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EOKA-B (/ˈkə/) was a Greek Cypriot paramilitary organisation formed in 1971 by General Georgios Grivas ("Digenis"). It followed an ultra right-wing nationalistic ideology and had the ultimate goal of achieving the Enosis (union) of Cyprus with Greece. During its short history, the organisation's chief aim was to block any attempt to enforce upon the Cyprus people what the organisation considered to be an unacceptable settlement to the Cyprus issue. In addition, the organisation drafted various plans to overthrow President Makarios. The organisation continued its activities until it officially declared its dissolution and disbanded on February 11th 1978.[1]

EOKA B
Participant in Cypriot intercommunal violence and Turkish invasion of Cyprus
Active1971–1974
IdeologyGreek nationalism
Enosis
Anti-communism
LeadersGeorgios Grivas
HeadquartersCyprus
AlliesGreek military junta of 1967–74
Progressive Front
Opponent(s)Republic of Cyprus
Turkish Resistance Organisation
EDEK
AKEL
Pro-Makarios supporters

Due to its attacks on civilians, it was considered a terrorist organization and was outlawed by the Republic of Cyprus, led by Makarios III.[2] Among the attacks it is responsible for is the Maratha, Santalaris and Aloda massacre. EOKA-B members were also arrested for the kidnapping of the son of president Spyros Kyprianou.[3] and for being involved in the assassination of US ambassador Rodger Paul Davies.[4][5] Homicide charges were dropped on June 4th 1977 by a Cypriot court against the two men accused of killing the ambassador.[6] According to the Washington Post's renowned 1970s Cyprus correspondent, Joseph W Fitchett, EOKA-B members were motivated by a mixture of patriotism, money and macho.[7]

FormationEdit

EOKA-B was founded by General George Grivas as his last organizational attempt before his death on January 17, 1974. Grivas, a stridently anti-communist military leader during the Greek Civil War, was among the founders of EOKA in the early 50s. After the declaration of independent Cyprus state he took over the Supreme Command of the Greek Cypriot forces organised under the National Guard as well as the Greek military division in early 60s. Following Turkey's ultimatum of November 1967 he was recalled by the Greek Junta to Athens, only to return under cover in 1971.[8]

The organization is commonly referred as a terrorist organization in countries such as the United Kingdom[9] because EOKA-B was engaged in bombing campaigns against police forces. This terminology was shared by President Makarios III on his speech at the UN following the coup.[10]

After Grivas returned to Cyprus in 1971, he created EOKA-B in response to President Archbishop Makarios' deviation from the policy of enosis in 1959 and the reaffirmation of this position during his re-election in 1968. Grivas, along with his new EOKA-B organisation, attempted to forcefully oust Makarios in order to enact his original goal of enosis with Greece.

Whereas EOKA (1955–59) were seen by the majority of the Greek Cypriots as anti-colonialist freedom fighters, the EOKA-B did not have the overwhelming support of the Greek Cypriot population, as Makarios had called an election after a failed assassination attempt on him and his coalition won 27 out of the 35 seats.[11] The main supporters of EOKA B were pro-enosis supporters who won 7 seats in the previous election, old EOKA fighters who felt they never received the recognition that they deserved after the revolt, right wing military personnel and some pro-enosis elements of the Church of Cyprus.[11] The only armed, organized resistance to EOKA-B came from the "Efedriko", a special police force set up by Makarios and the members of the Socialist Party EDEK as well as armed supporters of Makarios in every town. The Communist Party AKEL, despite the mild verbal opposition to EOKA-B, had not organized any form of resistance against it.

Coup d'etat and Turkish interventionEdit

When Grivas Digenis died from heart failure on 27 January 1974, the post-Grivas EOKA-B increasingly came under the direct control and influence of the military junta in Athens. EOKA-B was on the verge of dissolution by July 1974. Yet on July 15, 1974 the Greek dictator Dimitrios Ioannides used the National Guard which was led by Greek officers and consisted of Greek-Cypriot conscripts, and EOKA-B to launch a military coup. EOKA-B attempted to assassinate Makarios but failed, and he fled to London.[12] Nikos Sampson was installed as the new president of Cyprus.[13]

This action provoked a Turkish intervention on July 20, 1974,[13] leading to the subsequent de facto division of the island. Ioannides was taken by surprise by the Turkish invasion and failed to convince or coerce the Greek generals to send military reinforcements to Cyprus. The subsequent toppling of the Greek Junta led to Sampson's resignation on 23 July 1974.

On 14 August 1974, Turkey mounted a second invasion into Cyprus. By the end of hostilities, about 180,000 Greek Cypriots (almost one third of the population), were forcibly uprooted from their homes and properties, while 80,000 Turkish Cypriots were forced north.[14] Thousands more were killed or listed as missing.[15]

Atrocities on 14 August 1974Edit

On 14 August, during the invasion, EOKA-B committed massacres and crimes against Turkish-Cypriots in Maratha, Santalaris, Aloda, Tochni and Kiti. They massacred 84 Turkish-Cypriot men and boys from the village of Tochni, leaving one survivor.[16] 126 were killed in the villages of Maratha, Santalaris and Aloda.[17]

Later testimonyEdit

On April 17, 1991, Ambassador Nelson Ledsky testified before the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee that "most of the 'missing persons' disappeared in the first days of July 1974, before the Turkish intervention on the 20th. Many killed on the Greek side were killed by Greek Cypriots in fighting between supporters of Makarios and Sampson."[18] This view is not corroborated by the official figures of the Republic of Cyprus release in 2003 which showed that 98 Greek Cypriots died during the coup and no Turkish Cypriots.[citation needed].


See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "EOKA-B disbands in aid of unity: The notorious underground EOKA-B movement, responsible for a militant campaign against Archbishop Makarios, announces that it has disbanded itself - February 11, 1978 - Cyprus Mail". Cyprus Mail. 2015-10-03. Retrieved 2018-06-03.
  2. ^ Mirbagheri, Farid (2009). Historical Dictionary of Cyprus. Scarecrow Press. p. 116. ISBN 9780810862982.
  3. ^ Fitchett, Joseph (1977-12-16). "Kidnapers Seize Son of Cyprus' President". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2018-05-21.
  4. ^ Fitchett, Joseph (1977-02-12). "Three Greek Cypriot Rightists Arraigned in Killing of U.S. Envoy". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2018-05-21.
  5. ^ Fitchett, Joseph (1977-02-04). "Cyprus to Arrest, Try 6 Rightists In '74 Death of U.S. Ambassador". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2018-05-21.
  6. ^ Fitchett, Joseph (1977-06-04). "Cyprus Drops Charges". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2018-06-03.
  7. ^ Fitchett, Joseph (1977-02-12). "Three Greek Cypriot Rightists Arraigned in Killing of U.S. Envoy". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2018-06-03.
  8. ^ "The Survivor". Time Magazine. February 28, 1972. Retrieved 2008-07-30.
  9. ^ "Middle East: Missing Persons", Accessed June 17, 2006. Archived March 26, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ "Speech by Makarios", Accessed June 17, 2006.
  11. ^ a b O'Malley, Brandan and Craig. Ian. The Cyprus Conspiracy, Pub. I.B. Tauris, London , 1999. p. 137.
  12. ^ Christou, Odysseas (September 2014). "Legitimizing Insurgency: Social Norms and Social Networks as Instruments in Recruitment by Organizations of Political Violence" (PDF). Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  13. ^ a b "CYPRUS: Big Troubles over a Small Island". TIME. July 29, 1974.
  14. ^ Simons, Marlise (1991-08-19). "With New Talks Near, Cypriots Wonder How the Divide Can Be Bridged". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-04-07.
  15. ^ SigmaLive. "August 14, 1974: Turkey launches second offensive on Cyprus | News". www.sigmalive.com. Retrieved 2019-04-07.
  16. ^ "Survivor of '74 Tochni massacre: Eoka B fired for 10 minutes". Cyprus Mail. 2017-06-15. Retrieved 2019-04-07.
  17. ^ "Cyprus massacre victims laid to rest with military honours – T-VINE". Retrieved 2019-04-07.
  18. ^ Paul Sant Cassia, Bodies of Evidence: Burial, Memory, and the Recovery of Missing Persons in Cyprus, Berghahn Books, 2007, ISBN 978-1-84545-228-5, a result of the Turkish invasion of Cyprus of July 20, 1974 2,500 Greek Cypriots died in fighting or as a result of war crimes by the Turkish army or Turkish Cypriot extremists, 500 T/C in fighting and as result of atrocities of Greek Cypriot extremists and around 500 Turkish troops (The Tragic Duel and the Betrayal of Cyprus-Marios Adamides-2011).ei=7sBsTM-vJ8nJcbPU_G8&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CEAQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=Aloa&f=false p. 237.