives, including Sandwich himself, whose charred body was found washed ashore and only recognizable from the remains of his clothing. Sandwich, who had strongly opposed the War, and was increasingly prone to moods of melancholy, is said to have predicted his own death. Certainly he told his friend John Evelyn, just before he sailed, that "he would see him no more".
On Wednesday 3 July 1672 he was buried in Westminster Abbey after a state funeral that started with a procession along the River Thames of five decorated barges from Deptford. The body was landed at Westminster at about 5 pm and carried to the Abbey in a grand procession.
On 7 November 1642, Montagu married Jemima Crew, daughter of John Crew, 1st Baron Crew and Jemima Waldegrave, whom Pepys in his Diary refers to with great affection as "My Lady". Edward and Jemima had ten children:
- Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Sandwich (1648–1688), married Lady Anne Boyle, daughter of Richard Boyle, 2nd Earl of Cork.
- Hon. Sidney Montagu (1650–1727)
- Hon. Oliver Montagu (c. 1655–1689)
- Hon. John Montagu (c. 1655 – 25 February 1729), Dean of Durham
- Hon. Charles Montagu (c. 1658–1721), married first Elizabeth Forester, second Sarah Rogers and had issue by both.
- Lady Jemima Montagu (1646-1671), married Sir Philip Carteret (1641-1672) 
- Lady Anne Montagu (died 14 March 1729), married first Sir Richard Edgecumbe, second Christopher Montagu, elder brother of the Earl of Halifax
- Lady Catherine Montagu (20 August 1661 – 15 January 1757), married first Nicholas Bacon, second Rev. Balthazar Gardeman (1682–1740)
- Hon. James Montagu (born 15 July 1664)
- Lady Paulina Montagu (1649–1669)
Paulina's death in February 1669, aged only twenty, was a great source of grief to her father: Samuel Pepys, who disliked her ("a peevish lady"), called to pay his condolences but found Sandwich "shut away for sorrow". Sandwich himself wrote: "it pleased God to take unto himself my dear sweet daughter Paulina". This is an interesting glimpse not only of Sandwich as a family man, but of his religious beliefs, and seems to contradict Pepys well-known remark that Sandwich was "wholly sceptical in religion". Sandwich was a loving and careful father to all his children: although the marriages he arranged for young Edward (Ned) and Jemima were clearly not love affairs, both seem to have been fairly happy. Jemima's death in childbirth in 1671 was no doubt a further blow to her father.
Sandwich and Samuel PepysEdit
Sandwich on his mother's side was the first cousin of John Pepys, the father of Samuel Pepys. Pepys started his career as a minor member of the Sandwich household and owed his appointments first to the Wardrobe and then as Clerk of the Acts to the Navy Board to Sandwich's influence. Pepys' diary provides a detailed primary source for Sandwich's career in the 1660s.
They had a serious quarrel in 1663, when Pepys reprimanded Sandwich for living openly with his mistress, Elizabeth Becke, at her "mean house" in Chelsea. Pepys was concerned at the damage to their family's reputation, Sandwich's neglect of his official duties (risking the loss of any remaining influence he had at Court) and also at the insult to Sandwich's wife, to whom Pepys was deeply attached. Following a brief estrangement, friendly relations were resumed, although the two men were probably never as close again as they had been (Pepys, for example, is not mentioned in Sandwich's last will). For Pepys to raise the issue at all took considerable courage, considering how much he owed to his patron, and his Diary shows that he was strongly tempted to let the matter lie. Even when he did raise it he chose to write rather than confront Sandwich face to face.
In 1668 Pepys was somewhat perturbed when his wife Elizabeth, during one of the violent quarrels which followed the discovery of his affair with her companion Deb Willet, told him that Sandwich had asked her to be his mistress. Since Pepys was in no doubt that she had refused, he decided to treat the matter as being closed, and friendly relations continued: Sandwich dined at their house for the first time a few months later. Pepys, on reflection, may have thought it possible that Elizabeth in her anger had invented the story to upset him, (as she undoubtedly invented the story that she was attending Roman Catholic services). Whatever their differences, Pepys in later life always remembered Sandwich, whom he called "that noble and unparalleled Lord", and his wife (who died in 1674) with affection and gratitude.
A plate of Sir Peter Lely's 1666 portrait appeared in Fisher's Drawing Room Scrap Book, 1837, together with a facsimile signature and the poem The Earl of Sandwich. by Letitia Elizabeth Landon reflecting on the naming of the beautiful Sandwich Islands after him.
- History of Parliament Online - Montagu, Edward
- Ollard 1994, p. 62.
- Ollard 1994, p. 109.
- Davies, K. G. (Kenneth Gordon) (1999). The Royal African Company. London: Routledge/Thoemmes Press. ISBN 0-415-19072-X. OCLC 42746420.
- Pettigrew, William A. (William Andrew), 1978-. Freedom's debt : the Royal African Company and the politics of the Atlantic slave trade, 1672-1752. Omohundro Institute of Early American History & Culture,. Chapel Hill [North Carolina]. ISBN 978-1-4696-1183-9. OCLC 879306121.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link) CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Davies, J.D. (3 January 2008). "Montagu [Mountagu], Edward, first earl of Sandwich". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.
- Ollard 1994, pp. 140–142.
- Adrian Tinniswood (2003). By permission of heaven: the story of the Great Fire of London. Jonathan Cape. ISBN 978-0-224-06226-8.
- Latham, Robert and Matthews, Charles Diary of Samuel Pepys 1983 Vol. X Companion p.254
- Bryant, Arthur Samuel Pepys- the man in the making Reprint Society edition 1949 p.267
- Ollard 1994, pp. 253-4.
- Ollard 1994, p. 256.
- Ollard 1994, pp. 262-3.
- Pepys' Diary Vol. X Companion p. 255
- Edward Montagu (1692–1776) was a son by Sarah Rogers.
- Pepy's Family Tree. 2020-07-21.
- Ollard 1994, p. 248.
- Ollard 1994, pp. 116-7.
- Diary of Samuel Pepys 10 November 1668
- Diary 23 January 1669
- Ollard, Richard Lawrence (1994). Cromwell's Earl : a life of Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-255003-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "Montagu Genealogy". Retrieved 1 December 2006.
- London Gazette' #691 Monday 1 July, to Thursday 4 July 1672
- The Journal of Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich, admiral and general at sea, 1659-1665, edited by R.C. Anderson. Publications of the Navy Records Society, v. 64 (London, 1929).
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica. 24 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 142.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) .
- Biography of Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich Civil Wars and Commonwealth website
- The Electronic Calendar of the Carte Papers, 1660-87 The Carte Papers, held at the Bodleian Library, include correspondence of Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich
- Colonel Edward Montagu's Regiment of Foote A Part of the English Civil War Society, Re-enacting the wars between 1642 and 1649.
|English Interregnum|| Master of the Great Wardrobe
Sir Ralph Montagu
|English Interregnum|| Lord Lieutenant of Huntingdonshire
jointly with The 2nd Earl of Manchester 1660–1671
The 3rd Earl of Manchester 1671–1672
The 3rd Earl of Manchester
| Custos Rotulorum of Huntingdonshire|
Sir Richard Fanshawe, 1st Baronet
| English Ambassador to Spain
Robert Spencer, 2nd Earl of Sunderland
|Peerage of England|
|New title|| Earl of Sandwich