Echiniscus testudo

Echiniscus testudo is a cosmopolitan species of tardigrade.

Echiniscus testudo
Echiniscus testudo Doyere 1840 Pl 12 Fig 1.png
On a grain of sand
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Tardigrada
Class: Heterotardigrada
Order: Echiniscoidea
Family: Echiniscidae
Genus: Echiniscus
E. testudo
Binomial name
Echiniscus testudo
(Doyère, 1840)
  • Emydium testudo Doyère, 1840[1]
  • Echiniscus bellermanni Schultze, 1840[2]
  • Echiniscus inermis Richters, 1902[3]
  • Echiniscus trifilis Rahm, 1921
  • Echiniscus filamentosus mongoliensis Iharos, 1973[4]


The species was described by Louis Michel François Doyère in 1840; he placed it in the genus Emydium.[1]

G. Ramazzotti and W. Maucci classified E. filamentos mongoliensis Iharos, 1973[4] as a synonym of E. testudo in 1983; this was followed by other tardigradologists.[5] In 2017, Piotr Gąsiorek and colleagues restored it as a distinct taxon and elevated it to species level: E. mongoliensis.[7]

Gąsiorek and colleagues also classified E. filamentosus Plate, 1888[8] and E. glaber Bartoš, 1937 as junior synonyms of E. testudo.[7]


It is found throughout most of the Palaearctic,[9] and has been recorded in all continents except Antarctica and Australia.[10][11] Most reports are Holarctic.[12] Locations where it has been recorded include: Denmark, Egypt, the Faroe Islands, France, Germany, Greece, Greenland, Israel, Italy, Morocco,[9] Iberia,[13] Mongolia,[14] and China.[10][15]

Doyère based his description off specimens collected in Paris.[1] The neotype designated by Gąsiorek and colleagues was collected in Paris's Montmartre Cemetery.[7] The type localities of the junior synonyms E. bellermanni and E. inermis are both in Germany: the former is Greifswald,[2] and the latter is the Taunus mountains near Frankfurt.[3]


  1. ^ a b c Doyère, [L. M. F.] (1840). "Mémoire sur les Tardigrades". Annales des sciences naturelles. Ser. 2. 14: 281; Pl. 12, Figs. 1–3.CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  2. ^ a b Schultze, Carolus Augustus Sigismundus (1840). Echiniscus Bellermanni animal crustaceum, macrobioto Hufelandii affini. Berolinum: G. Reimer.
  3. ^ a b Richters, Ferd. (1902). "Beträge zur Kenntnis der Fauna der Umgebung von Frankfurt a.M." Bericht der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Frankfurt Am Main. 1902 (2): 11–12; Pl. 1, Fig. 3.CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  4. ^ a b Iharos, Gy. (1973). "Angaben zur geographischen Verbreitung der Tardigraden" [Data to Geographical Distribution of Tardigrada] (PDF). Opuscula Zoologica. Budapest. 12 (1–2): 84–85.
  5. ^ a b Guidetti, Roberto G.; Bertolani, Roberto B. (2005). "Tardigrade taxonomy: an updated check list of the taxa and a list of characters for their identification". Zootaxa. 845: 24–25. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.845.1.1.
  6. ^ Degma, Peter; Bertolani, Roberto; Guidetti, Roberto (2017). "Actual checklist of Tardigrada species (2009–2017, 32nd Edition: 01-06-2017)" (PDF). p. 15. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 August 2017.
  7. ^ a b c Gąsiorek, Piotr; Stec, Daniel; Morek, Witold; Michalczyk, Łukasz (October 2017). "An integrative redescription of Echiniscus testudo (Doyère, 1840), the nominal taxon for the class Heterotardigrada (Ecdysozoa: Panarthropoda: Tardigrada)". Zoologischer Anzeiger. 270: 107–122. doi:10.1016/j.jcz.2017.09.006.
  8. ^ Plate, Ludwig H. (1888). "Beträge zur Naturgeschichte der Tardigraden". Zoologische Jahrbücher. 3 (3): 532.
  9. ^ a b Jørgensen, Aslak; Møbjerg, Nadja; Kristensen, Reinhardt M. (2007). "A molecular study of the tardigrade Echiniscus testudo (Echiniscidae) reveals low DNA sequence diversity over a large geographical area". Journal of Limnology. 66 (Suppl. 1, Proceedings of the Tenth International Symposium on Tardigrada): 77–83. doi:10.4081/jlimnol.2007.s1.77.
  10. ^ a b Beasley, Clark W.; Miller, William R. (2007). "Tardigrada of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China". Journal of Limnology. 66 (Suppl. 1, Proceedings of the Tenth International Symposium on Tardigrada): 52. doi:10.4081/jlimnol.2007.s1.49.
  11. ^ McInnes, S.J. (1994). "Zoogeographic distribution of terrestrial/freshwater tardigrades from current literature". Journal of Natural History. 28 (2): 273–274. doi:10.1080/00222939400770131.
  12. ^ McInnes, Sandra J.; Michalczyk, Łukasz; Kaczmarek, Łukasz (2017). "Annotated zoogeography of non-marine Tardigrada. Part IV: Africa". Zootaxa. 4284 (1): 16–17. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4284.1.1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 October 2017.
  13. ^ Maucci, W.; Durante, M. V. (1984). "I Tardigradi della Penisola Iberica". Miscel·lània Zoològica. 8: 71.
  14. ^ Kaczmarek, Łukasz; Michalczyk, Łukasz (2006). "The Tardigrada Fauna of Mongolia (Central Asia) with a Description of Isohypsibius altai sp. nov. (Eutardigrada: Hypsibiidae)" (PDF). Zoological Studies. 45 (1): 13.
  15. ^ Li, Xiaochen (2007). "Tardigrades from the Tsinling Mountains, central China with descriptions of two new species of Echiniscidae (Tardigrada)". Journal of Natural History. 41 (41–44): 2725. doi:10.1080/00222930701711046. S2CID 84732197.